Snow snake

Last updated
GanondaganWinterGames2019ShortSnowSnakes.jpg
Characteristics
ContactNo
TypeOutdoor, winter
Presence
Country or region Great Lakes region of North America

Snow snake is a Native American winter sport traditionally played by many tribes in the northern Midwest, including the Ojibwe, Sioux, Wyandotte, Oneida and other Haudenosaunee people. [1] [2]

Contents

Play

A game of snow snake is played by four teams, called "corners", who compete in trying to throw their wooden "snow snakes" the farthest along a long trough, or track, of snow. The game is divided into rounds, and in a round each team gets four throws. At the end of each round, two points are awarded to the team of the person who made the farthest throw in the round, and one point is awarded for the second farthest throw. Play continues until one of the teams wins, by achieving a certain predetermined number of points (usually 7 or 11). [3]

There are two roles on a snow snake team: the Player, and the Goaler. The main role of a Goaler is to craft and maintain a team's wooden "snow snakes" in between games. The Goaler is also tasked with selecting which will be used for each throw during the game. A Player, meanwhile, is a player who actually throws the snow snakes during a game. [3]

Equipment

The poles used in the game, collectively known as "snow snakes", have different names depending on their length. The smallest poles used are the six-inch-long "snow darts". [1] The next size up is the three-foot-long "short snake", [4] also known as a "mud cat". [3] Longer poles are known only as "snow snakes", and can be anywhere from six to ten feet in length. [1] Snow snakes can be made from a variety of materials. In the Sioux tribe, they were traditionally made of bone, with feathers trailing behind for symbolic decoration, [1] while other tribes traditionally used native North American hardwoods, such as maple, oak, apple, hickory, and juneberry. [3] In modern times, other hardwoods not traditionally available, such as ebony, have become popular materials for snow snakes. [3] Many players customize their snow snakes, by decorating them with colorful designs, or adding minor modifications, such as waxing the wooden surface. [1]

Full-size snow snakes at Ganondagan State Historic Site GanondaganWinterGames2019LongSnowSnakes.jpg
Full-size snow snakes at Ganondagan State Historic Site

The trough, or track, that snow snakes are thrown down is typically five inches deep, rising up in a slope at the end where the players stand. [3] In modern times, some groups will add obstacles like jumps or snow barriers to their tracks, for added interest. [1]

History

According to the Iroquois oral tradition, the game of snow snake dates back more than 500 years, to before the arrival of Europeans in North America. Originally a form of communication between villages, the throwing of "snow snakes" in a trough of snow developed into a competitive sport during long winters when the long track was not used for communication. [3] The name "snow snake" is said to have come from the serpentine wiggling motion of the poles as they slide down the icy track. [2]

Related Research Articles

Bandy Ballgame on ice played using skates and sticks

Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

Curling Team sport played on ice

Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice toward a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls, boules and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones, also called rocks, across the ice curling sheet toward the house, a circular target marked on the ice. Each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game; points are scored for the stones resting closest to the centre of the house at the conclusion of each end, which is completed when both teams have thrown all of their stones. A game usually consists of eight or ten ends.

Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, ice hockey and rink hockey.

Ice hockey team sport played on ice using sticks, skates, and a puck

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in an indoor or outdoor rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score goals. The sport is known to be fast-paced and physical, with teams usually fielding six players at a time: one goaltender to stop the puck from going into their own net, two defensemen, and three forwards who skate the span of the ice trying to control the puck and score goals against the opposing team.

Snowshoe Footwear for walking easily across snow

A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiking.

Skittles (sport)

Skittles is a historical lawn game and target sport of European origin, from which the modern sport of bowling is descended. In regions of the United Kingdom and Ireland the game remains as a popular indoor pub game. A continental version is popular in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Other varieties of bowling are more popular in Australia, but the similar game of kegel, based on German nine-pin bowling, is popular in some areas. In Catalonia, bitlles, a local version of this game, was formerly popular..

Goalball

Goalball is a team sport designed specifically for athletes with a vision impairment. Participants compete in teams of three, and try to throw a ball that has bells embedded in it into the opponents' goal. The ball is thrown by hand and never kicked. Using ear-hand coordination, originating as a rehabilitation exercise, the sport has no able-bodied equivalent. Able-bodied athletes are also blindfolded when playing this sport.

History of lacrosse

Lacrosse has its origins in a tribal game played by eastern Woodlands Native Americans and by some Plains Indians tribes in what is now the United States of America and Canada. The game was extensively modified by European colonizers to North America to create its current collegiate and professional form. There were hundreds of native men playing a ball game with sticks. The game began with the ball being tossed into the air and the two sides rushing to catch it. Because of the large number of players involved, these games generally tended to involve a huge mob of players swarming the ball and slowly moving across the field. Passing the ball was thought of as a trick, and it was seen as cowardly to dodge an opponent. Years later lacrosse is still a popular sport played all over the world.

Kho kho Childrens tag game played in teams

Kho Kho is a popular tag game invented in Maharashtra, Ancient India. It is played by teams of 12 nominated players out of fifteen, of which nine enter the field who sit on their knees, and 3 extra who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team. It is one of the two most popular traditional tag games in the Indian subcontinent, the other being Kabaddi. The sport is widely played across South Asia and has a strong presence in South Africa and England.

Table shuffleboard

Table shuffleboard is a game in which players push metal-and-plastic weighted pucks down a long and smooth wooden table into a scoring area at the opposite end of the table. Shooting is performed with the hand directly, as opposed to deck shuffleboard's use of cue sticks.

Fantasy basketball is a fantasy sport for basketball that was popularized during the 1990s after the advent of the Internet. Players take the role of general managers (GMs) of the fantasy teams they create from drafting actual National Basketball Association (NBA) players based primarily on their basketball statistics. The statistics can be computed by the GM, or more commonly by the gaming software. The online format of the game has been popularized by websites, such as ESPN Fantasy Sports, NBA.com, Yahoo! Fantasy Sports and Dunkest Fantasy Basketball.

Tejo (sport)

Tejo, also known, to a lesser degree, as turmequé, is a traditional throwing sport in Colombia. It is characteristic for its use of small targets containing gunpowder, which explode on impact.

Traditional Filipino Games or Indigenous games in the Philippines are games commonly played by children, usually using native materials or instruments. In the Philippines, due to limited resources of toys for Filipino children, they usually invent games without the need of anything but the players themselves. Their games' complexity arises from their flexibility to think and act.

<i>Nick Arcade</i>

Nick Arcade is an American children's game show created by James Bethea and Karim Miteff and hosted by Phil Moore, with Andrea Lively announcing, that aired on Nickelodeon in 1992, airing originally during weekend afternoons, with reruns airing until September 28, 1997. It was taped at Nickelodeon Studios at Universal Studios Florida in Orlando. In Nick Arcade, two teams of contestants played two initial trivia rounds, with the winner advancing to the "Video Zone" to play against the virtual "Video Game Wizard" of the day.

Israel Roller Hockey League

The Israel Roller Hockey League is the biggest Roller Hockey Clubs Championship in Israel.

Indigenous North American stickball

Indigenous North American stickball is considered to be one of the oldest team sports in North America. Stickball and lacrosse are similar to one another, the game of lacrosse is a tradition belonging to tribes of the Northern United States and Canada; stickball, on the other hand, continues in Oklahoma and parts of the Southeastern U.S. where the game originated. Although the first recorded writing on the topic of stickball was not until the mid-17th century, there is evidence that the game had been developed and played hundreds of years before that.

The Challenge: Champs vs. Stars was the first season of a recurring special mini-series of MTV's long-running reality game show, The Challenge premiered November 21, 2017 and follows on from 2016's The Challenge: Champs vs. Pros. In the eight-week event, eleven alum from Real World, The Challenge, and Are You the One? who have made it to the finals on a regular season of The Challenge compete against celebrities.

1996–97 North Dakota Fighting Sioux mens ice hockey season

The 1996–97 North Dakota Fighting Sioux men's ice hockey team represented the University of North Dakota in college ice hockey during the 1996–97 NCAA Division I men's ice hockey season. In its 3rd year under head coach Dean Blais the team compiled a 31–10–2 record and reached the NCAA tournament for the thirteenth time. The Fighting Sioux defeated Boston University 6–4 to win the championship game at the Bradley Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Native American recreational activities

Early Native American recreational activities consisted of diverse sporting events, card games, and other innovative forms of entertainment that tribes invented using natural resources and materials. Most of these games and sporting events were recorded by observations from the early 1700s. Common athletic contests held by early American tribes included games of stickball, chunkey, archery, darts, foot races, and canoeing. Card and dice games were commonly used as forms of entertainment among tribes such as the Iroquois and Lakota. Several contests and games invented by American indigenous groups contributed to modern-day sports and casino play. Several indigenous games were tribe-specific; one of the most common games played specifically by the Iroquoian was the Bowl Game, played using colored balls and sticks.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Jeff Horwich (28 January 2003). "Snow snakes: Native game lives on in Minnesota's frozen winter". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  2. 1 2 ICTMN Staff (3 January 2012). "Learning to Play Snow Snake Is a 'Sacred Rite of Passage'". Indian Country Today Media Network. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Llewellyn, Carol White (2009). "Snow Snake, a Sport Steeped in Tradition". Ganondagan. Friends of Ganondagan. Retrieved 17 April 2013.
  4. "SPORTS - Snowsnake". Onondanga Nation: People of the Hills. Onondanga Nation. 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2013.