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The Holland Land Company was an unincorporated syndicate of thirteen Dutch investorsfrom Amsterdam who in 1792 and 1793 purchased the western two-thirds of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase, an area that afterward was known as the Holland Purchase. Aliens were forbidden from owning land within the United States, so the investors placed their funds in the hands of certain trustees who bought the land in central and western New York State, and western Pennsylvania. The syndicate hoped to sell the land rapidly at a great profit. Instead, for many years they were forced to make further investments in their purchase; surveying it, building roads, digging canals, to make it more attractive to settlers. They sold the last of their land interests in 1840, when the syndicate was dissolved.
The tract purchased in Western New York was a 3,250,000 acre (13,150 km²) portion of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase that lay west of the Genesee River. It was purchased in December 1792 and February and July 1793 from Robert Morris. Morris was a signatory of the Declaration of Independence and a financier of the American Revolution, and at the time was the richest man in America. Morris had purchased it from Massachusetts in May 1791, after Phelps and Gorham failed to extinguish Indian title to this tract and had defaulted on payment in 1790.
Morris purchased all lands west of the Genesee River 185,000 acres (750 km2) Mill Yard Tract, which Phelps and Gorham retained, along with their other lands east of the Genesee. Morris paid Massachusetts $333,333.34 (about $5.02 million today). Morris' purchase from Massachusetts was for some 3,750,000 acres (15,200 km2), but Morris kept back some 500,000 acres (2,000 km2) for himself in a tract 12 miles (19 km) wide and running the breadth of Western New York from Lake Ontario to the Pennsylvania. This 500,000 acres (2,000 km2) tract was known as the Morris Reserve.except for the
Before Morris could give the Holland Land Company title to this land, however, it was necessary to extinguish the Indians' pre-emptive right to the land. 1.51 million today) for their rights to about 3.75 million acres (15,000 km²), and they reserved about 200,000 acres (809 km²) for themselves.This was achieved at the 1797 Treaty of Big Tree, executed on the Genesee River near modern-day Geneseo, south of Rochester, New York. Representatives of the Holland Land Company, Robert Morris, the Indians, and a commissioner for the United States gathered at Big Tree in August, 1797 and negotiations began. Chiefs and Sachems present included Red Jacket, Cornplanter, Governor Blacksnake, Farmer's Brother and about 50 others. Red Jacket and Cornplanter spoke strongly against selling the land. They held out for "reservations," that is, land which the Indians would keep for their own use. After much discussion, the treaty was signed Sept. 15, 1797. The native Indians were to receive $100,000 (about $
In 1798, the New York Legislature, with the assistance of Aaron Burrauthorized aliens to hold land directly, and the trustees conveyed the Holland Purchase to the real owners. It was transferred to two sets of proprietors, and one of these sets soon divided into two, making three sets of owners altogether. Each set of proprietors owned their tract as "joint tenants" with right of survivorship, which means as proprietors died off, the surviving proprietors took the deceased's share, and that share did not pass by will or inheritance, except in the case of the last survivor.
The first transfer by the trustees was all of the Holland Purchase km²), which went to Wilhelm Willink, Nicolaas van Staphorst, Pieter van Eeghen, Hendrick Vollenhoven, and Rutger Jan Schimmelpenninck. The 300,000 acre (1,200 km²) remainder was conveyed to Wilhelm Willink, Wilhelm Willink, Jr., Jan Willink and Jan Willink, Jr. About two years after the first transfers, the proprietors of the large tract reconveyed title to the original five, plus Wilhelm Willink, Jr., Jan Willink, Jr., Jan Gabriel van Staphorst, Roelof van Staphorst, Jr., Cornelius Vollenhoven, Hendrick Seye and Pieter Stadnitski. The members of the Holland Land Company never travelled to America.except 300,000 acres (1,200
In 1789 the Holland Land Company sent a general agent, Theophile Cazenove, to oversee land purchases and keep them informed. Cazenove was located in Philadelphia. They bought American funds, including the South Carolina Funded Debt and the Massachusetts Deposit, and shares in the Pennsylvania Population Company. On the advice of Cazenove, the Dutch bankers and investors also obtained shares in canal companies in the years 1791–1792, including the Patowmack Canal, James River and Kanawha Canal, Santee Canal, Western Canal and the Connecticut Canal.
In 1798, they hired Joseph Ellicott and he, along with his brother Benjamin and 130 men, surveyed the purchase for the next three years at a total cost of USD$70,921.69½ (about $1,068,404 in today's dollars).
In 1799, Paolo Busti (Paul Busti) succeeded Cazenove as General Agent. Busti was a native of Lombardy, Italy, who had made his career in Amsterdam where he married Elizabeth May, a sister-in-law of one of the syndicate members, Isaac ten Cate. Agents with Dutch roots were Gerrit Boon and Adam Gerard Mappa, plus Mr. Busti's assistants Harm Jan Huidekoper and John Jacob Vanderkemp. Vanderkemp succeeded as Agent General after Busti's death in 1824 and served until the liquidation of the Holland Land Companies assets in the 1840s. David A. Ogden and his brother Thomas Ludlow Ogden were legal advisors to the company.
The Holland Land Company opened a main land office in 1801 in Batavia, New York;and in Danby, Vermont. They selected Batavia because the land purchased was located within Genesee County and Batavia was the county seat. Busti also appointed local agents at other offices within different parts of the area. They located subagents in Mayville, Ellicottville, Buffalo, Meadville, Instanter (a small village of German settlers in McKean County, Pennsylvania), two districts in Eastern Alleghany, Lancaster, Cazenovia, and Barneveld. From the very beginning the agents were urged to keep the records in stone fireproof safes or to deposit them with banks. By 1840, all the land in Western New York was sold off to local investors and settlers. Around 1846, all the affairs of the company in the United States were liquidated and the company dissolved.
The town of Holland, New York bears its namesake.
Genesee County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,079. Its county seat is Batavia. Its name is from Seneca word Gen-nis'-hee-yo, meaning "the Beautiful Valley". The county was created in 1802 and organized in 1803.
Livingston County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,393. Its county seat is Geneseo. The county is named after Robert R. Livingston, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence and negotiated the Louisiana Purchase.
Nathaniel Gorham, his first name is sometimes spelled Nathanial) was a politician and merchant from Massachusetts. He was a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress, and for six months served as the presiding officer of that body. He also attended the Constitutional Convention, served on its Committee of Detail, and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Pulteney Association was a small group of British investors who in 1792 purchased a large portion of the Western New York land tract known as the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. The Pulteney Associates were Sir William Pulteney, 5th Baronet (1729–1805), a Scottish lawyer who owned nine-twelfths; William Hornby, former Governor of Bombay, who owned two-twelfths; and Patrick Colquhoun, a Scottish merchant with a one-twelfth share. Some of their heirs owned land in western New York into the 1920s, with the last parcel of The Pulteney Association property, 10 acres, being sold in December 1926.
The Phelps and Gorham Purchase was the purchase in 1788 of 6,000,000 acres (24,000 km2) of land in what is now western New York State from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts for $1,000,000 (£300,000), to be paid in three annual installments, and the pre-emptive right to the title on the land from the Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy for $5000 (£12,500). A syndicate formed by Oliver Phelps and Nathaniel Gorham bought preemptive rights to 6,000,000-acre (24,000 km2) in New York, west of Seneca Lake between Lake Ontario and the Pennsylvania border, from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.
Joseph Ellicott was an American surveyor, city planner, land office agent, lawyer and politician of the Quaker faith.
Oliver Phelps was early in life a tavern keeper in Granville, Massachusetts. During the Revolution he was Deputy Commissary of the Continental Army and served until the end of the war. After the war ended, he was appointed a judge, was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, and became a land speculator in western New York state. A depressed real estate market forced him to sell most of his holdings.
Wilhelm Willink was a wealthy Amsterdam merchant, and one of the investors in the Holland Land Company, and the Louisiana Purchase. Wilhelm Willink had a summer estate on the Spaarne River, neighboring the estate villa Welgelegen of his associate Henry Hope.
Theophilus Cazenove, or Theophile Cazenove, was a Dutch financier and one of the agents of the Holland Land Company.
Paolo Busti, or Paul Busti, was the principal agent of the Holland Land Company from 1800 until his death.
This article documents the history of Rochester, New York, in western New York State. Settlement began in the late 18th century, and the city flourished with the opening of the Erie Canal. It became a major manufacturing center, and attracted many Italians, Germans, Irish and other immigrants, as well as a dominant group of Yankees of New England origin. The Yankees made Rochester the center of multiple reform movements, such as abolitionism and women's rights. It was famous as the center of the American photography industry, with headquarters of Eastman Kodak. In the 1970s it became fashionable to call the industrial cities along the Great Lakes 'rustbelt cities' following the move away from steel, chemical and other hard goods manufacturing. Rochester, with the presence of Ritter-Pfaulder, Bausch and Lomb, Eastman Kodak, Xerox, Gannett and other major industries, defied the trend for many decades following WWII.
Charlotte is a neighborhood in Rochester in the U.S. state of New York, located along the western bank of the mouth of the Genesee River along Lake Ontario. It is the home of the Port of Rochester and Charlotte High School.
Benjamin Ellicott was a surveyor, a county judge and a member of the United States House of Representatives from the State of New York.
The Holland Land Office building is located on West Main Street in downtown Batavia, New York, United States. It is a stone building designed by surveyor Joseph Ellicott and erected in the 1810s.
Willink, New York is a former town in Western New York, USA. The name was derived from Willem Willink, one of the original investors of the Holland Land Company.
Heman Judd Redfield was an American politician from New York.
James Wadsworth was an influential and prominent 18th and 19th century pioneer, educator, land speculator, agriculturalist, businessman, and community leader of the early Genesee Valley settlements in Western New York State. He was the patriarch of the prominent Genesee Valley Wadsworths.
Treaty of Big Tree was a formal treaty signed in 1797 between the Seneca Nation and the United States in which the Seneca relinquished their rights to nearly all of their traditional homeland in New York State— nearly 3.5 million acres. In the 1788 Phelps and Gorham Purchase the Iroquois had previously sold rights to their land between Seneca Lake and the Genesee River. The Treaty of Big Tree signed away their rights to all their territory west of the Genesee River except ten small tracts of land for $100,000 and other considerations. The money was not paid directly to the tribe, but was to be invested in shares of the Bank of the United States, and to be paid out to the Senecas in annual earnings of up to six percent, or $6,000 a year, on the bank stock.
Batavia is a city in and the county seat of Genesee County, New York, United States. It is near the center of the county, surrounded by the Town of Batavia, which is a separate municipality. Its population as of the 2010 census was 15,465. The name Batavia is Latin for the Betuwe region of the Netherlands, and honors early Dutch land developers.
The Treaty of Hartford is a treaty concluded between New York and Massachusetts on December 16, 1786 in Hartford, Connecticut.