|Adelaide Botanic Garden|
|Location||Adelaide, South Australia|
The Adelaide Botanic Garden is a 51-hectare (130-acre) public garden at the north-east corner of the Adelaide city centre, in the Adelaide Park Lands. It encompasses a fenced garden on North Terrace (between Lot Fourteen, the site of the old Royal Adelaide Hospital, and the National Wine Centre) and behind it the Botanic Park (adjacent to the Adelaide Zoo). Work was begun on the site in 1855, with its official opening to the public on 4 October 1857.
The Adelaide Botanic Garden and adjacent State Herbarium of South Australia, together with the Wittunga Botanic Garden and Mount Lofty Botanic Garden, comprise the Botanic Gardens of South Australia, administered by the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, a state government statutory authority.
From the first official survey carried out for the map of Adelaide, Colonel William Light intended for the planned city to have a "botanical garden". To this end, he designated a naturally occurring ait [ citation needed ] that had formed in the course of the River Torrens, in what is now the West Parklands. However attempts to establish a garden were abandoned owing to frequent flooding of the area. After second attempt had failed, the northern bank of the Torrens, opposite the present location of the Adelaide Zoo, was considered, and it was here in 1839 that John Bailey, an experienced gardener, made a third attempt, but no funding was offered.
The South Australian Agricultural and Horticultural Society (formed 1842) and other groups continued to press for the creation of a public garden.The public were aware of the economic and scientific benefits of such a garden, already seen elsewhere in the British Empire. In 1854 the present site was recommended to the government by the Society and George William Francis (who had begun appealing to the Governor Sir Henry Young soon after his arrival in 1849 to establish the garden), and Francis was appointed superintendent of the garden in 1855.
In January 1855 the Legislative Council finally approved the site. The land was held sacred by the Kaurna people as the red kangaroo dreaming ( Tarndanyangga ), but at that time it was being used as paddocks for police horses. Francis was responsible for establishing the perimeter, solving the flooding problems and landscaping North Terrace to blend well with the entrance to the garden. In October 1855 he presented his first progress report, including a plan of Regent's Park in London as an example of circular garden design that he thought could be adapted for Adelaide.
Francis and his family moved into the superintendent's cottage in 1856, and the Garden was opened to the public on 4 October 1857. In 1860 the Botanic Garden Act was enacted, which established the Board of Governors, with Francis as Director.The site at that time included the present Botanic Garden, Botanic Park and Adelaide Zoo.
A pagoda was built in 1863, and Francis established the first herbarium and botanical library in Adelaide in 1864, a rustic temple modelled on the Museum of Economic Botany at Kew Gardens in England, with the design imitating the Parthenon in Athens. Francis gave lectures in the lecture room there each Tuesday.
Hakea francisiana , an Australian shrub that grows to 4 metres (13 ft), is named after him.
After his retirement shortly before his death in 1865, Francis was succeeded by botanist Dr Moritz Richard Schomburgk, brother to the German naturalist Robert Hermann Schomburgk. He was a major advocate for the establishment of forest reserves in the increasingly denuded South Australian countryside.
Schomburgk's successor, Dr M. W. Holtze I.S.O., did much to make the gardens more attractive to the general public.
Holtze retired in 1917 and was succeeded by John Frederick Bailey, grandson of John Bailey (mentioned above) and son of Frederick Manson Bailey. He proved so successful that public service regulations were waived to extend his directorship (and occupancy of the Lodge) past mandatory retirement age.
The Palm, or Tropical, House is a Victorian-era glasshouse located to the west of the main lake. It was designed by the German architect Gustav Runge(1822-1900) and imported from Bremen, Germany in 1875. It was opened in 1877 and was restored in 1995 and 2018. It is the second-oldest glasshouse in Australia, and the only known one of German manufacture from that period left in the world, all others having been destroyed during World War II. Originally housing tropical flora, due to corrosion problems, since the early 1990s it has held a collection of Malagasy arid flora.
The Museum of Economic Botany is dedicated to the collection and interpretation of "useful" plants. It was established by Schomburgk in 1879.Described as "the last purpose-built colonial museum in the world", it is located within the gardens a short distance to the west of the Goodman Building. Built in Greek Revival style and opened in May 1881, the building and its interior was extensively restored during 2008–09. The restoration works were assisted by a grant from the Government of Australia for $1.125 million and sponsorship by South Australian oil and gas company, Santos. The sponsorship arrangement also included naming rights and a commitment to ongoing support of the museum's exhibition program. Much of the collection originally on display in 1881 was reinstated, including a collection of papier mache and stucco replicas of various fruits and fungi. A space for temporary exhibitions within the museum was created by Khai Liew Design. Displays of Aboriginal artefacts, a subject neglected by the original museum, were prepared in collaboration with the South Australian Museum.
The museum is notable for the completeness of its preservation. The building, its interior decoration, showcases, collections and even many labels have survived from as early as 1865. The museum is on the Register of State Heritage Items, the Register of the City of Adelaide Heritage Items, and has been classified by the National Trust of Australia.
The administrative headquarters of the Botanic Garden are located in the historic Goodman building, at the Hackney Road entrance on the eastern side of the gardens. This was built in 1909 as the headquarters of the Municipal Tramways Trust, and named for its longtime Chief Engineer and General Manager W. G. T. Goodman. The adjacent Tram Barn A has been converted to hold the State Herbarium.
The old morgue built in 1882 for the Adelaide Lunatic Asylum,and later used by the Parkside Lunatic Asylum, still stands. The Adelaide Lunatic Asylum opened in 1852 in the grounds of the Royal Adelaide Hospital, just east of the buildings, was closed in 1873 and demolished in 1938 after the land was handed over to the Botanic Garden. The old morgue building, labelled on a nearby plaque as "Mortuary", has recently been in use as a toolshed, but was brought into service for the 2020 Adelaide Biennial of Australian Art to house an art installation by Yhonnie Scarce called In the Dead House. The work references the practices of "body-shoppers", who traded in whole or parts of dead bodies.
Among other scientific and educational displays of native and international horticulture, the gardens hold one of the earliest propagated specimens of the Wollemi Pine tree, which was discovered as recently as 1994.
As part of Adelaide's celebration of the Australian Bicentenary, the conservatory was constructed in 1987 and opened in late 1989. The building was designed by local architect Guy Maron and has won awards for its design, engineering and landscaping. It is 100 metres (328 ft) long, 47 metres (154 ft) wide and 27 metres (89 ft) high making it the largest single span conservatory in the southern hemisphere.
The conservatory originally housed at-risk or endangered tropical rainforest plants from northern Australia, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and south Pacific Islands.However, in early 2012, a controversial decision was announced to remove tropical plants from the conservatory due to rising power costs. In April 2012, the entry fee to the conservatory was abolished, despite rising energy costs and budget cuts resulting in the building no longer being heated.
Begun in 1996, the National Rose Trial Garden is the first garden of its kind in Australia where roses are tested for their suitability for Australian climates. The garden is a joint venture between the Botanic Gardens of Adelaide, the National Rose Trial Society of Australia and the rose industry. It has been built on part of the former Municipal Tramways Trust Hackney Depot. Roses are planted in groups such as, noisette roses, bourbon roses, tea roses, ramblers, and perpetual roses. A trial is conducted over two growing seasons and all plants are treated equally with regard to horticultural practices. The roses are judged by a panel of 10 experienced rosarians who examine them and allocate points over the two growing seasons. The results are announced publicly at the end of the trial and the best performing roses receive an award.[ citation needed ]
While in Adelaide in 2004, Sir Cliff Richard planted a rose named 'Sir Cliff Richard' in the Rose Garden surrounded by a small group of fans and rose enthusiasts. Sales of the rose support the Bone Growth Foundation.[ citation needed ]
In order to reduce the garden's reliance on potable water from the River Murray, a new wetlands system was constructed south of the Bicentennial Conservatory to hold stormwater diverted from First Creek. The wetlands form part of an aquifer storage and recovery system which is expected to have a usable capacity of 100 megalitres (22,000,000 imp gal) per year, enough to water the entire Botanic Garden. The project was launched in March 2011 and was opened in November 2013.
One significant purpose of the wetlands is to educate the public on the importance of wetlands, and to showcase plants which may never otherwise have been encountered by visitors. The area accommodates about 20,000 plants, including many Australian natives. 2.6-hectare (6.4-acre) site also features a trail of interpretive signage, tiered garden beds showcasing aquatic plants and three large ponds with reed-beds which support a diverse range of native wildlife.The
The Botanic Gardens of South Australia, which include Adelaide, Wittunga and Mount Lofty Botanic Gardens, and also the State Herbarium of South Australia, are administered by the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, a State Government statutory authority, based on the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium Act 1978 and Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium Regulations 2007.
Dr Lucy Sutherland was appointed as the Director in 2016.In July 2021, Michael Harvey commenced as Director.
The gardens receive funding from the Government of South Australia, supplemented by sponsorship and community donations administered by the Adelaide Botanic Gardens Foundation. Funds are raised for the purposes of "scientific research, education, acquisition and maintenance of living collections and for the long-term financial security of the Gardens." The foundation is the trustee of the not-for-profit Adelaide Botanic Gardens Foundation Fund.
As of 2019 [update] , the garden received support from "program partners" Santos and Electranet, an NFP and a private sponsor. There were also a number of supporting partners".
The State Herbarium of South Australia publishes an open-access, peer-reviewed scientific journal on behalf of the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Swainsona (2017-, Volume 30-). This was previously published as Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens (1976-2016, Volumes 1-29). The journal has a focus on Australasian taxa.
The demolition of a couple of non-heritage buildings in the old Royal Adelaide Hospital site has meant that parts of the garden need to be blocked for safety reasons.
Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) is a botanical garden in the borough of Brooklyn, New York City. It was founded in 1910 using land from Mount Prospect Park in central Brooklyn, adjacent to Prospect Park and the Brooklyn Museum. The 52-acre (21 ha) garden holds over 14,000 taxa of plants and has nearly a million visitors each year. It includes a number of specialty "gardens within the Garden", plant collections, the Steinhardt Conservatory that houses the C. V. Starr Bonsai Museum, three climate-themed plant pavilions, a white cast-iron-and-glass aquatic plant house, and an art gallery.
The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) is a botanical garden at Bronx Park in the Bronx, New York City. Established in 1891, it is located on a 250-acre (100 ha) site that contains a landscape with over one million living plants; the Enid A. Haupt Conservatory, a greenhouse containing several habitats; and the LuEsther T. Mertz Library, which contains one of the world's largest collections of botany-related texts. As of 2016, over a million people visit the New York Botanical Garden annually.
Baron Sir Ferdinand Jacob Heinrich von Mueller, was a German-Australian physician, geographer, and most notably, a botanist. He was appointed government botanist for the then colony of Victoria (Australia) by Governor Charles La Trobe in 1853, and later director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Melbourne. He also founded the National Herbarium of Victoria. He named many Australian plants.
Kirstenbosch is an important botanical garden nestled at the eastern foot of Table Mountain in Cape Town. The garden is one of 10 National Botanical Gardens covering five of South Africa's six different biomes and administered by the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI). Prior to 1 September 2004, the institute was known as the National Botanical Institute.
Royal Botanic Gardens Victoria are botanic gardens across two sites–Melbourne and Cranbourne.
The Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney is a heritage-listed major 30-hectare (74-acre) botanical garden, event venue and public recreation area located at Farm Cove on the eastern fringe of the Sydney central business district, in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia.
First opened in 1977, the crescent-shaped Mount Lofty Botanic Garden is situated on 100 hectares on the eastern slopes of Mount Lofty in the Adelaide Hills east of Adelaide in South Australia. The cooler, wetter location suits plants from temperate climates which are difficult to grow on the Adelaide Plains. Amongst the native Australian flora there are tree ferns, as well as exotic cultivated plants from cool climates including Rhododendron and Magnolia and the National Species Rose Collection. The Mount Lofty Botanic Garden, together with the Adelaide and Wittunga Botanic Gardens, is administered by the Botanic Gardens of South Australia, a State Government statutory authority.
The National Herbarium of Victoria is one of Australia's earliest herbaria and the oldest scientific institution in Victoria. Its 1.5 million specimens of preserved plants, fungi and algae—collectively known as the State Botanical Collection of Victoria—comprise the largest herbarium collection in Australia and Oceania.
Moritz Richard Schomburgk, generally known as Richard Schomburgk, was a German botanist and curator of the Adelaide Botanic Garden.
Kew Gardens is a botanic garden in southwest London that houses the "largest and most diverse botanical and mycological collections in the world". Founded in 1840, from the exotic garden at Kew Park, its living collections include some of the 27,000 taxa curated by Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, while the herbarium, one of the largest in the world, has over 8.5 million preserved plant and fungal specimens. The library contains more than 750,000 volumes, and the illustrations collection contains more than 175,000 prints and drawings of plants. It is one of London's top tourist attractions and is a World Heritage Site.
Joseph Whittaker was a British botanist who visited South Australia in 1839. Whittaker has 300 plants from that trip in Kew Gardens and a large collection of pressed British plants in Derby Museum and Art Gallery.
Maurice William Holtze born in Hanover, Germany, was a botanist who established Darwin's Botanical Gardens in Fannie Bay, Darwin in 1878. When he left to take charge of Adelaide's Botanic Garden in 1891, his son Nicholas was appointed curator of the Darwin Botanical Gardens in his place.
The State Herbarium of South Australia, sometimes called the South Australian Herbarium, and having the herbarium code, AD, is located in Adelaide, South Australia. It is one of several State and Commonwealth herbaria in Australia. The Department for Environment and Water is the state agency which is responsible for the Herbarium, but the Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium is charged with its establishment and maintenance.
George William Francis was an English botanical and general science writer. An emigrant to the colony of South Australia in 1849, he made a reputation there as a horticulturalist, becoming the first director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden in 1860.
The LuEsther T. Mertz Library is located at the New York Botanical Garden (NYBG) in the Bronx, New York City. Founded in 1899 and renamed in the 1990s for LuEsther Mertz, it is the United States' largest botanical research library, and the first library whose collection focused exclusively on botany.
Thomas Robert Noel Lothian OBE, NDH (NZ), LFRAIPR, JP was a long-term director of the Adelaide Botanic Garden and an Australian botanist.
The National Herbarium of New South Wales was established in 1853. The Herbarium has a collection of more than 1.4 million plant specimens, making it the second largest collection of pressed, dried plant specimens in Australia, including scientific and historically significant collections and samples of Australian flora gathered by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander during the voyage of HMS Endeavour in 1770.
Glenside Hospital, as it was known from 1967, previously the Public Colonial Lunatic Asylum of South Australia, Parkside Lunatic Asylum and Parkside Mental Hospital, was a complex of buildings used as a psychiatric hospital in Glenside, South Australia.
The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that allows access to plant specimen data held by various Australian and New Zealand herbaria. It is part of the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA), and was formed by the amalgamation of Australia's Virtual Herbarium and NZ Virtual Herbarium. As of 12 August 2014, more than five million specimens of the 8 million and upwards specimens available from participating institutions have been databased.
The Santos Museum of Economic Botany, located in the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, displays a permanent collection exhibiting the practical, medicinal and economic use of plant materials.