Shimoga

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Shimoga
Shivamogga
Indian Lion at Tyavarekoppa Tiger and Lion Reserve, Karnataka, India.jpg
Shivappanayaka.jpg
Sculpture of Mahishasura Mardhini dated to the 12th century.JPG
Shivappa Nayaka Palace and garden.JPG
Images, from top down, left right
Indian lion in the Tyavarekoppa Tiger and Lion Reserve
Statue of Keladi Shivappa Nayaka
Sculpture of Mahishasura Mardhini
Shivappa Nayaka palace
India Karnataka location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Shimoga
India location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Shimoga
Coordinates: 13°56′N75°34′E / 13.933°N 75.567°E / 13.933; 75.567 Coordinates: 13°56′N75°34′E / 13.933°N 75.567°E / 13.933; 75.567
CountryFlag of India.svg  India
State Karnataka
District Shimoga
Region Malenadu
Government
  TypeCity Corporation
  BodyShivamogga Mahanagara Palike
Area
[1]
  Total70.01 km2 (27.03 sq mi)
Elevation
569 m (1,867 ft)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Total322,650
  Rank10th (Karnataka)
Languages
  Official Kannada
Time zone UTC+5:30 (IST)
PIN
577201 - 577205
Telephone code 91-(0)8182-XXXXXX
ISO 3166 code IN-KA
Vehicle registration KA-14
Climate Aw
Website www.shimogacity.gov.in

Shimoga, officially known as Shivamogga, [2] is a city and the district headquarters of Shimoga district in the central part of the state of Karnataka, India. The city lies on the banks of the Tunga River. Being the gateway for the hilly region of the Western Ghats, the city is popularly nicknamed as "Gateway of Malnad" [3] (ಮಲೆನಾಡಿನ ಹೆಬ್ಬಾಗಿಲು). The population of Shimoga city is 322,650 as per 2011 census. [1] The city has been selected for the Smart Cities project, standing in the fourth position in the state and 25th in the country as of November 2020. [4]

Contents

The city is 569 m above sea level and is surrounded by lush green paddy fields, arecanut and coconut groves. It is located 267 km from the state capital Bangalore and 195 km from the port city Mangalore [5]

History

The name of the city is derived from the term "shivmoga". A version of etymology is due to the story that Lord Shiva drank the Tunga river water using "Mogge", hence the name Shiva-mogga". Another version of etymology is that the name is derived from the term "Sihi-Mogge", meaning "sweet pot". [6]

The district formed the southern tip of the Emperor Ashoka's Mauryan Empire in the third century BC.[ citation needed ] It was ruled during later centuries by the Kadambas (4th century), Chalukyas (6th century), Ganges, Rashtrakutas (8th century), Hoysalas (11th century), and the Vijayanagara rulers (15th century). The city got an independent identity under the Keladi Nayakas' rule during the 16th century[ citation needed ]. From the late 17th century, the city had been a part of the Kingdom of Mysore until the independence of India in 1947, when the Mysore state merged into the Republic of India.

During the Satyagraha movement, Mahatma Gandhi also visited the place to instigate the fight for national freedom. [5]

On 1 November 2006, the government of Karnataka announced the renaming of Shimoga to "Shivamogga", along with nine other cities in the state. The central government approved (12 cities) the request in the October 2014 and the city was renamed on 1 November 2014. [7] [8] [9] [10]

Education

Shimoga is one of the important centers for the high school and the pre-university education in Karnataka. Notable institutes in Shimoga for pre-university (PU) education include: Sri Aurobindo PU College and PACE PU College.

The village of Gajanur hosts a Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalaya (central school) which is a boarding school. Kuvempu University is located in Shankarghatta, at a distance of 20 km from Shimoga.

Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences is the medical sciences college at Shimoga and managed by Government Departments. Subbaiah Institute of Medical Sciences is located at Purale. [11] It also has two engineering colleges, Jawaharlal Nehru National College of Engineering and PES Institute of Technology and Management.

Demographics

As of 2011 Indian Census, Shimoga had a total population of 322,650, of which 162,018 were males and 160,632 were females. Population within the age group of 0 to 6 years was 32,691. The total number of literates in Shimoga was 254,531, which constituted 78.9% of the population with male literacy of 81.4% and female literacy of 76.3%. The effective literacy rate of 7+ population of Shimoga was 87.8%, of which male literacy rate was 90.8% and female literacy rate was 84.8%. The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes population was 40,737 and 9,192 respectively. Shimoga had 76009 households in 2011. [1]

Kannada is the most widely spoken language in Shimoga. [12]

Geography

According to the Shimoga City Municipal Corporation, [13] the city has a total area of about 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). Most/all these hills are part of the Western Ghats, a region known for plentiful rainfall and lush greenery and declared during 2012 as a World Heritage site. Tunga River flows through Shimoga.

Climate

The climate is tropical wet and dry (Köppen climate classification) summer average temperature 20–35 °C (68–95 °F). This means that the winter and the early part of summer are typically dry periods. The majority of the rainfall occurs between June and early October. Shimoga is a part of a region known as Malnad (land of hills) in Karnataka. Yearly, the rainfall aggregates up to 3295mm of precipitation. [14] January and February are the driest months, July the wettest, and April is the warmest month with an average high temperature of 35.5 degrees Celsius (95.9 degrees F).Coldest months of Shimoga are July, August, November and December with average high temperature of 27 degrees Celsius (80.6 degrees F). [14] In summer (April–May), temperature crosses 36 °C at Shimoga. [15]

Climate data for Shimoga (1981–2010, extremes 1950–2005)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)35.0
(95.0)
38.8
(101.8)
41.4
(106.5)
39.7
(103.5)
44.0
(111.2)
40.0
(104.0)
34.7
(94.5)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
35.0
(95.0)
34.4
(93.9)
34.0
(93.2)
44.0
(111.2)
Average high °C (°F)31.5
(88.7)
33.6
(92.5)
36.0
(96.8)
36.4
(97.5)
34.9
(94.8)
30.1
(86.2)
28.2
(82.8)
27.8
(82.0)
29.6
(85.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.1
(86.2)
30.0
(86.0)
31.6
(88.9)
Average low °C (°F)15.3
(59.5)
16.5
(61.7)
19.5
(67.1)
21.5
(70.7)
22.2
(72.0)
21.5
(70.7)
20.9
(69.6)
20.5
(68.9)
20.3
(68.5)
20.2
(68.4)
18.2
(64.8)
15.8
(60.4)
19.3
(66.7)
Record low °C (°F)6.5
(43.7)
9.0
(48.2)
11.7
(53.1)
11.5
(52.7)
15.0
(59.0)
16.0
(60.8)
15.7
(60.3)
13.0
(55.4)
11.5
(52.7)
11.7
(53.1)
8.0
(46.4)
6.0
(42.8)
6.0
(42.8)
Average rainfall mm (inches)0.2
(0.01)
0.3
(0.01)
5.9
(0.23)
34.8
(1.37)
41.1
(1.62)
109.0
(4.29)
158.2
(6.23)
129.0
(5.08)
70.8
(2.79)
140.4
(5.53)
30.4
(1.20)
11.2
(0.44)
731.1
(28.78)
Average rainy days0.00.10.42.43.28.411.912.75.36.31.90.753.3
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)42403643537478797369594858
Source: India Meteorological Department [16] [17]

Civic administration

Shimoga is governed by a Municipal Corporation called the Shivamogga City Corporation. The total area under it is 70.01 km2 (27.03 sq mi), with a population of 322,650 (Census 2011). [18] Shimoga has been selected under the Smart Cities Mission of the Indian Government under Round 2 of selections. [19] Shimoga was upgraded to a Municipal Corporation from a Municipal Council in 2013. [20] The latest Mayoral elections of Shimoga City Corporation were held in January 2020 in which BJP leader Suvarna Shankar was elected the Mayor and Surekha Muralidhar was elected as the Deputy Mayor. Since they were elected by elected representatives belonging to their party, we can say that the corporation has direct elections. [21] The Corporation has a Council of 35 elected members. [21] In 2018, Smt. Charulatha Somal took charge as the Municipal Commissioner of Shimoga City Corporation. [22]

Economy

RMC Yard, Shimoga R M C Yard, Shimoga.JPG
RMC Yard, Shimoga

APMC of Shimoga is main marketing point of arecanut, the major commercial crop grown in the district and well as in neighbouring districts like Uttara Kannada. Shimoga has the biggest areca nut market, and known for procuring high quality areca nuts. Other agricultural produces like rice, chili, coconut etc. are also marketed in APMC.

Shimoga IT Park is an information technology hub built just outside Shimoga near the upcoming Shimoga Airport. The IT Park consists of a 100000 sq ft office building with 24/7 electrical capacity, diesel backup generators, and high speed T1 data connections for use by IT industries such as data centres, call centres, aerospace, robotics, etc. [23]

Transportation

KSRTC Bus Stand Ksrtcshimoga.jpg
KSRTC Bus Stand

Shimoga is well connected by road to major cities like Bangalore, Mangalore, Hubli. Two major National Highways pass through the City.

The city has two railway stations, and there are trains that run to and from Bangalore, Mysore, Tirupati and Chennai.

Shimoga Airport is under construction in Sogane, 6 km south of Shimoga. [24] The nearest international airports are Kempegowda International Airport and Mangalore International Airport.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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