Tabla

Last updated

Tabla
Prop. Tabla.jpg
Percussion instrument
Classification Membranophone percussion instrument
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 211.12
(Sets of instruments in which the body of the drum is dish- or bowl-shaped)
Developed18th century, North India (modern tabla)
Playing range
One octave (variable) [1] [2]
Related instruments
Pakhavaj, mridangam, khol, dholak, nagara, madal, tbilat
A demo of Tabla playing

A tabla [nb 1] is a pair of twin hand drums from the Indian subcontinent. Since the 18th century, tabla has been the principal percussion instrument in Hindustani classical music, [3] where it may be played solo, as accompaniment with other instruments and vocals, and as a part of larger ensembles. Tabla is also frequently played in popular and folk music performances in India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nepal, Afghanistan and Sri Lanka. [4] [5] The tabla is also an important instrument in the bhakti devotional traditions of Hinduism and Sikhism, such as during bhajan and kirtan singing. [6] [7] It is one of the main qawali instrument used by Sufi musicians. [8] Tabla also features in dance performances such as Kathak. [9]

Contents

The name tabla likely comes from tabl, the Arabic word for drum. [10] The ultimate origin of the musical instrument is contested by scholars, though some trace its evolution from indigenous musical instruments of the Indian subcontinent. [11]

The tabla consists of two small drums of slightly different sizes and shapes. [4] [12] Each drum is made of hollowed out wood, clay or metal. The smaller drum (dayan) is used for creating treble and tonal sounds, while the primary function of the larger drum (baya) is for producing bass. They are laced with hoops, thongs and wooden dowels on its sides. The dowels and hoops are used to tighten the tension of the membranes for tuning the drums. [13]

The playing technique is complex and involves extensive use of the fingers and palms in various configurations to create a wide variety of different sounds and rhythms, reflected in mnemonic syllables ( bol ).

Origins

The history of tabla is unclear, and there are multiple theories regarding its origins. [11] [14] There are two groups of theories, one that traces its origins to Muslim and Mughal conquerors of the Indian subcontinent, the other traces it to indigenous origins. [11] One example of the latter theory is carvings in Bhaja Caves. However, clear pictorial evidence of the drum emerges only from about 1745, and the drum continued to develop in shape until the early 1800s. [15]

Indian origins

The Indian theory traces the origin of tabla to indigenous ancient civilization. The stone sculpture carvings in Bhaja Caves depict a woman playing a pair of drums, which some have claimed as evidence for the ancient origin of the tabla in India. [16] [17] [18] A different version of this theory states that the tabla acquired a new Arabic name during the Islamic rule, having evolved from ancient Indian puskara drums. The evidence of the hand-held puskara is founded in many temple carvings, such as at the 6th and 7th century Muktesvara and Bhuvaneswara temples in India. [14] [19] [20] These arts show drummers who are sitting, with two or three separate small drums, with their palm and fingers in a position as if they are playing those drums. [19] However, it is not apparent in any of these ancient carvings that those drums were made of the same material and skin, or played the same music, as the modern tabla. [19]

The textual evidence for similar material and methods of construction as tabla comes from Sanskrit texts. The earliest discussion of tabla-like musical instrument building methods are found in the Hindu text Natyashastra . This text also includes descriptions of paste-patches (syahi) such as those found on a tabla. [19] The Natyashastra also discusses how to play these drums. The South Indian text Silappatikaram , likely composed in the early centuries of 1st millennium CE, describes thirty types of drums along with many stringed and other instruments. These are, however, called pushkara; the name tabla appears in later periods. [21]

Muslim and Mughal origins

This theory is based on the etymological links of the word tabla to Arabic word tabl which means "drum". Beyond the root of the word, this proposal points to the documentary evidence that the Muslim armies had hundreds of soldiers on camels and horses carrying paired drums as they invaded the Indian subcontinent. They would beat these drums to scare the residents, the non-Muslim armies, their elephants and chariots, that they intended to attack. However, the war drums did not look or sound anything like tabla, they were large paired drums and were called naqqara (noise, chaos makers). [11]

Another version states that Amir Khusraw, a musician patronized by Sultan Alauddin Khalji invented the tabla when he cut an Awaj drum, which used to be hourglass shaped, into two parts. However, no painting or sculpture or document dated to his period supports it with this evidence nor it was found in the list of musical instruments that were written down by Muslim historians. For example, Abul Fazi included a long list of musical instruments in his Ain-i-akbari written in the time of the 16th century Mughal Emperor Akbar, the generous patron of music. Abul Fazi's list makes no mention of tabla. [11]

The third version credits the invention of tabla to the 18th century musician, with a similar sounding name Amir Khusru, where he is suggested to have cut a Pakhawaj into two to create tabla. Miniature paintings of this era show instruments that sort of look like tabla. This theory implies that tabla emerged from within the Muslim community of Indian subcontinent and were not an Arabian import. [11] [22] However, scholars such as Neil Sorrell and Ram Narayan state that this legend of cutting a pakhawaj drum into two to make tabla drums "cannot be given any credence". [13]

History

200 BCE carvings at Buddhist Bhaja Caves, Maharashtra, India showing a woman playing a pair of drums and another dancer performing. Stone carvings at Bhaje caves.jpg
200 BCE carvings at Buddhist Bhaja Caves, Maharashtra, India showing a woman playing a pair of drums and another dancer performing.

Drums and Talas are mentioned in the Vedic era texts. [24] [25] A percussion musical instrument with two or three small drums, held with strings, called Pushkara (also spelled Pushkala) were in existence in pre-5th century Indian subcontinent along with other drums such as the Mridang, but these are not called tabla then. [26] The pre-5th century paintings in the Ajanta Caves, for example, show a group of musicians playing small tabla-like upright seated drums, a kettle-shaped mridang drum and cymbals. [27] Similar artwork with seated musicians playing drums, but carved in stone, are found in the Ellora Caves, [28] and others. [29]

Some drums of central India that look like tabla, but they do not have Syahi which creates the unique Tabla sound. 6 ancient drum types of Madhya Pradesh, Indian subcontinent.jpg
Some drums of central India that look like tabla, but they do not have Syahi which creates the unique Tabla sound.

A type of small Indian drums, along with many other musical instruments, are also mentioned in Tibetan and Chinese memoirs written by Buddhist monks who visited the Indian subcontinent in the 1st millennium CE. The pushkala are called rdzogs pa (pronounced dzokpa) in Tibetan literature. [30] The pushkara drums are also mentioned in many ancient Jainism and Buddhism texts, such as Samavayasutra, Lalitavistara and Sutralamkara. [31]

Various Hindu and Jain temples, such as the Eklingji in Udaipur, Rajasthan show stone carvings of a person playing tabla-like small pair of drums. Small drums were popular during the Yadava rule (1210 to 1247) in the south, at the time when Sangita Ratnakara was written by Sarangadeva. Madhava Kandali, 14th century Assamese poet and writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of "Ramayana", such as tabal, jhajhar, dotara, vina, bīn, vipanchi, etc. (meaning that these instruments existed since his time in 14th century or earlier).There is recent iconography of the tabla dating back to 1799. [32] This theory is now obsolete with iconography carvings found in Bhaje caves providing solid proof that the tabla was used in ancient India. There are Hindu temple carvings of double hand drums resembling the tabla that date back to 500 BCE. [33] The tabla was spread widely across ancient India. A Hoysaleshwara temple in Karnataka shows a carving of a woman playing a tabla in a dance performance. [34]

However it was Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah who brought the tabla out of the folk milieu and into his court where it gained wide acceptance and became popular all over South Asia. [35]

According to classifications of musical instruments defined in the Natyashastra , Tabla is classified in the Avanadha Vadya category of rhythm instruments which are made by capping an empty vessel with a stretched skin. [24]

Construction and features

The tabla consists of two single-headed, barrel-shaped small drums of slightly different sizes and shapes: baya and daya for left and right drums, respectively. [4] [12]

Ustad Zakir Hussain performing at Konark, Odisha. This illustrates the common sitting position used by tabla players. Ustad Zakir Hussain 2.jpg
Ustad Zakir Hussain performing at Konark, Odisha. This illustrates the common sitting position used by tabla players.

The smaller drum, played with the dominant hand, is called dayan (literally "right" side ), dāhina, siddha or chattū, but is correctly called the "tabla." It is made from a conical piece of mostly teak and rosewood hollowed out to approximately half of its total depth. The daya tabla is played by the musician's right hand (dominant hand), and is about 15 centimetres (~6 in) in diameter and 25 centimetres (~10 in) high. The drum is tuned to a specific note, usually either the tonic, dominant or subdominant of the soloist's key and thus complements the melody. This is the ground note of the raga called Sa (tonic in India music). [4] The tuning range is limited although different dāyāñs are produced in different sizes, each with a different range. Cylindrical wood blocks, known as gatta, are inserted between the strap and the shell allowing tension to be adjusted by their vertical positioning. Fine tuning is achieved while striking vertically on the braided portion of the head using a small, heavy hammer. While tabla usually features two drums, a tabla tarang may consist of 10-16 dayas to perform melodies based on several ragas.

The baya tabla is a bit bigger and deep kettledrum shaped, about 20 centimetres (~8 in) in diameter and 25 centimetres (~10 in) in height. It played with the non-dominant hand, is called bāyāñ (literally "left") duggī or dhāmā (correctly called "dagga"), has a much deeper bass tone, much like its distant cousin, the kettle drum. The bāyāñs can be found to be made up of many different types of materials. Brass is the most common, copper is more expensive, but generally held to be the best, while aluminum and steel are often found in inexpensive models. Sometimes wood is used, especially in old bāyāñs from the Punjab. Clay is also used, although not favored for durability; these are generally found in the North-East region of Bengal. The baya construction and tuning is about a fifth to an octave below that of the daya drum. The musician uses his hand's heel pressure to change the pitch and tone colour of each drum during a performance. [4] [13]

The head of each drum has a central area of "tuning paste" called the syahi (lit. "ink"; a.k.a. shāī or gāb). Syahi is common in many drums of Indian origin. This method allows these drums to produce harmonic overtones and is responsible for their unique sound. [36] Syahi is constructed using multiple layers of a paste made from starch (rice or wheat) mixed with a black powder of various origins. The precise construction and shaping of this area is responsible for modification of the drum's natural overtones, resulting in the clarity of pitch (see inharmonicity) and variety of tonal possibilities unique to this instrument which has a bell-like sound. The skill required for the proper construction of this area is highly refined and is the main differentiating factor in the quality of a particular instrument. The earliest discussion of these paste-patches are found in the Hindu text Natyashastra . [37]

For stability while playing, each drum is positioned on a toroidal bundle called chutta or guddi, consisting of plant fiber or another malleable material wrapped in cloth. They are commonly played while sitting cross-legged on the floor.

Musical notation

Keharwa Tala written in Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande Notation. The bols are written in both Latin and Devanagari. The Matras (beat measure) are specified using numerals. 'X' indicates Sum (first beat) and 'O' serves as an indicator for Khaali. Keharwa Taal written in Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande Notation.png
Keharwa Tala written in Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande Notation. The bols are written in both Latin and Devanagari. The Matras (beat measure) are specified using numerals. 'X' indicates Sum (first beat) and 'O' serves as an indicator for Khaali.

Indian music is traditionally practice-oriented and until the 20th century did not employ written notations as the primary media of instruction, understanding, or transmission. The rules of Indian music and compositions themselves are taught from a guru to a shishya, in person. Thus oral notation for playing tabla strokes and compositions is very developed and exact. These are made up of onomatopoetic syllables and are known as bols.

Written notation is regarded as a matter of taste and is not standardized. Thus there is no universal system of written notation for the rest of the world to study Indian music. The two popular systems for writing notations were created by Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande. [38] [39] These notations are named after their respective creators. Both these systems have bols written down in a script such as Latin or Devanagari. The differences arise in representation of various concepts of a compositions, such as Taali, Khaali, Sum (the first beat in a rhythmic cycle), and Khand (divisions). Another difference is the use of numerals in the Vishnu Narayan Bhatkande system to represent matras and beat measures, whereas more sophisticated symbols are used in the Vishnu Digambar Paluskar system to denote one matra, its fractions and combinations. [38]

Basic strokes

Tabla's repertoire and techniques borrow many elements from Pakhavaj and Mridangam, which are played sideways using one's palms. The physical structure of these drums also share similar components: the smaller pakhavaj head for the dayan, the naqqara kettledrum for the bayan, and the flexible use of the bass of the dholak. [40] Tabla is played from the top and uses "finger tip and hand percussive" techniques allowing more complex movements. [41] The rich language of tabla is made up of permutations of some basic strokes. These basic strokes are divided into 5 major categories along with a few examples: [39] [42]

  1. Bols played on the dayan (right / treble drum)
    • Na: striking the edge of the syahi with the last two fingers of the right hand
    • Ta or Ra: striking sharply with the index finger against the rim while simultaneously applying gentle pressure to the edge of the syahi with the ring finger to suppress the fundamental vibration mode
    • Tin: placing the last two fingers of the right hand lightly against the syahi and striking on the border between the syahi and the maidan (resonant)
    • Te: striking the center of the syahi with the middle finger in Delhi gharana, or using middle, ring, and little fingers together in Varanasi style (non resonant)
    • Ti: striking the center of the syahi with the index finger (non resonant)
    • Tun: striking the center of the syahi with the index finger to excite the fundamental vibration mode (resonant)
    • TheRe: striking of syahi with palm
  2. Bols played on bayan (left / bass drum)
    • Ghe: holding wrist down and arching the fingers over the syahi; the middle and ring-fingers then strike the maidan (resonant)
    • Ga: striking the index finger
    • Ka, Ke, or Kat: (on bayan) striking with the flat palm and fingers (non resonant)
  3. Bols played on both the drums on unison
    • Dha: combination of Na and (Ga or Ghe)
    • Dhin: combination of Tin and (Ga or Ghe)
  4. Bols played one after another in a successive manner
    • Ti Re Ki Ta
    • TaK = Ta + Ke
  5. Bols played as flam
    • Ghran: Ge immediately followed by Na
    • TriKe: Ti immediately followed by Ke and Te

Tabla Talas

Tala defines the musical meter of a composition. It is characterized by groups of matras in a defined time cycle. [24] Talas are composed of basic elements, bols. Matra defines the number of beats within a rhythm. Talas can be of 3 to 108 matras. They are played in repeated cycles. The starting beat of each cycle is known as Sum. This beat is often represented by a special symbol such as 'X'. This is the most emphasized beat of the cycle. Other emphasized parts of the tala which are represented by Taali (clap), while Khali (empty) portions are played in a relaxed manner. They are represented by a 'O' in Vishnu Narayanan Bhatkhande notation. Tali is often marked by a numeral representing its beat measure. Separate sections or stanzas of a tala are called Vibhagas.

Three main types of tempos or layas are used in playing Tabla talas: 1) Slow (vilambit) or half speed, 2) Medium (madhya) or reference speed, and 3) Fast (drut) or double speed. Keeping these three tempos as reference other variations of these tempos are also defined such as Aadi laya where bols are played at one and a half speed of medium tempo. Others such as Ati Ati drut laya stands for very very fast tempo. [39] Modern tabla players often use beats per minute measures as well. [43]

There are many talas in Hindustani music. Teental or Trital is one of the most popular tala played on Tabla. It has 16 beat measures or matras, and can be written down as 4 sections of 4 matras each. Teental can be played at both slow and fast speeds. Other talas such as Dhamaar, Ek, Jhoomra and Chau talas are better suited for slow and medium tempos. While some flourish at faster speeds, such as like Jhap or Rupak talas. Some of the popular Talas in Hindustani Classical music include:

NameBeatsDivisionVibhag
Teental (or Trital or Tintal)164+4+4+4X 2 0 3
Jhoomra 143+4+3+4X 2 0 3
Tilwada 164+4+4+4x 2 0 3
Dhamar 145+2+3+4X 2 0 3
Ektal and Chautal122+2+2+2+2+2X 0 2 0 3 4
Jhaptal (or Japtal)102+3+2+3X 2 0 3
Keherwa 84+4X 0
Rupak (Mughlai/Roopak)73+2+20 X 2
Dadra 63+3X 0

Rare Hindustani talas

NameBeatsDivisionVibhaga
Adachoutal142+2+2+2+2+2+2X 2 0 3 0 4 0
Brahmtal282+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2+2X 0 2 3 0 4 5 6 0 7 8 9 10 0
Dipchandi143+4+3+4X 2 0 3
Shikar176+6+2+3X 0 3 4
Sultal102+2+2+2+2x 0 2 3 0
Teevra73+2+2x 2 3
Ussole e Fakhta51+1+1+1+1x 3
Farodast143+4+3+4X 2 0 3
Pancham Savari153+4+4+4x 2 0 3
Gaj Jhampa155+5+5x 2 0 3

Tabla Gharanas

Tabla gharanas are responsible for the development of variety of new bols, characteristic playing techniques, composition styles and rhythmic structures. Gharanas acted as a means of preserving these styles between generations of tabla players. First recorded history of gharanas is in the early 18th century. Delhi gharana is considered to be the first and the oldest traditional tabla tradition. Its students were responsible for the spawn of other gharanas as well. Each of these gharanas include a handful of prominent players and maestros. They carry the honorific title 'Pandit' and 'Ustad' for Hindus and Muslim tabla players, respectively. Modernization and accessible means of travel have reduced the rigid boundaries between these gharanas in recent times. [39] [24]

The different Gharanas in Tabla

Kayda

A Kayda or Kaida is a type of Tabla composition. There are major two types of tabla compositions, fixed (pre-composed) and improvised (composed and improvised at the time of the practicing or performing). A rhythmic seed (theme) is introduced, which is then used as a basis for elaboration through improvisation and/or composition. The word Kayda is an Arabic or Hindi word which means 'rule' or 'a system of rules'. [44] [45] The rules for playing a kayda are complex, but in short, one must only use the bols that are in the original theme. This original theme is known as a Mukh. The kayda form originated in the Delhi Gharana of tabla playing and serves three fundamental and very important roles for tabla players. [46] The Dayan (Right side tabla - also known as Dagga) and Bayan (Left side tabla - just known as Tabla) of the Tabla are used in synchronization to form a Kayda. Kaydas can be played in any Tala. But in most of the concerts Teental and their Kaydas are played very often. Note that in talas like Dadra and Keherwa or in thekas like Bhajani, laggis are played, kaydas are not played. The reason for this is that these talas/thekas mentioned in the previous line are specifically played for Semi-Classical and light music (Bhajans, Kirtans, Thumris, etc.) and not for Hindustani classical music. Different Gharanas have their own Kaydas.

Basic structure of a kayda -

1. Mukh - Basic bol which is called as Mukh that means face of the particular Kayda. [47] The kayda's bols are structured out of the Mukh.

2. Dohara - Dohara is the repetition of the Mukh 3 times. Dohara means to repeat. In Hindi it is called Doharana that means to repeat. [48]

3. Adha Dohara - Adha Dohara is the repetition of the first bol of the Mukh.

4. Vishram - Vishram means taking rest. [49] As the name suggests, a minute of pause is taken from the bol.

5. Adha Vishram - Adha Vishram is the repetition of taking a pause i.e. repetition of the bol that was repeated in Vishram.

6. Palta - Palta is a variation of various bols but these bols are stuck or are only from the bols which are there in the Mukh. This Palta is a section of the whole Kayda. [50] [51] Now what it means that Palta is a section. It means that like Mukh, Dohara, Adha Dohara, Vishram , Adha Vishram, these 4 names are not or cannot be repeated. So there is no duplications of all the 4 names taken. So all of the 4 names taken above, there are played only once. But a Palta, as said it is a section. joining various bols many such Palte (plural form of Palta) can be created.

7. Tihai - The musical phrase sung or played thrice to arrive at the Sam/Sum is called a Tithai. It is the last part of a Kayda. The Mukh's last part is played thrice i.e. 3 times and then the particular Kayda is ended. [52]

Just like Kaydas, there are Relas and Ravs (or Raus).

See also

Notes

  1. In other languages: Bengali: তবলা, Dari: طبلا, Gujarati: તબલા, Hindi: तबला, Kannada: ತಬಲಾ, Malayalam: തബല, Marathi: तबला, Nepali: तबला, Odia: ତବଲା, Pashto: طبله, Punjabi: ਤਬਲਾ, Tamil: தபலா, Telugu: తబలా, Urdu: طبلہ

Related Research Articles

Dhrupad is a genre in Hindustani classical music from the Indian subcontinent. It is the oldest known style of major vocal styles associated with Hindustani classical music, Haveli Sangeet of Pushtimarg Sampraday and also related to the South Indian Carnatic tradition. It is a term of Sanskrit origin, derived from dhruva and pada. The roots of Dhrupad are ancient. It is discussed in the Hindu Sanskrit text Natyashastra, and other ancient and medieval Sanskrit texts, such as chapter 33 of Book 10 in the Bhagavata Purana, where the theories of music and devotional songs for Krishna are summarized.

Khyal or Khayal (ख़याल) is a major form of Hindustani classical music in the Indian subcontinent. Its name comes from a Persian/Arabic word meaning "imagination". Khyal is associated with romantic poetry, and allows the performer greater freedom of expression than dhrupad. In khyal, ragas are extensively ornamented, and the style calls for more technical virtuosity than intellectual rigour.

Indian classical music Classical music from the Indian subcontinent

Indian classical music is the classical music of the Indian subcontinent. It has two major traditions: the North Indian classical music known as Hindustani and the South Indian expression known as Carnatic. These traditions were not distinct until about the 15th century. During the period of Mughal rule of the Indian subcontinent, the traditions separated and evolved into distinct forms. Hindustani music emphasizes improvisation and exploration of all aspects of a raga, while Carnatic performances tend to be short composition-based. However, the two systems continue to have more common features than differences.

Thumri

Thumri is a vocal genre or style of Indian music. The term "thumri" is derived from the Hindi verb thumakna (ठुमकना), which means "to walk with dancing steps so as to make the ankle-bells tinkle." The form is thus, connected with dance, dramatic gestures, mild eroticism, evocative love poetry and folk songs especially from Uttar Pradesh, though there are regional variations.

Ektal or Ektaal is a tala in Indian music. It is commonly used in classical music like kheyal, and semi-classical forms like Rabindra Sangeet. In ektal the 12 matras are divided into 6 vibhags of two matras each. Ektal is played in Drut gatti. This tala is mostly played by the use of tabla. One more tala similar to Ektal is Chowtal which is played with the use of Pakhavaj. Many beautiful Kayda are played in Ektal. But Ektal is mostly played for Vilambit.

Teental is the most common tala of Hindustani Classical Music, and is used for drut (fast-tempo) structure of tintal. It is so symmetrical that it presents a very simple rhythmic structure against which a performance can be laid. It is played on Tabla as well as on Percussion instruments.

Hindustani classical music is the classical music of northern regions of the Indian subcontinent. It may also be called North Indian classical music or, in Hindustani, shastriya sangeet. Its origins date from the 12th century CE, when it diverged from Carnatic music, the classical tradition of southern regions of the Indian subcontinent.

Tala (music) Meter, time cycle measure in Indian music

A Tala, sometimes spelled Titi or Pipi, literally means a 'clap, tapping one's hand on one's arm, a musical measure'. It is the term used in Indian classical music to refer to musical meter, that is any rhythmic beat or strike that measures musical time. The measure is typically established by hand clapping, waving, touching fingers on thigh or the other hand, verbally, striking of small cymbals, or a percussion instrument in the Indian subcontinental traditions. Along with raga which forms the fabric of a melodic structure, the tala forms the life cycle and thereby constitutes one of the two foundational elements of Indian music.

Khol

The khol is a terracotta two-sided drum used in northern and eastern India for accompaniment with devotional music (bhakti). It is also known as a mridanga, not to be confused with mridangam. It originates from the Indian states of West Bengal, Assam and Manipur. The drum is played with palms and fingers of both hands.

Pakhavaj

The pakhavaj is a barrel-shaped, two-headed drum, originating from the Indian subcontinent, a variant and descendant of the older mridangam. The kendang of Maritime Southeast Asia is a distant relative of the pakhawaj and other South Asian double-headed drums.

Paṅjāb Gharānā, is a style and technique of Tabla playing that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent, now split between present-day Pakistan and India. The Punjab Gharana is considered one of the six main styles of Tabla, the others being Delhi, Ajrada, Banares, Lucknow, and Farrukhabad. The repertoire of the Punjab Gharana is heavily influenced by the Pakhawaj.

A bol is a mnemonic syllable. It is used in Indian music to define the tala, or rhythmic pattern, and is one of the most important parts of Indian rhythm. Bol is derived from the Hindi word bolna, which means "to speak."

The Delhi Gharana, alongside the Punjab Gharana, is the oldest of the tabla gharanas, founded in North India by Ustad Siddhar Khan Dhadhi during the early 18th century. Marking a clear distinction from the pakhawaj, it is also called "Do unglion ka baaj" due to nearly exclusive use of index and middle fingers on the center and edge of the dayan . It has come up with two notable inventions based on improvisation rules : Peshkar and Kaida.

Rupak Tala or also known as Roopak Taal is a popular tala in Hindustani music that is common in Bhajans and Geets. It has seven matras (beats) in three vibhags (divisions). Unlike the popular Tintal, the vibhags of Rupak Tala are not of equal length. Also, both the khali and sam of Rupak Tala fall on the first matra.

Yakshagana Tala, is a rhythmical pattern in Yakshagana that is determined by a composition called Yakshagana Padya. Tala also decides how a composition is enacted by dancers. It is similar to Tala in other forms of Indian music, but is structurally different from them. Each composition is set to one or more talas, and as a composition is rendered by Himmela, the percussion artist(s) play supporting the dance performance. Tala is maintained by the singer using a pair of finger bells.

Ustad Shafaat Ahmed Khan New Delhi, India, was one of the leading tabla maestros in the field of Hindustani classical music.

Ajrara gharana or Ajrada gharana founded by Kallu Khan and Meeru Khan is one of the six main traditional schools in tabla drum. The distinctiveness of this Gharana is the use of complex Bols and Meend. Pakhawaj bols are rare. The stress is on Ad and Barabar laya. It specializes in the three-time pattern. The position of the left drum is not changed, but its face is touched with the thumb.

Taal (instrument)

The taal, manjira, jalra, karatala, kartal or gini is a pair of clash cymbals, originating in the Indian subcontinent, which make high-pitched percussion sounds. In its simplest form, it consists of a pair of small hand cymbals. The word taal comes from the Sanskrit word Tālà, which literally means a clap. It is a part of Indian music and culture, used in various traditional customs e.g. Bihu music, Harinaam etc. It is a type of Ghana vadya.

Alankara, also referred to as palta or alankaram, is a concept in Indian classical music and literally means "ornament, decoration". An alankara is any pattern of musical decoration a musician or vocalist creates within or across tones, based on ancient musical theories or driven by personal creative choices, in a progression of svaras. The term alankara is standard in Carnatic music, while the same concept is referred to as palta or alankara in Hindustani music.

A Theka literally means "support, prop". The term also refers to a musical composition in classical Indian music for percussion instruments that establish a rhythm (Chanda), beats (Matras) and the metric cycle of beats (Tala) in a performance.

References

  1. Abram, David (1994). India: The Rough Guide. Rough Guides. p. 1137. ISBN   978-1-85828-104-9.
  2. Ellingham, Mark (1999). The Rough Guide to World Music. Rough Guides. p. 73. ISBN   978-1-85828-636-5.
  3. Don Michael Randel (2003). The Harvard Dictionary of Music. Harvard University Press. pp. 820, 864. ISBN   978-0-674-01163-2.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 Tabla Encyclopædia Britannica
  5. Baily, John (1988). Music of Afghanistan : professional musicians in the city of Herat. Cambridgeshire [England]: Cambridge University Press. ISBN   0-521-25000-5. OCLC   17299692.
  6. Denise Cush; Catherine Robinson; Michael York (2012). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Routledge. pp. 87–88. ISBN   978-1-135-18978-5.
  7. Derek B. Scott (2009). The Ashgate Research Companion to Popular Musicology. Ashgate Publishing. p. 289. ISBN   978-0-7546-6476-5.
  8. Kamal Salhi (2013). Music, Culture and Identity in the Muslim World: Performance, Politics and Piety. Routledge. pp. 183–184. ISBN   978-1-317-96310-3.
  9. Nettl, Bruno; Stone, Ruth M.; Porter, James; Rice, Timothy (eds.). The Garland encyclopedia of world music. New York. ISBN   0-8240-6035-0. OCLC   36407898.
  10. Richard Emmert; Yuki Minegishi (1980). Musical voices of Asia: report of (Asian Traditional Performing Arts 1978) . Heibonsha. p.  266 . Retrieved 25 December 2012.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Robert S. Gottlieb (1993). Solo Tabla Drumming of North India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 1–3. ISBN   978-81-208-1093-8.
  12. 1 2 William Alves (2013). Music of the Peoples of the World. Cengage Learning. p. 252. ISBN   978-1-133-30794-5.
  13. 1 2 3 Neil Sorrell; Ram Narayan (1980). Indian Music in Performance: A Practical Introduction. Manchester University Press. pp. 40–41. ISBN   978-0-7190-0756-9.
  14. 1 2 Matt Dean (2012). The Drum: A History. Scarecrow. p. 104. ISBN   978-0-8108-8170-9.
  15. James Kippen (1999). Hindustani Tala, Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Routledge. ISBN   9781351544382.
  16. S Prajnanananda (1981). A historical study of Indian music. Munshiram Manoharlal. p. 82. ISBN   9788121501774.
  17. Meshram, Pradipkumar S. (1981). "The tabla in the Bhaja cave sculptures: A note". Indica. 18: 57.
  18. Mark Hijleh, 2019, Towards a Global Music History: Intercultural Convergence, Fusion, and transformation in the human musical history, Routledge
  19. 1 2 3 4 Robert S. Gottlieb (1993). Solo Tabla Drumming of North India. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 2–3. ISBN   978-81-208-1093-8.
  20. Pashaura Singh (2000). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN   978-0-19-564894-2.
  21. Bruno Nettl; Ruth M. Stone; James Porter; et al. (1998). The Garland Encyclopedia of World Music. Taylor & Francis. p. 327. ISBN   978-0-8240-4946-1.
  22. Peter Lavezzoli (2006). The Dawn of Indian Music in the West. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 37–39. ISBN   978-0-8264-1815-9.
  23. Meshram, Pradipkumar S. (1981). "The tabla in the Bhaja cave sculptures: A note". Indica. 18: 57–59.
  24. 1 2 3 4 The theory and practice of Tabla, Sadanand Naimpalli, Popular Prakashan
  25. Rowell, Lewis (2015). Music and Musical Thought in Early India. University of Chicago Press. pp. 66–68. ISBN   978-0-226-73034-9.
  26. Sir Monier Monier-Williams; Ernst Leumann; Carl Cappeller (2002). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: Etymologically and Philologically Arranged with Special Reference to Cognate Indo-European Languages. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 638–639. ISBN   978-81-208-3105-6.
  27. Anil de Silva-Vigier; Otto Georg von Simson (1964). Music. Man through his art. 2. New York Graphic Society. p. 22. OCLC   71767819., Quote: "To her left are two girls standing with cymbals in their hands, and two seated playing drums, one with a pair of upright drums like the modern Indian dhol, and the other, sitting cross-legged, with a drum held horizontally, like the modern mirdang."
  28. Lisa Owen (2012). Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora. BRILL Academic. pp. 24–25. ISBN   978-90-04-20629-8.
  29. Pia Brancaccio (2010). The Buddhist Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL Academic. p. 21. ISBN   978-90-04-18525-8.
  30. རྫོགས་པ་, Tibetan English Dictionary (2011)
  31. Radha Kumud Mookerji (1989). Ancient Indian Education: Brahmanical and Buddhist. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 354–355. ISBN   978-81-208-0423-4.
  32. Frans Balthazar Solvyns, A Collection of Two Hundred and Fifty Coloured Etchings (1799)
  33. Chintan Vaishnav; Collin Joye. "Introduction to Tabla, the Ancient Indian Drums". MIT. Archived from the original (Microsoft PowerPoint) on 2 September 2009.
  34. "Persée". Persee.fr. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  35. "One diamond to rule the world". Indianexpress.com. 11 December 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  36. Raman, C. V.; Kumar, Sivakali (1920). "Musical Drums with Harmonic Overtones". Nature. 104 (2620): 500. Bibcode:1920Natur.104..500R. doi: 10.1038/104500a0 . ISSN   0028-0836. S2CID   4159476.
  37. Gottlieb, Robert S. (1993). Solo tabla drumming of North India : its repertoire, styles, and performance practices (1st Indian ed.). Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. ISBN   81-208-1095-3. OCLC   30620399.
  38. 1 2 Naimpalli, Sadanand. (2005). Theory and practice of tabla. Mumbai: Popular Prakashan. pp. 71–73. ISBN   81-7991-149-7. OCLC   61285249.
  39. 1 2 3 4 Beronja, Srdjan (2008). The art of the Indian tabla. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. p. 127. ISBN   978-81-291-1431-0. OCLC   318093440.
  40. Stewart R. Unpublished thesis, UCLA, 1974
  41. "tabla (musical instrument) –". September 2015.
  42. Courtney, Todd A. Dombrowski, David. "Basic Technique of Tabla bols: Dhaa, Dhin, Ga, Ka, Naa, Na, Taa, Tak,TiRaKiTa, Tin, Tu, etc". chandrakantha.com.
  43. "Rhythm (taal) in Indian Classical Music - Raag Hindustani". raag-hindustani.com. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  44. "कायदा - Meaning in English - Shabdkosh". Shabdkosh.com. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  45. "Kaida/Paltas -". Carnatic-circle.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  46. "Tabla". Melbourne Tabla School. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  47. "English Word for mukh - मुख का अंग्रेजी में अर्थ - EngHindi.com". Enghindi.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  48. "(Doharana) दोहराना meaning in English | Matlab | Definition". Hindi2dictionary.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  49. "Meaning of विश्राम in English | विश्राम का अर्थ (विश्राम ka Angrezi Matlab)". Shabdkosh.raftaar.in. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  50. "Creating Paltas for Kaidas". Forum.chandrakantha.com. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  51. "52 Kaidas: Uthan, Palta Theka". 52kaidas.blogspot.com. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  52. Ashok Damodar Ranade (1 January 2006). Music Contexts: A Concise Dictionary of Hindustani Music. Bibliophile South Asia. pp. 167–. ISBN   978-81-85002-63-7 . Retrieved 16 October 2012.

Further reading