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Law enforcement in Turkey is carried out by several departments and agencies, all acting under the command of the Prime Minister of Turkey or mostly the Minister of Internal Affairs.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Turkey was the head of government of the Republic of Turkey from 1920 to 2018. The prime minister was the leader of a political coalition in the Turkish parliament (Meclis) and the leader of the cabinet. The last holder of the position is Binali Yıldırım of the Justice and Development Party (AKP), who took office on 24 May 2016.
The Ministry of the Interior is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for interior security affairs in Turkey.
According to figures released by the General Directorate of Prisons and Detention Houses of the Justice Ministry, there are 100,000 people in Turkish prisons as of November 2008; a doubling since 2000.
The Ministry of Justice is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for justice affairs.
The police force is responsible for law enforcement in cities and some exceptional locations, such as airports, which they protect with the help of the customs office (Turkish : Gümrük Muhafaza). Traffic Police ensure the safety of transportation and also work with registration of vehicles. The Turkish Police also play a big part in important intelligence and counter-terrorist operations.
The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect the lives, liberty and possessions of citizens, and to prevent crime and civil disorder. Their powers include the power of arrest and the legitimized use of force. The term is most commonly associated with the police forces of a sovereign state that are authorized to exercise the police power of that state within a defined legal or territorial area of responsibility. Police forces are often defined as being separate from the military and other organizations involved in the defense of the state against foreign aggressors; however, gendarmerie are military units charged with civil policing. Police forces are usually public sector services, funded through taxes.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.
The high command of the Turkish Police, situated in Ankara, is called the General Directorate of Security (Turkish : Emniyet Genel Müdürlüğü). Every district also hosts a District Directorate (Turkish : İl Emiyet Müdürlüğü). The organization has a centralized hierarchy similar to that of the Turkish Armed Forces.
Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the capital of Turkey. With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul, having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.
The Turkish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.
In Turkey, police officers wear navy-blue uniforms and caps. Patrol cars can be identified using the unique blue-white design and the writing "Polis", usually in capital letters, on the side doors and hood. Lieutenants and captains wear silver stars on their shoulders, while highest-ranking officers wear golden stars.
Police officers are required to present their ID before approaching citizens.
Some well-known police units in Turkey are:
The Çevik Kuvvet is the riot squad of the General Directorate of Security. It was established in 1982, replacing the Toplum Polisi.
A police dog, known in some English-speaking countries as a "K-9" or "K9", is a dog that is specifically trained to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel. Their duties include: searching for drugs and explosives, locating missing people, finding crime scene evidence, and attacking people targeted by the police. Police dogs must remember several verbal cues and hand gestures. The most commonly used breeds are the German Shepherd, Belgian Malinois, Bloodhound, Dutch Shepherd, and Retriever breeds. Recently, the Belgian Malinois has become the dog of choice for police and military work due to their intense drive and focus. Malinois are smaller and more agile than German Shepherds, and have fewer health issues. However, a well-bred working line German shepherd is just as reliable and robust as a Malinois.
A police tactical unit (PTU) is a specialized police unit formed and trained to handle situations that are beyond the capabilities of ordinary law enforcement forces because of the level of violence - or risk of violence - involved. Their missions include serving of search warrants for dangerous persons, arresting or neutralizing dangerous or deranged armed persons and intervening in high risk situations such as shootouts, hostage taking and terrorist incidents.
The Gendarmerie (Turkish : Jandarma), are military forces of law enforcement. They are trained and supplied by the army but they assume duties under the Minister of Interior. Their organization and duties are quite similar to those of the French Gendarmerie, or Italian Carabinieri.
The Gendarmerie Command (Turkish : Jandarma Genel Komutanlığı) is based in Ankara.
Their area of jurisdiction is outside city centres, mostly in the country where population and pop. density are low and crime rates are especially high (this is even more true for the Southeastern Anatolia Region, where terrorist acts are committed every day in and out of towns). Most tourist sites are also areas of Jandarma’s jurisdiction because their average population throughout the year are not high enough to fall under the police departments.
The Turkish Gendarmerie engages in counter-terrorist operations in the southeast of Turkey.
The Gendarmerie also have an independent organization for Traffic Control (Turkish : Jandarma Trafik) similar to that of the police, but they take shifts outside the cities; similar to the American highway police.
In Turkey, Gendarmes can generally be spotted wearing dark green trousers and light green shirts, with special red-and-blue markings on their collars. But any army officer with the same markings no matter which uniform they are in is a Gendarme.
The Askeri İnzibat military police is a small force that is under military command that handles cases directly relevant to military security and military crimes. Their area of jurisdiction is generally limited to military bases. But they also track down military criminals (draft dodgers and deserters). Some of the other duties they perform are, protection and VIP detail provided to important bases or commanders, control of traffic inside the bases and providing security in military courts. They can be identified using the very obvious “AS. İZ.”, printed in large letters across the front of their helmets.
The Turkish Intelligence and counter-intelligence operations are conducted by more than one organization also acting with coordination.
Firstly, the Police and the Gendarmarie each have a department that perform duties relevant to the collection and analysis of intelligence and countering criminal acts. Police Intelligence Department is the Police force's intelligence wing, second one is Intelligence Department of Gendarmerie General Command.
Also, each of the Armed Forces have an intelligence branch within themselves. These are the Naval Intelligence, Army Intelligence and Air Force Intelligence. To supersede all three, the General Staff also has an intelligence branch which ensures the cooperation and coordination of these organizations.
As the external intelligence agency, The National Intelligence Organization (Turkish : Milli İstihbarat Teşkilatı, or MİT) conducts some part of the intelligence operations. Most of interior intelligence is provided by Police Intelligence Units. The undersecretary of the MIT (Turkish : MİT Müsteşarı) reports directly to the Prime Minister.Members of National İntelligence Organization have privilege of freedom from arrest however police and Gendarmarie has not.
And the Undersecretariat of Public Order and Security provides coordination between those agencies.
Village guards (Turkish : Köy Korucusu) are mostly locals in villages of the Eastern Anatolia Region. They perform auxiliary and voluntary law enforcement duty. Established by a 1985 law, their initial purpose was to defend villages against attacks from the PKK.
In light of growing crime and racial tensions in many Turkish-populated areas of Germany, the German government implemented a plan in 2010 for the Turkish law enforcement to patrol these troubled areas as well as participate in maintaining law and order. The plan was met with criticism, but was implemented in the belief that local law enforcement has difficulty dealing with members of the Turkish community.
A coast guard or coastguard, is a maritime security organization of a particular country. The term implies widely different responsibilities in different countries, from being a heavily armed military force with customs and security duties to being a volunteer organization tasked with search and rescue functions and lacking any law enforcement powers. However, a typical coast guard's functions are distinct from typical functions of both the navy and a transportation police.
Military police (MP) are law enforcement agencies connected with, or part of, the military of a state.
Security forces in Israel include a variety of organizations, including law enforcement, military, paramilitary, governmental, and intelligence agencies.
Jandarma İstihbarat ve Terörle Mücadele or Jandarma İstihbarat Teşkilatı is the controversial wing and intelligence agency of the Turkish Gendarmerie. JİTEM was active in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict. After the Susurluk scandal, former prime ministers Bülent Ecevit and Mesut Yılmaz have confirmed the existence of JİTEM.
Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies. Like many federal nations, the nature of the Constitution of India mandates law and order as a responsibility of the state. Therefore, the bulk of the policing lies with the respective states and territories of India.
The Gendarmerie General Command is a service branch of the Turkish Armed Forces responsible for the maintenance of the public order in areas that fall outside the jurisdiction of police forces, as well as assuring internal security and general border control along with carrying out other specific duties assigned to it by certain laws and regulations. The Gendarmerie is essentially a governmental armed security and law enforcement force of military nature.
The Jandarmeria Română is a military police force of Romania tasked with high-risk and specialized law enforcement duties. It is one of the two main police forces in Romania, both having jurisdiction over the civilian population.
The Romanian Police is the national police force and main civil law enforcement agency in Romania. It is subordinated to the Ministry of Administration and Interior and it is led by a General Inspector with the rank of Secretary of State.
The National Gendarmerie is one of two national police forces of France, along with the National Police. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior—with additional duties to the Ministry of Defense. Its area of responsibility includes smaller towns, rural and suburban areas, while the Police Nationale—a civilian force—is in charge of cities and downtowns. Due to its military status, the Gendarmerie also fulfills a range of military and defense missions. The Gendarmes also have a cybercrime division. It has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel as of 2014.
The International Association of Gendarmeries and Police Forces with Military Status, is an association of national gendarmeries or affiliate corps.
Provosts are military police whose duties are policing solely within the Armed Forces, as opposed to gendarmerie duties in the civilian population. However, many countries use their gendarmerie for provost duties.
The Federal Police, formerly known as the Policía Federal Preventiva, is the Mexican national police force. It is under the authority of the Department of Security and Civil Protection. They are sometimes referred to by the slang term "Federales" or “Mexican feds” by some U.S. agents and media. Typically, agents of the Federal Police are heavily armed and wear dark blue, black, or gray combat fatigues.
In many countries, particularly those with a federal system of government, there may be several law enforcement agencies, police or police-like organizations, each serving different levels of government and enforcing different subsets of the applicable law.
The Gendarmery is an armed police force of Serbian Police. It was formed on 28 June 2001, after the disbandment of the Special Police Units (PJP). Gendarmery in Serbia existed in previous form from 1860 to 1920. As a special unit inside Serbian police, its role can be compared to those of Russian OMON and former Ukrainian Berkut units.
The General Directorate of Security are the civilian police force responsible for law enforcement in Turkey.
The Askeri İnzibat or AS.İZ, is the Military Police of the Turkish Armed Forces and constitute a very small dedicated force which handles military security and military crimes. Their area of jurisdiction is generally limited to military bases. Their competence to identify and arrest military criminals in civilian areas has been transferred to Gendarmerie and police units. Some of the other duties they perform are, protection and VIP detail provided to important bases or commanders, control of traffic inside the bases and providing security in military courts. They can be identified using the very obvious “AS. İZ.”, printed in large letters across the front of their helmets.
The Ottoman Gendarmerie, also known as zaptı, was a security and public order organization in the 19th-century Ottoman Empire. The first official gendarmerie organization was founded in 1869.
The National Guard Forces Command of the Russian Federation is the gendarmerie component of the National Guard of Russia, created through a presidential decree on April 5, 2016. It is a gendarmerie organized on paramilitary lines with its mission to ensure public order, national security and defense against terrorism.