Rationing

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Romanian ration card, 1989 Romanian ration-card for bread, 1989.jpg
Romanian ration card, 1989

Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, services, or an artificial restriction of demand. Rationing controls the size of the ration, which is one's allowed portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time. There are many forms of rationing, and in western civilization people experience some of them in daily life without realizing it. [1]

Contents

Rationing is often done to keep price below the equilibrium (market-clearing) price determined by the process of supply and demand in an unfettered market. Thus, rationing can be complementary to price controls. An example of rationing in the face of rising prices took place in the various countries where there was rationing of gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis.

A reason for setting the price lower than would clear the market may be that there is a shortage, which would drive the market price very high. High prices, especially in the case of necessities, are undesirable with regard to those who cannot afford them. Traditionalist economists argue, however, that high prices act to reduce waste of the scarce resource while also providing incentive to produce more.

Rationing using ration stamps is only one kind of non-price rationing. For example, scarce products can be rationed using queues. This is seen, for example, at amusement parks, where one pays a price to get in and then need not pay any price to go on the rides. Similarly, in the absence of road pricing, access to roads is rationed in a first come, first served queueing process, leading to congestion.

Authorities which introduce rationing often have to deal with the rationed goods being sold illegally on the black market. Despite the fact that rationing systems are sometimes necessary as the only viable option for societies facing severe consumer goods shortages, they are usually extremely unpopular with the general public, as they enforce limits on individual consumption. [2] [3] [4]

Civilian rationing

Rationing has been instituted during wartime for civilians. For example, each person may be given what's known as a “ration coupon” allowing him or her to purchase a certain amount of a product each month. Rationing often includes food and other necessities for which there is a shortage, including materials needed for the war effort such as rubber tires, leather shoes, clothing and fuel.

Rationing of food and water may also become necessary during an emergency, such as a natural disaster or terror attack. In the U.S., the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) has established guidelines for civilians on rationing food and water supplies when replacements are not available. According to FEMA standards, every person should have a minimum of 1 US quart (0.95 L) per day of water, and more for children, nursing mothers and the ill. [5]

Origins

First World War German government propaganda poster describing rationing with personifications of meat, bread, sugar, butter, milk and meal (1916) Lebensmittel Karikatur, item 1.jpg
First World War German government propaganda poster describing rationing with personifications of meat, bread, sugar, butter, milk and meal (1916)

Military sieges have often resulted in shortages of food and other essential consumables. In such circumstances, the rations allocated to an individual are often determined based on age, sex, race or social standing. During the Siege of Lucknow (part of the Indian Rebellion of 1857) a woman received three quarters the food ration a man received and children received only half. [6] :71 During the Siege of Ladysmith in the early stages of the Boer War in 1900 white adults received the same food rations as soldiers while children received half that. Food rations for Indian people and black people were significantly smaller. [7] :266–272

The first modern rationing systems were brought in during the First World War. In Germany, suffering from the effects of the British blockade, a rationing system was introduced in 1914 and was steadily expanded over the following years as the situation worsened. [8] Although Britain did not suffer from food shortages, as the sea lanes were kept open for food imports, panic buying towards the end of the war prompted the rationing of first sugar and then meat. [9] It is said to have in the most part benefited the health of the country, [10] through the 'levelling of consumption of essential foodstuffs'. [11] To assist with rationing, ration books were introduced on 15 July 1918 for butter, margarine, lard, meat and sugar. During the war, average calories intake decreased only three percent, but protein intake six percent. [10] Food rationing appeared in Poland after the First World War, and ration stamps were in use until the end of the Polish–Soviet War.

Second World War

Child's ration book, used in Britain during the Second World War Sample UK Childs Ration Book WW2.jpg
Child's ration book, used in Britain during the Second World War

Rationing became common during the Second World War. Ration stamps were often used. These were redeemable stamps or coupons, and every family was issued a set number of each kind of stamp based on the size of the family, ages of children and income. The British Ministry of Food refined the rationing process in the early 1940s to ensure the population did not starve when food imports were severely restricted and local production limited due to the large number of men fighting the war. [12]

Rationing on a scientific basis was pioneered by Elsie Widdowson and Robert McCance at the Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Cambridge. They worked on the chemical composition of the human body, and on the nutritional value of different flours used to make bread. Widdowson also studied the impact of infant diet on human growth. They studied the differing effects from deficiencies of salt and of water and produced the first tables to compare the different nutritional content of foods before and after cooking. They co-authored The Chemical Composition of Foods, first published in 1940 by the Medical Research Council. Their book "McCance and Widdowson" became known as the dietician's bible and formed the basis for modern nutritional thinking. [13]

Poster for the "Dig for Victory" campaign, encouraging Britons to supplement their rations by cultivating gardens and allotments INF3-96 Food Production Dig for Victory Artist Peter Fraser.jpg
Poster for the "Dig for Victory" campaign, encouraging Britons to supplement their rations by cultivating gardens and allotments

In 1939, they tested whether the United Kingdom could survive with only domestic food production if U-boats ended all imports. Using 1938 food-production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers a limited diet, while simulating the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would likely have to perform. The scientists found that the subjects' health and performance remained very good after three months. They also headed the first ever mandated addition of vitamins and mineral to food, beginning with adding calcium to bread. Their work became the basis of the wartime austerity diet promoted by the Minister of Food Lord Woolton. [13]

Britons' actual wartime diet was never as severe as in the Cambridge study because imports from America successfully avoided the U-boats, [14] but rationing improved the health of British people; infant mortality declined and life expectancy rose, discounting deaths caused by hostilities. This was because it ensured that everyone had access to a varied diet with enough vitamins. [15] [16]

The first commodity to be controlled was gasoline. On 8 January 1940, bacon, butter and sugar were rationed. This was followed by successive ration schemes for meat, tea, jam, biscuits, breakfast cereals, cheese, eggs, lard, milk and canned and dried fruit. Fresh vegetables and fruit were not rationed but supplies were limited. Many people grew their own vegetables, greatly encouraged by the highly successful 'digging for victory' motivational campaign. [17] Most controversial was bread; it was not rationed until after the war ended, but the "national loaf" of wholemeal bread replaced the ordinary white variety, to the distaste of most housewives who found it mushy, grey and easy to blame for digestion problems. [18] Fish was not rationed but price increased considerably as the war progressed. [19]

Lining up at the Rationing Board office, New Orleans, 1943 RationingBoardNOLAVachonC.jpg
Lining up at the Rationing Board office, New Orleans, 1943

In summer 1941 the British appealed to Americans to conserve food to provide more to go to Britons fighting in the Second World War. The Office of Price Administration warned Americans of potential gasoline, steel, aluminum and electricity shortages. [20] It believed that with factories converting to military production and consuming many critical supplies, rationing would become necessary if the country entered the war. It established a rationing system after the attack on Pearl Harbor. [21] :133 In June 1942 the Combined Food Board was set up to coordinate the worldwide supply of food to the Allies, with special attention to flows from the U.S. and Canada to Britain.

"An eager school boy gets his first experience in using War Ration Book Two. With many parents engaged in war work, children are being taught the facts of point rationing for helping out in family marketing.", 02/1943 "An eager school boy gets his first experience in using War Ration Book Two. With many parents engaged in war work, chil - NARA - 535567.tif
"An eager school boy gets his first experience in using War Ration Book Two. With many parents engaged in war work, children are being taught the facts of point rationing for helping out in family marketing.", 02/1943

American civilians first received ration booksWar Ration Book Number One, or the "Sugar Book"on 4 May 1942, [22] through more than 100,000 school teachers, PTA groups and other volunteers. [21] :137 Sugar was the first consumer commodity rationed. Bakeries, ice cream makers and other commercial users received rations of about 70% of normal usage. [22] Coffee was rationed nationally on 27 November 1942 to 1 pound (0.45 kg) every five weeks. [23] By the end of 1942, ration coupons were used for nine other items. [21] :138 Typewriters, gasoline, bicycles, footwear, silk, nylon, fuel oil, stoves, meat, lard, shortening and oils, cheese, butter, margarine, processed foods (canned, bottled, and frozen), dried fruits, canned milk, firewood and coal, jams, jellies and fruit butter were rationed by November 1943. [24]

The work of issuing ration books and exchanging used stamps for certificates was handled by some 5,500 local ration boards of mostly volunteer workers selected by local officials. As a result of the gasoline rationing, all forms of automobile racing, including the Indianapolis 500, were banned. [25] All rationing in the United States ended in 1946. [26]

The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her sister, then grandmother, then brother, then uncle, then another uncle, then mother. The last three notes say "Savichevs died", "Everyone died" and "Only Tanya is left." She died of progressive dystrophy shortly after the siege. Tanya Savicheva Diary.jpg
The diary of Tanya Savicheva, a girl of 11, her notes about starvation and deaths of her sister, then grandmother, then brother, then uncle, then another uncle, then mother. The last three notes say "Savichevs died", "Everyone died" and "Only Tanya is left." She died of progressive dystrophy shortly after the siege.

In the Soviet Union food was rationed from 1941 to 1947. In particular, daily bread rations in sieged Leningrad were initially set at 800 grams. By the end of 1941 the bread rations were reduced to 250 grams for workers and 125 for everyone else, which resulted in surge of deaths caused by starvation. Starting from 1942 daily bread rations were increased to 350 grams for workers and 200 grams for everyone else. One of the documents of the period is the diary of Tanya Savicheva, who recorded the deaths of each member of her family during the siege.

Rationing was also introduced to a number of British dominions, and colonies, with rationing of clothing imposed in Australia, from 12 June 1942, and certain foodstuffs from 1943. Canada rationed tea, coffee, sugar, butter and mechanical spares, between 1942 and 1947. Cochin, Travancore and Madras states, of British India, elected to ration grain between the fall of 1943, and Spring 1944. While Egypt introduced a ration card based subsidy, of essential foodstuffs, in 1945, that's persisted into the 21st century.

Peacetime rationing

Polish milk ration stamp from 1981-1983. Kartka na mleko.jpg
Polish milk ration stamp from 1981–1983.

Civilian peacetime rationing of food has also occurred in history, especially after natural disasters, during contingencies, or after failed governmental economic policies regarding production or distribution, as well as due to extensive austerity programs implemented to cut or restrict public spending in countries where the rationed goods previously relied on government procurement or subsidies, as was the case in Israel and Romania.

In the United Kingdom, the rationing system remained in place for many years after the end of the War. In some respects it was more strict after the war than during it—two major foodstuffs that were never rationed during the war, bread and potatoes, went on ration after it (bread from 1946 to 1948, and potatoes for a time from 1947). Tea was still on ration until 1952. In 1953 rationing of sugar and eggs ended, and in 1954, all rationing finally ended when cheese and meats came off ration. [12] Sugar was again rationed in 1974 after Caribbean producers began selling to the more lucrative United States market. [27]

Some centralized planned economies introduced a peacetime rationing system due to food shortages in the postwar period. North Korea and China did so in the 1970s and 1980s, as did Romania during Ceausescu's rule in the 1980s, the Soviet Union in 1990–1991, and from 1962–present in Cuba. [28]

Tel Aviv residents standing in line to buy food rations, 1954 Israel Austerity.jpg
Tel Aviv residents standing in line to buy food rations, 1954

From 1949 to 1959, Israel was under a regime of austerity, during which a state of rationing was enforced. At first, only staple foods such as oil, sugar, and margarine were rationed, but it was later expanded, and eventually included furniture and footwear. Every month, each citizen would get food coupons worth 6 Israeli pounds, and every family would be allotted a given amount of food. The average Israeli diet was 2,800 calories a day, with additional calories for children, the elderly, and pregnant women.

Following the 1952 reparations agreement with West Germany, and the subsequent influx of foreign capital, Israel's struggling economy was bolstered, and in 1953, most restrictions were cancelled. In 1958, the list of rationed goods was narrowed to just eleven, and in 1959, it was narrowed to only jam, sugar, and coffee.

A man at a service station reads about the U.S. gasoline rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gasoline is available. 1974 No gas 1974.gif
A man at a service station reads about the U.S. gasoline rationing system in an afternoon newspaper; a sign in the background states that no gasoline is available. 1974

Petroleum products were rationed in many countries following the 1973 oil crisis. The United States introduced odd–even rationing for fuels during the crisis, which allowed only vehicles with even-numbered numberplates to fill up on gas one day and odd-numbered ones on another. [29]

Poland enacted rationing in 1981 to cope with economic crisis. The rationing system initially encompassed most of the population's daily necessities, but was gradually phased out over time, with the last ration being abolished in 1989. [30]

Cuba enacted rationing for basic goods in 1991 following the collapse of the Soviet Union, which had previously subsidised the island nation's economy. Rationing started being phased out in the year 2000 at the end of the "special period", as Cuba had shifted to a more diversified and self-sustaining economy. Rationing, however, was not fully abolished and instead turned into an alternative way to purchase goods, in addition to the markets. This makes a curious departure from classical rationing, as during the 2001-2019 period, the rationing system was used in addition to, instead of as a replacement for regular markets. Cubans would be able to buy a certain amount of items at 'liberated' prices using ration coupons at a significantly reduced rate, while still being able to purchase more at regular market prices. This 'liberated' system persisted even during Cuba's period of economic growth and relative prosperity during the early and mid 2010s and enjoyed considerable popularity among the island's citizens. Cuba later re-introduced a classical limiting rationing system in 2019, following the imposition of strict sanctions on the island by US President Donald Trump, as well as the collapse of oil shipments from Venezuela, which was facing its own economic troubles at that time. Cuba's president pitched the new system as significantly more lenient than the 1991-2000 "special period", though admitted that it would negatively affect consumption. [31] [32] [33] [34]

United States gasoline ration stamps printed, but not used, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis. U.S. gas rationing stamps 1974.jpg
United States gasoline ration stamps printed, but not used, as a result of the 1973 oil crisis.

Short-term rationing for gas and other fuels was introduced in the U.S. states of New Jersey and New York following Hurricane Sandy in 2012. [35]

In April of 2019, Venezuela announced a 30-day electricity rationing regime in the face of power shortages. [36] [37]

In from 2015 to 2019, the US state of California gradually introduced permanent rationing on the use of water by limiting the daily household water expenditure. [38] [39] [40]

Refugee aid rations

Aid agencies, such as the World Food Programme, provide fortnightly food rations and other essentials to refugees or internally displaced persons who are registered with the UNHCR and are either living in refugee camps or are supported in urban centres. Every registered refugee is given a ration card upon registration which is used for collecting the rations from food distribution centres. The amount of 2,100 kcal allocated per person per day is based on minimal standards and frequently not achieved, such as in Kenya. [41] [42]

According to article 20 of the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees refugees shall be treated at least like nationals in relation to rationing, if there is a general rationing system in place, used for the population at large.

Other types

Health care rationing

As the British Royal Commission on the National Health Service observed in 1979, "whatever the expenditure on health care, demand is likely to rise to meet and exceed it." Rationing health care to control costs is regarded as an explosive issue in the US, but in reality health care is rationed everywhere. In places where the government provides healthcare rationing is explicit. In other places people are denied treatment because of personal lack of funds, or because of decisions made by insurance companies. The American Supreme Court approved paying doctors to ration care, saying that there must be "some incentive connecting physician reward with treatment rationing". [43] Shortages of organs for donation forces the rationing of organs for transplant even where funding is available.

See also Healthcare rationing in the United States

Credit rationing

The concept in economics and banking of credit rationing describes the situation when a bank limits the supply of loans, although it has enough funds to loan out, and the supply of loans has not yet equalled the demand of prospective borrowers. Changing the price of the loans (interest rate) does not equilibrate the demand and supply of the loans.

Carbon rationing

Personal carbon trading refers to proposed emissions trading schemes under which emissions credits are allocated to adult individuals on a (broadly) equal per capita basis, within national carbon budgets. Individuals then surrender these credits when buying fuel or electricity. Individuals wanting or needing to emit at a level above that permitted by their initial allocation would be able to engage in emissions trading and purchase additional credits. Conversely, those individuals who emit at a level below that permitted by their initial allocation have the opportunity to sell their surplus credits. Thus, individual trading under Personal Carbon Trading is similar to the trading of companies under EU ETS.

Personal carbon trading is sometimes confused with carbon offsetting due to the similar notion of paying for emissions allowances, but is a quite different concept designed to be mandatory and to guarantee that nations achieve their domestic carbon emissions targets (rather than attempting to do so via international trading or offsetting).

See also

Related Research Articles

Meal, Ready-to-Eat meal supplied by the US military

The Meal, Ready-to-Eat – commonly known as the MRE – is a self-contained, individual field ration in lightweight packaging bought by the United States Department of Defense for its service members for use in combat or other field conditions where organized food facilities are not available. While MREs should be kept cool, they do not need to be refrigerated. MREs replaced the canned MCI, or Meal, Combat, Individual rations, in 1981, and is the intended successor to the lighter LRP ration developed by the United States Army for Special Forces and Ranger patrol units in Vietnam. MREs have also been distributed to civilians during natural disasters.

C-ration meal supplied by the US military

The C-Ration, or Type C ration, was a prepared and canned wet combat ration intended to be issued to U.S. military land forces when fresh food (A-ration) or packaged unprepared food (B-ration) prepared in mess halls or field kitchens was not possible or not available, and when a survival ration was insufficient. Development began in 1938 with the first rations being field tested in 1940 and wide-scale adoption following soon after. Operational conditions often caused the C-ration to be standardized for field issue regardless of environmental suitability or weight limitations.

Hardtack type of cracker or biscuit

Hardtack is a simple type of biscuit or cracker, made from flour, water, and sometimes salt. Hardtack is inexpensive and long-lasting. It is used for sustenance in the absence of perishable foods, commonly during long sea voyages, land migrations, and military campaigns.

Austerity in Israel Historical period

Austerity in Israel refers to the policy of austerity imposed in the State of Israel from 1949 to 1959 that included rationing and other emergency measures to weather the economic crisis in the early days of statehood.

Victory garden

Victory gardens, also called war gardens or food gardens for defense, were vegetable, fruit, and herb gardens planted at private residences and public parks in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and Germany during World War I and World War II. In the war time governments encouraged people to plant victory gardens not only to supplement their rations but also to boost morale. George Washington Carver wrote an agricultural tract and promoted the idea of what he called a "Victory Garden". They were used along with Rationing Stamps and Cards to reduce pressure on the public food supply. Besides indirectly aiding the war effort, these gardens were also considered a civil "morale booster" in that gardeners could feel empowered by their contribution of labor and rewarded by the produce grown. This made victory gardens a part of daily life on the home front.

United States military ration meal supplied by the US military

The United States military ration refers to various preparations and packages of food provided to feed members of the armed forces. U.S. military rations are often made for quick distribution, preparation, and eating in the field and tend to have long storage times in adverse conditions due to being thickly packaged and/or shelf-stable. The current ration is the Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE).

Frederick Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton English businessman and statesman

Frederick James Marquis, 1st Earl of Woolton, was an English businessman and statesman.

Price controls Governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services

Price controls are restrictions set in place and enforced by governments, on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market. The intent behind implementing such controls can stem from the desire to maintain affordability of goods even during shortages, and to slow inflation, or, alternatively, to ensure a minimum income for providers of certain goods or to try to achieve a living wage. There are two primary forms of price control, a price ceiling, the maximum price that can be charged, and a price floor, the minimum price that can be charged. A well-known example of a price ceiling is rent control, which limits the increases in rent. A widely used price floor is minimum wage. Historically, price controls have often been imposed as part of a larger incomes policy package also employing wage controls and other regulatory elements.

Minister of Food

The Minister of Food Control (1916–1921) and the Minister of Food (1939–1958) were British government ministerial posts separated from that of the Minister of Agriculture. In the Great War the Ministry sponsored a network of canteens known as National Kitchens. In the Second World War a major task of the Ministry was to oversee rationing in the United Kingdom arising out of World War II. The Minister was assisted by a Parliamentary Secretary. The Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Food and Animal Welfare (2018–present) was appointed at the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs to ensure the continued supply of sufficient food during the Brexit process.

Rationing in the United Kingdom Government-controlled distribution of scarce goods in the United Kingdom

Rationing was introduced temporarily by the British government several times during the 20th century, during and immediately after a war.

Home front during World War II

The 'home front' covers the activities of the civilians in a nation at war. World War II was a total war; homeland production became even more invaluable to both the Allied and Axis powers. Life on the home front during World War II was a significant part of the war effort for all participants and had a major impact on the outcome of the war. Governments became involved with new issues such as rationing, manpower allocation, home defense, evacuation in the face of air raids, and response to occupation by an enemy power. The morale and psychology of the people responded to leadership and propaganda. Typically women were mobilized to an unprecedented degree.

A garrison ration is the quantity and type of food served to a soldier when they are stationed somewhere. It is generally not the same as the rations fed to troops in combat or transit, which are usually termed combat rations, field rations, marching rations or some other task-specific term. This term is mostly used with respect to historic militaries. Modern thinking about nutrition and military logistical support is generally very different today, although people may still speak of "garrison rations" in relatively underdeveloped countries.

Rationing in the Soviet Union was introduced several times, during periods of economical hardships.

Ration stamp Type of certification in food rationing

A ration stamp or ration card is a stamp or card issued by a government to allow the holder to obtain food or other commodities that are in short supply during wartime or in other emergency situations when rationing is in force. Ration stamps were widely used during World War II by both sides after hostilities caused interruption to the normal supply of goods. They were also used after the end of the war while the economies of the belligerents gradually returned to normal. Ration stamps were also used to help maintain the amount of food one could hold at a time. This was so that one person would not have more food than another.

Rationing in Cuba

Rationing in Cuba refers to the system of food distribution known in Cuba as the Libreta de Abastecimiento. The system establishes the rations each person is allowed to buy through that system, and the frequency of supplies.

Foods of the American Civil War

Foods of the American Civil War were the provisions during the American Civil War with which both the Union and Confederate armies struggled to keep their soldiers provisioned adequately.

The Indian food security system was established by the Government of India under the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution to distribute food and non-food items to India's poor at subsidised rates. This scheme was first started in February 1944, during the Second World War, and was launched in the current form in June 1947. Major commodities distributed include staple food grains, such as wheat, rice, sugar and essential fuels like kerosene, through a network of fair price shops established in several states across the country. Food Corporation of India, a Government-owned corporation, procures and maintains the public distribution system (PDS).

Military nutrition has evolved over time. In the past, armies lived off the land, by pillaging food from the people whose land the army occupied, or requisitioning it. Often more soldiers died of disease that was exacerbated by malnutrition than from combat.

The National Loaf was a bread made from wholemeal flour with added calcium and vitamins, introduced in Britain during the Second World War by the Federation of Bakers (FOB). Introduced in 1942, the loaf was made from wholemeal flour to combat wartime shortages of white flour. The loaf was abolished in October 1956.

Rationing in the United States Government-controlled distribution of scarce goods in the United States

Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, or services, or an artificial restriction of demand. Rationing controls the size of the ration, which is one person's allotted portion of the resources being distributed on a particular day or at a particular time.

References

Notes

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  4. Williams, Zoe (24 December 2013). "Could rationing hold the key to today's food crises? | Zoe Williams". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  5. "Food and Water in an Emergency" (PDF). FEMA.
  6. Inglis, Julia Selina (1892). The siege of Lucknow : a diary (1892). London: James R. Osgood, McIlvaine & Co.
  7. Nevinson, Henry Wood (1900). Ladysmith: The Diary of a Siege (1900). New Amsterdam Book co.
  8. Heyman, Neil M. (1997). World War I . Greenwood Publishing Group. p.  85.
  9. Hurwitz, Samuel J. (1949). State Intervention in Great Britain: Study of Economic Control and Social Response, 1914-1919. pp. 12–29.
  10. 1 2 Beckett, Ian F.W. (2007). The Great War (2 ed.). Longman. pp. 380–382. ISBN   1-4058-1252-4.
  11. Beckett attributes this quotation (page 382) to Margaret Barnett, but does not give further details.
  12. 1 2 Nicol, Patricia (2010). Sucking Eggs. Vintage Books. ISBN   9780099521129.
  13. 1 2 Elliott, Jane (25 March 2007). "Elsie - mother of the modern loaf". BBC News.
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  18. Calder, Angus (1969). The People's War: Britain 1939–45 . pp.  276–277.
  19. Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries (1946). Fisheries in war time: report on the sea fisheries of England and Wales by the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries for the Years 1939–1944 inclusive. H.M. Stationery Office.
  20. ""Creamless Days?" / The Pinch". Life. 9 June 1941. p. 38. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  21. 1 2 3 Kennett, Lee (1985). For the duration... : the United States goes to war, Pearl Harbor-1942 . New York: Scribner. ISBN   0-684-18239-4.
  22. 1 2 "Sugar: U. S. consumers register for first ration books". Life. 11 May 1942. p. 19. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  23. "Coffee Rationing". Life. 30 November 1942. p. 64. Retrieved 23 November 2011.
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  25. "Historic Pittsburgh: Chronology". University of Pittsburgh.
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  27. "Rationing starts as sugar shortage looms". The Guardian. 9 July 1974. p. 3.
  28. http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/fe482
  29. "SHORTAGES: Gas Fever: Happiness Is a Full Tank". Time. 18 February 1974. ISSN   0040-781X . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  30. Times, Special to The New York (31 July 1989). "Poland to End Rations And Food-Price Freeze". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  31. Garth, Hanna. "THINGS BECAME SCARCE: FOOD AVAILABILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY IN SANTIAGO de CUBA THEN AND NOW". NAPA Bulletin. 32 (1): 178–192. ISSN   1556-4789.
  32. Haven, Paul (7 November 2009). "Cuba cuts back on rationed products". Boston.com. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  33. Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche. "Cuba to widen food rationing as supply crisis bites | DW | 11.05.2019". DW.COM. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  34. Press, The Associated (11 May 2019). "Cuba Rations Staple Foods and Soap in Face of Economic Crisis". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  35. Hu, Winnie (18 November 2012). "New York City Decides to Extend Gas Rationing Through Friday". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  36. "Venezuela's Maduro announces electricity rationing amid power cuts". South China Morning Post. 1 April 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  37. IANS (1 April 2019). "Electricity rationing plan announced in Venezuela". Business Standard India. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  38. "Californians Face Residential Water Rationing Next Year Following Record 2019 Snowpack". California Globe. 8 May 2019. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  39. "With Permanent Water Rationing On The Way, Californians Pray For Rain". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  40. Nagourney, Adam (1 April 2015). "California Imposes First Mandatory Water Restrictions to Deal With Drought". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved 22 September 2019.
  41. https://www.wfp.org/faqs#faq14
  42. https://www.wfp.org/news/news-release/wfp-forced-reduce-food-rations-refugees-kenya
  43. "The Nation: The 'R' Word; Justice Souter Takes on a Health Care Taboo". New York Times. 18 June 2000. Retrieved 19 May 2015.

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