Tonawanda (town), New York

Last updated
Town of Tonawanda
Erie County New York incorporated and unincorporated areas Tonawanda (town) highlighted.svg
Location in Erie County and the state of New York.
Coordinates: 42°58′53″N78°51′19″W / 42.98139°N 78.85528°W / 42.98139; -78.85528 Coordinates: 42°58′53″N78°51′19″W / 42.98139°N 78.85528°W / 42.98139; -78.85528
Country United States
State New York
County Erie
Government
  Type Town council
   Town supervisor Joseph H. Emminger (D)
   Town council
   Town Clerk Marguerite Greco (D)
Area
  Total20.3 sq mi (52.5 km2)
  Land18.7 sq mi (48.5 km2)
  Water1.5 sq mi (4.0 km2)
Elevation
617 ft (188 m)
Population
 (2010)
  Total73,567
  Density3,927/sq mi (1,516.1/km2)
Time zone UTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
  Summer (DST) UTC-4 (EDT)
Area code(s) 716
FIPS code 36-75000
GNIS feature ID0979551
Website www.tonawanda.ny.us

Tonawanda (formally, the Town of Tonawanda) is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a population of 73,567. [1] The town is at the north border of the county and is the northern inner ring suburb of Buffalo. It is sometimes referred to, along with its constituent village of Kenmore, as "Ken-Ton". The town was established in 1836, and up to 1903 it included what is now the city of Tonawanda.

Contents

A house almost completely buried in snow in the blizzard of 1977 (January 30, 1977) 30 Jan 1977 Tonawanda, NY (Parker Blvd between Brompton Rd and Ellicott Creek Rd).jpg
A house almost completely buried in snow in the blizzard of 1977 (January 30, 1977)

History

This area was under French control from the 17th century until ceded to the British after the French and Indian War.

The first settlers arrived around 1805. Rapid growth began after the construction of the Erie Canal, completed in 1825. Tonawanda occupies the northwest corner of Erie County and is bounded on the north by the Erie Canal, which here follows Tonawanda Creek.

The town of Tonawanda was established in 1836, by separation from the town of Buffalo (now part of the city of Buffalo). At that time it included land that later became part of the town of Grand Island (established 1852) and the entire city of Tonawanda (established 1904).

In 1899, Kenmore incorporated as a village of the town, and remained the town's primary residential and commercial district until the rest of the town was heavily developed into suburban housing in the 1940s and 1950s.

Geography

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 20.3 square miles (52.5 km2), of which 18.7 square miles (48.5 km2) is land and 1.5 square miles (4.0 km2), or 7.61%, is water. [1]

The north border of the town is the city of Tonawanda and Tonawanda Creek, which is part of the Erie Canal, and the west border is the Niagara River. Ellicott Creek flows parallel to Tonawanda Creek in the northern part of the town, with a confluence just east of the Niagara River. The east border, marked by U.S. Route 62 (Niagara Falls Boulevard), is the town of Amherst. Forming the southern border is the village of Kenmore and the city of Buffalo.

Adjacent cities and towns

Major highways

Demographics

Historical population
CensusPop.
1840 1,261
1850 2,07264.3%
1860 2,48920.1%
1870 3,03922.1%
1880 4,96963.5%
1890 521−89.5%
1900 1,205131.3%
1910 2,17580.5%
1920 5,505153.1%
1930 25,006354.2%
1940 32,15528.6%
1950 55,27071.9%
1960 105,03290.0%
1970 107,2822.1%
1980 91,269−14.9%
1990 82,464−9.6%
2000 78,155−5.2%
2010 73,567−5.9%
2017 (est.)72,571 [2] −1.4%
Historical Population Figures [3]

As of the census of 2010, there were 78,155 people, 33,278 households, and 21,164 families residing in the town. [4] The population density was 4,156.3 people per square mile (1,605.1/km2). There were 34,634 housing units at an average density of 1,841.8 per square mile (711.3/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 93.01% White, 1.41% Black or African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 1.30% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, and 1.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.70% of the population.

There were 32,951 households, out of which 22.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 11.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.4% were non-families.

Environmental issues

In 2009, citizen environmental monitoring of air quality problems resulted in an investigation by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) into emissions from Tonawanda Coke Corporation (TCC), a producer of foundry coke located on River Road, Tonawanda. [5] [6] In 1998 TCC had been cited by the EPA for violations of oil spill prevention sections of the federal Clean Water Act following contamination of the nearby Niagara River. [7] The investigations into air quality revealed TCC was using an unreported pressure-relief system to vent coke oven gases containing benzene direct to the atmosphere, operating a coke-quenching tower without pollution-control baffles, and dumping hazardous waste in the form of coal tar sludge. [8]

In March 2013 TCC was convicted by a federal jury on 11 counts of violating the Clean Air Act (CAA) and three counts of violating the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). In March 2014 TCC was sentenced in federal court to pay a $12.5 million penalty and $12.2 million in community service payments for the violations. TCC's Environmental Control Manager, Mark L. Kamholz, was convicted of 11 counts of violating the CAA, one count of obstruction of justice and three counts of violating the RCRA, and was sentenced to one year in prison, 100 hours of community service, and a $20,000 fine. [8]

In July 2014 DuPont was fined $440,000 for violations of the CAA at its plant at Sheridan Drive and River Road. The EPA found that the plant had inadequate pollution-control equipment, failed to maintain a monitoring system for the equipment, violated several reporting requirements and underreported air pollution on its annual statements. Emissions from the plant included methyl methacrylate and vinyl fluoride. [9]

Culture

Landmarks

An F9F-6P Cougar sits in front of the Town of Tonawanda Veterans Memorial in Walter M. Kenney Field. Memorial Photo 1.jpg
An F9F-6P Cougar sits in front of the Town of Tonawanda Veterans Memorial in Walter M. Kenney Field.

One of the Town of Tonawanda's best known landmarks is the blue Korean War-era Grumman F9F-6P Cougar Naval airframe displayed in Walter M. Kenney Field at the northwest corner of Brighton Road and Colvin Boulevard. [10] The "blue jet," as it is often called, has been on loan to the town from the U.S. government since May 1959. [10] Immediately behind the F9F-6P airframe is the Town of Tonawanda Veterans Memorial, dedicated on August 18, 2009. Retired U.S. Army General and former U.S. Secretary of State Colin L. Powell delivered the keynote address during the memorial's dedication ceremony before a crowd of more than 1,500. [11] [12]

The Town of Tonawanda Historical Society operates a museum out of a former German Evangelical Church constructed in 1849. [13] This facility, located at 100 Knoche Road, is the oldest public building in the town. [13]

Notable people

Education

Tonawanda has two public high schools, Kenmore West Senior High School and Kenmore East High School.

The town is also home to St. Joseph's Collegiate Institute, Mount Saint Mary Academy, and Cardinal O'Hara High School.

Communities and locations

See also

Related Research Articles

Niagara River River in New York, United States and Ontario, Canada

The Niagara River is a river that flows north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. It forms part of the border between the province of Ontario in Canada and the state of New York in the United States. There are differing theories as to the origin of the river's name. According to Iroquoian scholar Bruce Trigger, Niagara is derived from the name given to a branch of the locally residing native Neutral Confederacy, who are described as being called the Niagagarega people on several late-17th-century French maps of the area. According to George R. Stewart, it comes from the name of an Iroquois town called Ongniaahra, meaning "point of land cut in two".

Erie County, New York County in New York

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Amherst, New York Town in New York, United States

Amherst is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. Amherst is the most populated town in western New York, and an inner ring suburb of Buffalo. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 122,366. This represents an increase of 5.0% from the 2000 census.

Clarence, New York Town in New York, United States

Clarence is a town located in the northeastern part of Erie County, New York, United States, northeast of Buffalo. The population was 30,673 according to the 2010 census. This represents an increase of 17.42% from the 2000 census figure. The Clarence census-designated place occupies the southeast part of the town and roughly corresponds to a postal district with ZIP code 14031 and 14221 in the western side which it shares with nearby Williamsville. The town is named in honor of Prince William, Duke of Clarence and St Andrews (1765–1837), the third son of King George III and later king himself, as William IV.

Grand Island, New York Town in New York, United States

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Kenmore, New York Village in New York, United States

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North Tonawanda, New York City in New York, United States

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Pendleton, New York Town in New York, United States

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Tonawanda (city), New York City in New York, United States

Tonawanda is a city in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 15,130 at the 2010 census. It is at the northern edge of Erie County, south across the Erie Canal from North Tonawanda, east of Grand Island, and north of Buffalo. It is part of the Buffalo-Niagara Falls metropolitan area.

Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority

The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NFTA) is a New York State public-benefit corporation responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties. The NFTA, as an authority, oversees a number of subsidiaries, including the NFTA Metro bus and rail system, the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport and NFTA Small Boat Harbor. The NFTA Metro bus and rail system is a multi-modal agency, utilizing various vehicle modes, using the brand names: NFTA Metro Bus, NFTA Metro Rail, NFTA Metrolink and NFTA PAL.

Interstate 190 is a north–south auxiliary Interstate Highway that connects I-90 in Buffalo, New York with the Canada-U.S. border near Niagara Falls. The freeway bisects downtown Buffalo before crossing Grand Island and travelling around the outskirts of Niagara Falls before crossing the Niagara River on the Queenston-Lewiston Bridge into Ontario. On the Canada side of the Canada–US border, the freeway continues as Highway 405, a short spur that connects with the Queen Elizabeth Way (QEW), which in turn provides a freeway connection to Toronto, Canada's largest city. The 28.34-mile-long (45.61 km) route also provides access to the QEW at the Peace Bridge between Buffalo and Fort Erie, Ontario.

New York State Route 324 (NY 324) is an east–west state highway located in the western portion of New York in the United States. Officially, NY 324 begins at NY 384 in Niagara Falls and overlaps Interstate 190 south to Grand Island, where it separates from I-190 and continues southward as Grand Island Boulevard. As signed, however, NY 324 begins at the southern end of the official overlap and is contained entirely within Erie County. At the southern edge of Grand Island, NY 324 joins I-190 to cross over to the mainland, where it runs due east across three towns before reaching its eastern end at a junction with NY 5 in the town of Clarence.

New York State Route 265 (NY 265) is a 19.75-mile (31.78 km) long state highway located in the western part of New York in the United States. NY 265 is a north–south route that roughly parallels the western parts of the Niagara River in Erie County and Niagara County. For much of its southern course, it is more frequently referred to by its longtime name, Military Road, which dates back to 1801 as a road to connect the city of New Amsterdam and Fort Niagara near Lake Ontario.

New York State Route 384 (NY 384) is a state highway in Western New York in the United States. It is a north–south route extending from the city of Buffalo, Erie County to the city of Niagara Falls, Niagara County, and is one of several routes directly connecting the two cities. The southern terminus of the route is at NY 5 in downtown Buffalo. NY 384's northern terminus is at the Rainbow Bridge in downtown Niagara Falls. Through its entire course in Erie County, it is known as Delaware Avenue for the street it follows in the city. In Niagara County, NY 384 follows the Niagara River and is named River Road and Buffalo Avenue.

New York State Route 266 (NY 266) is a state highway in Erie County, New York, in the United States. It runs along the Niagara River from the city of Buffalo to the city of Tonawanda. The southern terminus of the route is at the ramps leading to Interstate 190 exit 8 in Buffalo. Its northern terminus is at an intersection with NY 265 just south of North Tonawanda in Tonawanda.

The Citizens Regional Transportation Corporation (CRTC) is a grass-roots organization promoting the implementation and expansions of light-rail service for the City of Buffalo and the surrounding Buffalo/Niagara region in New York State.

Seaway Trail

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International Railway (New York–Ontario)

The International Railway Company (IRC) was a transportation company formed in a 1902 merger between several Buffalo-area interurban and street railways. The city railways that merged were the West Side Street Railway, the Crosstown Street Railway and the Buffalo Traction Company. The suburban railroads that merged included the Buffalo & Niagara Electric Street Railway, and its subsidiary the Buffalo, Lockport & Olcott Beach Railway; the Buffalo, Depew & Lancaster Railway; and the Niagara Falls Park & River Railway. Later the IRC acquired the Niagara Gorge Railroad (NGRR) as a subsidiary, which was sold in 1924 to the Niagara Falls Power Company. The NGRR also leased the Lewiston & Youngstown Frontier Railroad.

U.S. Route 62 is a part of the U.S. Highway System that travels from the United States–Mexico border at El Paso, Texas, to Niagara Falls, New York. In the U.S. state of New York, US 62 extends 102.77 miles (165.39 km) from the New York–Pennsylvania border south of Jamestown to an intersection with New York State Route 104 in downtown Niagara Falls, bypassing the city of Jamestown and serves the cities of Buffalo and Niagara Falls, along with several villages. It is the only north–south mainline U.S. highway in Western New York. US 62 was extended into New York c. 1932 and originally was concurrent with the state highways that had previously been designated along its routing—namely NY 18, NY 60, NY 83 and NY 241. These concurrencies were eliminated individually during the 1940s and 1960s. The last of the four concurrencies, with NY 18 from Dayton to Niagara Falls, was removed c. 1962. US 62 has one special route, US 62 Business, located in Niagara Falls. US 62 Business is a former routing of US 62 within the city and was once NY 62A.

References

  1. 1 2 "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Demographic Profile Data (G001): Tonawanda town, Erie County, New York". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved March 2, 2016.[ dead link ]
  2. "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for Incorporated Places: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2014". Archived from the original on May 23, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  3. "Population". Town of Tonawanda. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  4. U.S. Census Bureau (December 2012). "New York: Summary Population and Housing Characteristics" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  5. Shogren, Elizabeth; Bartlett, Sandra; Lombardi, Kristin (November 10, 2011). "N.Y. Plant's Neighbors Expose Regulatory Gaps". NPR . Retrieved November 17, 2011.
  6. "Region 2 Compliance: Tonawanda Coke Corporation". United States Environmental Protection Agency . Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  7. Cervantes, Niki (January 28, 1999). "EPA fines Tonawanda Coke $40,000". The Buffalo News . Buffalo. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2014 via HighBeam Research.
  8. 1 2 "Tonawanda Coke and Manager Sentenced for Violating the Clean Air Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act". United States Department of Justice . March 19, 2014. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  9. Popiolkowski, Joseph (July 23, 2014). "Plant Accounts for 24 Percent of Toxic Release". The Buffalo News . Buffalo. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 25, 2014 via HighBeam Research.
  10. 1 2 Adamczyk, Ed (April 2, 2009). "Defending Ken-Ton for 50 years". Tonawanda News. Tonawanda. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  11. Kryszak, Joyce (August 19, 2009). "Powell Helps Dedicate Tonawanda Veterans Memorial". WBFO . Buffalo. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  12. Adamczyk, Ed (August 20, 2009). "Something incredible just happened". Tonawanda News. Tonawanda. Retrieved July 25, 2014.
  13. 1 2 "Town of Tonawanda - Kenmore History". Town of Tonawanda. Archived from the original on June 3, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2014.