List of Australian Nobel laureates

Last updated

Since 1915 there have been sixteen Australian winners of the Nobel Prize. Half of these prizes (eight) have been awarded in the field of Physiology or Medicine [1] Most Australians awarded Nobel prizes before the end of the awarding of British/Imperial honours (in 1992) also received (or were offered) knighthoods.

Nobel Prize Set of annual international awards, primarily 5 established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize is a set of annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

Contents

This list includes laureates who were not born in Australia, but who nevertheless spent a significant portion of their training or career there.

Australian Nobel laureates

YearLaureateFieldLifeCitation
2017 International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons Peace2007–"for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons"
2011 Brian P. Schmidt Physics1967–"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae" shared with Saul Perlmutter and Adam G. Riess [2]
2009 Elizabeth Blackburn Physiology or Medicine1948–"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase" shared with Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak [3]
2005 Barry J. Marshall Physiology or Medicine1951–"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease" shared with J. Robin Warren [4]
2005 J. Robin Warren Physiology or Medicine1937–"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease" shared with Barry J. Marshall [5]
2003 J. M. Coetzee Literature1940–"who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider" [6]
1996 Peter C. Doherty Physiology or Medicine1940–"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence" shared with Rolf M. Zinkernagel [7]
1994 John C. Harsanyi Economics1920–2000"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games" shared with John F. Nash, Jr. and Reinhard Selten [8]
1975Sir John Cornforth Chemistry1917–2013"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions" shared with Vladimir Prelog [9]
1973 Patrick White Literature1912–1990"for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature" [10]
1970Sir Bernard Katz Physiology or Medicine1911–2003"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation" shared with Ulf von Euler and Julius Axelrod [11]
1964 Alexander M. Prokhorov Physics1916–2002"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle" shared with Charles H. Townes and Nicolay G. Basov [12]
1963Sir John Carew Eccles Physiology or Medicine1903–1997"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane" shared with Alan L. Hodgkin and Andrew F. Huxley [13]
1960Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet Physiology or Medicine1899–1985"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance" shared with Peter Medawar [14]
1945 Howard Florey Physiology or Medicine1898–1968"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases" shared with Alexander Fleming and Ernst B. Chain [15]

Australian laureates by birthplace

See also

Nobel Foundation private institution managing the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes

The Nobel Foundation is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes. The Foundation is based on the last will of Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite.

Related Research Articles

Nobel Prize in Physics One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physics is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who have made the most outstanding contributions for humankind in the field of physics. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895 and awarded since 1901; the others being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, Nobel Prize in Literature, Nobel Peace Prize, and Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine One of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded yearly for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in his will in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. Nobel was interested in experimental physiology and wanted to establish a prize for scientific progress through laboratory discoveries. The Nobel Prize is presented at an annual ceremony on 10 December, the anniversary of Nobel's death, along with a diploma and a certificate for the monetary award. The front side of the medal displays the same profile of Alfred Nobel depicted on the medals for Physics, Chemistry, and Literature. The reverse side is unique to this medal. The most recent Nobel prize was announced by Karolinska Institute on 1 October 2018, and has been awarded to American James P. Allison and Japanese Tasuku Honjo – for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation.

Sir Bernard Katz, FRS was a German-born Australian physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was knighted in 1969.

Barry Marshall Nobel Prize winner, and Professor of Clinical Microbiology

Barry James Marshall is an Australian physician, Nobel Prize Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, and Professor of Clinical Microbiology at the University of Western Australia. Marshall and Robin Warren showed that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori plays a major role in causing many peptic ulcers, challenging decades of medical doctrine holding that ulcers were caused primarily by stress, spicy foods, and too much acid. This discovery has allowed for a breakthrough in understanding a causative link between Helicobacter pylori infection and stomach cancer.

Robin Warren Australian microbiologist and Nobel Laureate

John Robin Warren AC is an Australian pathologist, Nobel Laureate and researcher who is credited with the 1979 re-discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, together with Barry Marshall. The duo proved to the medical community that the bacterium Helicobacter pylori is the cause of most peptic ulcers.

Nobel Committee

A Nobel Committee is a working body responsible for most of the work involved in selecting Nobel Prize laureates. There are five Nobel Committees, one for each Nobel Prize.

The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) is an institute of advanced study that creates and maintains global research networks working on complex areas of inquiry. It is supported by individuals, foundations and corporations, as well as funding from the Government of Canada and the provinces of Quebec, Ontario, British Columbia and Alberta. It was founded in 1982.

Nobel Prize in Chemistry One of the five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Alfred Nobel

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature, peace, and physiology or medicine. This award is administered by the Nobel Foundation, and awarded by Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on proposal of the Nobel Committee for Chemistry which consists of five members elected by Academy. The award is presented in Stockholm at an annual ceremony on December 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death.

References

  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-09-01. Retrieved 2012-09-07.
  2. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/schmidt.html
  3. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2009/blackburn.html
  4. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/marshall.html
  5. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/2005/warren.html
  6. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2003
  7. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1996/doherty.html
  8. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/economics/laureates/1994/harsanyi.html
  9. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1975/cornforth.html
  10. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1973/white.html
  11. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1970/katz.html
  12. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1964/prokhorov-facts.html
  13. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1963/eccles.html
  14. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1960/burnet.html
  15. https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1960/burnet.html