Irish House of Commons

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Irish House of Commons
Arms of Ireland (historical).svg
Type
Type
History
Established1297
Disbanded31 December 1800
Succeeded by House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Leadership
John Foster (1785–1801)
Seats300 [lower-alpha 1]
Elections
First past the post with limited suffrage
Meeting place
The Irish House of Commons in 1780 by Francis Wheatley.jpg
The House of Commons in session (by Francis Wheatley, 1780)
Footnotes
  1. In 1800.

The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800. The upper house was the House of Lords. The membership of the House of Commons was directly elected, but on a highly restrictive franchise, similar to the unreformed House of Commons in contemporary England and Great Britain. Catholics were disqualified from sitting in the Irish parliament from 1691, even though they comprised the vast majority of the Irish population.

Contents

The Irish executive, known as the Dublin Castle administration, under the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was not answerable to the House of Commons but to the British government. However, the Chief Secretary for Ireland was usually a member of the Irish parliament. In the Commons, business was presided over by the Speaker.

From 1 January 1801, it ceased to exist and was succeeded by the House of Commons of the United Kingdom.

Franchise

The limited franchise was exclusively male. From 1728 until 1793, Catholics were disfranchised, as well as being ineligible to sit in the Commons. Most of the population of all religions had no vote. In counties, forty-shilling freeholders were enfranchised while in most boroughs it was either only the members of self-electing corporations or a highly-restricted body of freemen that were eligible to vote for the borough's representatives. The vast majority of parliamentary boroughs were pocket boroughs, the private property of an aristocratic patron.

Abolition

The House of Commons was abolished under the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the Kingdom of Ireland into the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland with effect from 1 January 1801. The Irish House of Commons sat for the last time in Parliament House, Dublin on 2 August 1800. One hundred of its members were designated or co-opted to sit with the House of Commons of Great Britain, forming the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The patron of pocket boroughs that were disfranchised under the Act of Union was awarded £15,000 compensation for each. [1]

Speaker of the Commons

Drawing of the front of the Irish Parliament House with the dome, seen from the street-level, in the 18th century GILBERT(1896) p109 PROSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE, DUBLIN.jpg
Drawing of the front of the Irish Parliament House with the dome, seen from the street-level, in the 18th century

The Speaker of the Irish House of Commons was the presiding officer of the House and its most senior official. The position was one of considerable power and prestige, and in the absence of a government chosen from and answerable to the Commons, he was the dominant political figure in the Parliament. The last Speaker was John Foster.

Constituencies

Engraving of section of the Irish House of Commons chamber by Peter Mazell based on the drawing by Rowland Omer 1767 Irish Commons.jpg
Engraving of section of the Irish House of Commons chamber by Peter Mazell based on the drawing by Rowland Omer 1767

The number of boroughs invited to return members had originally been small (only 55 Boroughs existed in 1603) but was doubled by the Stuart monarchs. By the time of the Union, there were 150 constituencies, each electing two members: [2]

Following the Act of Union, from 1801, there were 100 MPs from Ireland in the House of Commons of the United Kingdom. The constituencies were adapted from those in the Irish House of Commons as follows:

ConstituencyTypeCountyCreation [lower-alpha 1] FranchiseFate after the union
Antrim Borough Borough Antrim 1666 Potwalloper
Antrim County County Antrim 1570 [3] Freeholders
Ardee Borough Louth 1378Corporation
Ardfert Borough Kerry 1639?Corporation
Ards County Down By 1560 [4]
Armagh Borough Borough Armagh 1613 (26 March) [5] Ecclesiastical corporation - Bishop's borough
Armagh County County Armagh 1585 (September) [6] Freeholders
Askeaton Borough Limerick 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Athboy Borough Meath By 1560 [4] [lower-alpha 3] Manor
Athenry Borough Galway 1310? [lower-alpha 4] Corporation
Athlone Borough Westmeath 1606 (10 December) [5] Corporation
Athy Borough Kildare By 1560 [4] Corporation
Augher Borough Tyrone 1613 (15 April) [5] Corporation
Ballynakill Borough Queen's County 1612 (10 December) [5] Corporation
Ballyshannon Borough Donegal 1613 (23 March) [5] Corporation
Baltimore Borough Cork 1613 (25 March) [5] Potwalloper
Baltinglass Borough Wicklow 1664Corporation
Banagher Borough King's County 1629Corporation
Bandonbridge Borough Cork 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Bangor Borough Down 1613 (18 March) [5] Corporation
Bannow Borough Wexford Between 1614 and 1634 [lower-alpha 5] Corporation
Belfast Borough Antrim 1613 (27 April) [5] Corporation
Belturbet Borough Cavan 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Blessington Borough Wicklow 1670Corporation
Boyle Borough Roscommon 1613 (25 March) [5] Corporation
Callan Borough Kilkenny By 1585 [lower-alpha 6] Corporation
Carlingford Borough Louth 13?? [lower-alpha 7] Corporation
Carlow Borough Borough Carlow 1613 (19 April) [5] Corporation
Carlow County County Carlow 1297 [12] [lower-alpha 8] Freeholders
Carrick Borough Leitrim 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Carrickfergus County borough Antrim [lower-alpha 9] 1326Freeholder and householder
Carysfort Borough Wicklow 1629Corporation
Cashel Borough Tipperary By 1585 [4] [lower-alpha 10] Corporation
Castlebar Borough Mayo 1613 (26 March) [5] Corporation
Castlemartyr Borough Cork 1676Corporation
Cavan Borough Borough Cavan 1610 (15 November) [5] Corporation
Cavan County County Cavan 1579 [14] or 1584 [15] Freeholders
Charlemont Borough Armagh 1613 (29 April) [5] Corporation
Charleville Borough Cork 1673Corporation
Clare County Clare By 1560Freeholders
Clogher Borough Tyrone By 1613 [lower-alpha 11] Ecclesiastical corporation - Bishop's borough
Clonakilty Borough Cork 1613 (5 March) [5] Corporation
Clonmel Borough Tipperary By 1560 [4] Corporation
Clonmines Borough Wexford Between 1614 and 1634 [lower-alpha 12] Corporation
Coleraine Borough Londonderry 1613 (25 March) [5] Corporation
Coleraine County County Londonderry 1585 (September) [6] FreeholdersPreviously disfranchised
Connacht County Multiple [lower-alpha 13] 1297 [12]
Cork City County borough Cork [lower-alpha 9] 1299Freeholder and Freemen
Cork County County Cork 1297 [12] Freeholders
Dingle Borough Kerry By 1585 [4] [lower-alpha 14] Corporation
Donegal Borough Borough Donegal 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Donegal County County Donegal 1585 (September) [6] Freeholders
Doneraile Borough Cork 1640Manor
Down County Down 1570 [3] Freeholders
Downpatrick Borough Down By 1585 [4] [lower-alpha 15] Potwalloper
Drogheda County borough Louth [lower-alpha 9] 1299Freeholders and freemen
Dublin City County borough Dublin [lower-alpha 9] 1299Freeholders and freemen
Dublin County County Dublin 1297 [12] Freeholders
Dublin University University Dublin [lower-alpha 16] 1613 [lower-alpha 17] Graduates
Duleek Borough Meath Between 1614 and 1661 [lower-alpha 18] Corporation
Dundalk Borough Louth By 1560 [4] Corporation
Dungannon Borough Tyrone 1612 (27 November) [5] Corporation
Dungarvan Borough Waterford By 1560 [4] Potwalloper
Dunleer Borough Louth 1679Corporation
Ennis Borough Clare 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Enniscorthy Borough Wexford 1613 (25 May) [5] Corporation
Enniskillen Borough Fermanagh 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Fermanagh County Fermanagh 1585 (September) [6] Freeholders
Ferns County Wexford By 1579 [19] Freeholders
Fethard Borough Tipperary 1613 (15 April) [5] Corporation
Fethard Borough Wexford 1613 (15 April) [5] Corporation
Fore Borough Westmeath Between 1614 and 1634 [lower-alpha 20] Corporation
Galway Borough County borough Galway [lower-alpha 9] By 1560 [4] Freemen
Galway County County Galway By 1579 [21] Freeholders
Gorey (also Newburgh) Borough Wexford 1620Corporation
Gowran Borough Kilkenny 1608 (15 September) [5] Corporation
Granard Borough Longford 1679Manor
Harristown Borough Kildare 1684Corporation
Hillsborough Borough Down 1662Corporation
Inistioge Borough Kilkenny By 1585 [4] Corporation
Jamestown Borough Leitrim 1622Corporation
Kells Borough Meath By 1560 [4] Corporation
Kerry County Kerry 1297 [12] Freeholders
Kilbeggan Borough Westmeath 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Kildare Borough Borough Kildare By 1560 [4] Corporation
Kildare County County Kildare 1297 [12] Freeholders
Kilkenny City County borough Kilkenny [lower-alpha 9] 1299?Freeholders and Freemen
Kilkenny County County Kilkenny 1297 [12] [lower-alpha 8] Freeholders
Killybegs Borough Donegal 1616Corporation
Killyleagh Borough Down 1613 (10 March) [5] Corporation
Kilmallock Borough Limerick By 1560 [4] Corporation
King's County County King's County 1556 [22] [23] Freeholders
Kinsale Borough Cork 1334? [lower-alpha 21] Corporation and Freemen
Knocktopher Borough Kilkenny 1665 Potwalloper
Lanesborough Borough Longford 1642Corporation
Leitrim County Leitrim 1583Freeholders
Lifford Borough Donegal 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Limerick City County borough Limerick [lower-alpha 9] 1299Freeholders and Freemen
Limerick County County Limerick 1297 [12] Freeholders
Lisburn Borough Antrim 1661 Potwalloper
Lismore Borough Waterford 1613 (6 May) [5] Manor
Londonderry City Borough Londonderry 1613 (29 March) [5] [lower-alpha 22] Corporation
Londonderry County County Londonderry 1613Freeholders
Longford Borough Borough Longford 1669Corporation
Longford County County Longford 1571 [25] [26] [27] Freeholders
Louth County Louth 1297 [12] Freeholders
Mallow Borough Cork 1613 (27 February) [5] Manor
Maryborough Borough Queen's County 1571Corporation
Mayo County Mayo By 1579 [21] Freeholders
Meath County Meath 1297 [12] [lower-alpha 8] Freeholders
Midleton Borough Cork 1671Corporation
Monaghan Borough Borough Monaghan 1613 (26 March) [5] Corporation
Monaghan County County Monaghan 1585 (September) [6] Freeholders
Mullingar Borough Westmeath By 1560 [4] Manor
Naas Borough Kildare By 1560 [4] Corporation
Navan Borough Meath 1469Corporation
New Ross Borough Wexford By 1560 [4] Corporation
Newcastle Borough Dublin 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Newry Borough Down 1613 (27 February) [5] Potwalloper
Newtown Limavady Borough Londonderry 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Newtownards Borough Down 1613 (25 March) [5] Corporation
Old Leighlin Borough Carlow Between 1614 and 1634Ecclesiastical corporation - Bishop's borough
Philipstown Borough King's County 1571Corporation
Portarlington Borough Queen's County 1668Corporation
Queen's County County Queen's County 1556 [22] [23] Freeholders
Randalstown Borough Antrim 1683Freeman / Potwalloper
Rathcormack Borough Cork Between 1614 and 1692 [lower-alpha 23] Potwalloper / Manor
Ratoath Borough Meath Between 1614 and 1661 [lower-alpha 24] Manor
Roscommon Borough Borough Roscommon 1613 (27 February) [5] Corporation
Roscommon County County Roscommon 1297 [12] Freeholders
St Canice Borough Kilkenny [lower-alpha 25] Between 1614 and 1661 [lower-alpha 26] Ecclesiastical corporation - Bishop's borough
St Johnstown Borough Donegal 1618Corporation
St Johnstown Borough Longford 1628Corporation
Sligo Borough Borough Sligo 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Sligo County County Sligo By 1579 [21] Freeholders
Strabane Borough Tyrone 1613 (18 March) [5] Corporation
Swords Borough Dublin By 1585 [4] [lower-alpha 27] Potwalloper
Taghmon Borough Wexford Between 1614 and 1634 [lower-alpha 28] [lower-alpha 29] Corporation
Tallow Borough Waterford 1613 (1 May) [5] Manor / Potwalloper
Thomastown Borough Kilkenny 1541Corporation
Tipperary County Tipperary 1297 [12] Freeholders
Cross Tipperary County Tipperary By 1585Freeholders
Tralee Borough Kerry 1613 (31 March) [5] Corporation
Trim Borough Meath By 1560 [4] Corporation
Tuam Borough Galway 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Tulsk Borough Roscommon 1663Corporation
Tyrone County Tyrone 1585 (September) [6] Freeholders
Liberty of Ulster County Multiple [lower-alpha 31] 1297 [12] [lower-alpha 8]
Waterford City County borough Waterford [lower-alpha 9] 1299Freemen and freeholders
Waterford County County Waterford 1297 [12] Freeholders
Westmeath County Westmeath 1543 [34] [35] Freeholders
Wexford Borough Borough Wexford By 1560 [4] Freemen
Wexford County County Wexford 1297 [12] [lower-alpha 8] Freeholders
Wicklow Borough Borough Wicklow 1613 (30 March) [5] Corporation
Wicklow County County Wicklow 1577; [36] [lower-alpha 32] 1606 [38] Freeholders
Youghal Borough Cork 1374Corporation and Freemen
Notes
  1. The date of either: the earliest Parliament at which it is known to have received a writ of election or sent representatives; or else: the earliest charter or statute granting representation. Outside the Pale, places enfranchised after the Norman conquest often had long periods unrepresented prior to the Tudor reconquest.
  2. The territory of Ards, one of the medieval sheriffdoms of the Earldom of Ulster, was included in the reconstituted County Down in 1570.
  3. "Athboy was an ancient borough by prescription with a charter dated 1410, 9 Henry IV. There were further charters of 9 Henry VII and 8 James I all confirming the liberties and privileges of the corporate or free borough." [7]
  4. "Athenry was a very old town with writs with grants and charters going back to at least the reign of Edward II. There is one for 14 October 1310 and there are a number for the reign of Richard II in the 1390s." [8]
  5. "Bannow was a borough by prescription, and no charter could be found for it in 1800" [9]
  6. "Callan was a medieval borough by prescription, with charters and grants from the reigns of Edward III, Richard II and Henry IV." [10]
  7. "Carlingford was another ancient borough, with charters going back to the reign of Edward II." [11]
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 created as a Liberty
  9. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 A separate county corporate.
  10. "Cashel was a medieval foundation said to have been established in the year 1216 by Donat, Archbishop of Cashel, and incorporated under his successor, Marianus O'Brien, in 1233. It had various subsequent charters before it emerged in its modern form by a 1585 charter of 26 Eliz. I and a 1638 charter of Charles I." [13]
  11. "It was probably a borough by prescription confirmed by a 1630 charter, 5 Chas. I ..." [9]
  12. "Clonmines, like Bannow, was a borough by prescription, and no charter was available" [9]
  13. 1 2 The medieval county of Connacht was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Galway and Mayo.
  14. Then called Dengenechoyshe.
  15. "Downpatrick was recognised as early as the reign of Henry IV, when letters of protection were granted to the inhabitants. No charter of incorporation is extant, but it returned two MPs to the 1586-7 parliament of Elizabeth I" [16]
  16. The University was in the county of the city of Dublin. The electorate was its provost, fellows and scholars.
  17. "[I]n 1613 [James I] granted the University a further charter enabling it to return two members of parliament." [17]
  18. "Duleek was [an] ancient borough with a charter of Edward IV." [18]
  19. The area of Ferns, corresponding to the northern part of County Wexford, was briefly made a separate shire between the 1570s before merging back into Wexford in the 1600s.
  20. "Fore appears to have been a borough by prescription: the Rolls Office issued a negative certificate to the Commissioners for Union Compensation." [20]
  21. "Kinsale was a medieval borough. The earliest charter extant is that of 1589, 31 Eliz. I, which refers to a 1334 charter of 7 Edw. III" [24]
  22. Previously incorporated as Derry, 11 July 1604.
  23. "Rathcormack was ... incorporated by charter, which was produced at the Union. Some boroughs, particularly those incorporated before or during the early years of the seventeenth century ... " [28]
  24. "No charter is extant for this borough" [29]
  25. In the county of the city of Kilkenny rather than county Kilkenny.
  26. "St Canice was a very ancient borough and thought to have been from remote antiquity part of the See of Ossory. In 1606 a patent appears to have been granted by James I, whereby Irishtown was to be a corporation ..., but, the muniments of the temporalities of the Bishops of Ossory having been lost during the troubles, in 1678 Charles II made a new grant of a corporation" " [30]
  27. "Swords had the distinction of being the most notorious borough in the Irish Parliament. Its charter was lost. The memorial presented by John Beresford and Francis Synge declared that it was 'an ancient borough by prescription'; another memorial declared that it had been enfranchised from 'time immemorial'. The portreeve, James Stewart, said 'that the said corporation is an open borough by Charter' dated 11 April, 5 James II - i.e. 1690! Most memorialists simply stressed that it was of great antiquity." [31]
  28. "Taghmon was a borough by prescription; no charter could be found for it in 1800. It is mentioned in 1642, so it must have existed before then." [32]
  29. It did not return members in 1613 and returned two members in 1634. [33]
  30. Cross Tipperary last returned MPs in 1634, and was definitively merged with Tipperary in 1716.
  31. 1 2 The medieval liberty of Ulster was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Antrim and Down.
  32. The county of Wicklow created in 1577 seems not to have functioned and ceased to exist some time after 1586 [37]
Henry Boyle, speaker between 1733 and 1756 Henry Boyle, 1st Earl of Shannon.jpg
Henry Boyle, speaker between 1733 and 1756
John Ponsonby, speaker between 1756 and 1771 John Ponsonby P5215.jpg
John Ponsonby, speaker between 1756 and 1771
Edmund Perry, speaker between 1771 and 1785 GILBERT(1896) p101 EDMOND SEXTON PERY - SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.jpg
Edmund Perry, speaker between 1771 and 1785
John Foster, last speaker of the Irish House of Commons (1785-1800) The Right Honorable John Foster by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1790-1791 - Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art - DSC09033.JPG
John Foster, last speaker of the Irish House of Commons (1785–1800)

Means of resignation

Until 1793 members could not resign their seats. They could cease to be a member of the House in one of four ways:

In 1793 a methodology for resignation was created, equivalent to the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Manor of Northstead as a means of resignation from the British House of Commons. From that date, Irish members could be appointed to the Escheatorship of Munster, the Escheatorship of Leinster, the Escheatorship of Connaught or the Escheatorship of Ulster. Possession of one of these Crown offices, "office of profit under the Crown" with a 30-shilling salary, terminated one's membership of the House of Commons.

Notable members

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. Porritt, Edward (1963). The Unreformed House of Commons. Parliamentary Representation Before 1832. CUP Archive. pp. 185–187. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  2. Johnston-Liik 2006, p. 222.
  3. 1 2 Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 1530
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Hardiman, James (1842). "Appendix III: The lordes spirituall and temporall, counties, cytties, and borough-townes, as are answerable to the Parlyament in this realme of Ireland ; and souche as weare sommoned unto the Parlyament holden before the right honorable Sir John Perrot, knyght, Lord Deputie Generall of the realme of Ireland, xxvi. die Aprilis, anno regni Regine nostre Elizabeth, vicesimo septimo. A. D. 1585.". A Statute of the fortieth Year of Edward III., enacted in a Parliament held in Kilkenny, A. D. 1367, before Lionel Duke of Clarence, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Now first printed from a MS.in the Library of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth. With a Translation and Notes. Tracts relating to Ireland. Vol. II. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, PP 72-76
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN   9780198202424. Inquisitionum in Officio Rotulorum Cancellariae Hiberniae Asservatarum Repertorium (Repertory of the Inquisitions of the Chancery of Ireland) Volume II, page xix 'An Order for the division, setting out and appoyntinge of the boundes, lymytts and circuits of sixe severall sheires or countyes within the pvince of Ulster within this realme of Ireland, viz. the countye of Tyron, the countye of Donnyngall, the countye of Fermanaghe, the countye of Colrane, the countye of Armaghe and the countye of Monohon ... the firste of September anno dei 1585, annoque d[omi]n[a]e Regin[a]e Elizabeth', 27mo'
  7. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 301)
  8. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 240)
  9. 1 2 3 (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 356)
  10. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 253)
  11. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 289)
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Betham, William (1830). Dignities, Feudal and Parliamentary. London: Thomas and William Boone. p. 262.
  13. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 327)
  14. "Turlough Lynagh (O'Neill)'s pretence to harm ... the new made county of Cavan" Proceedings and orders of the Chancellor, Council and Gentlemen of Meath and Dublin, August 21 1579, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 184
  15. "O'Reilly's country erected into the County of Cavan" Lord Deputy Perrot to Walsyngham, 16 November 1584, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 537
  16. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 221)
  17. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 231)
  18. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 303)
  19. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  20. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 352), citing Report of the Commissioners of Union Compensation - Cities, Towns and Boroughs, p. 47
  21. 1 2 3 "Orders to be observed by Sir Nicholas Malby, Knight, for the better government of the Province of Connaght" Printed in O'Flaherty's Chorographical Description of West Or H-Iar Connaught: Written A.D. 1684 ed. Hardiman, P. 304
  22. 1 2 An Act "whereby the King and Queen's Majesties, and the Heires and Successors of the Queen, be entituled to the Counties of Leix, Slewmarge, Irry, Glinmaliry, and Offaily, and for making the same Countries Shire Grounds."303/554 - 3 & 4 Phil & Mar, c.2 (1556). The Act was repealed in 1962.
  23. 1 2 Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. pp. 118–9. ISBN   1-144-76601-X.
  24. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 209)
  25. Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 1486
  26. Maginn, Christopher (2012). William Cecil, Ireland, and the Tudor State. Oxford. p. 194.
  27. "The Annaley, formerly governed by O’Farrale Bane and O’Farrale Boy, is erected into a shire called Longford." Lord Chancellor and Council to the Queen, March 23, 1571,Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1509-1573, page 440
  28. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 305)
  29. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 211)
  30. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 259)
  31. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 235)
  32. (Johnston-Liik 2002, p. 360)
  33. Members of Parliament - Return (in part) to an Order of the House of Lords, dated 13th July 1877
  34. Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act 1543 (294/554) 34 Henry VIII cap 1 (Ire) An Act for the division of Methe into two shires.
  35. Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 117. ISBN   1-144-76601-X.
  36. Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 3003, 22 March 1577
  37. Moody, T. W.; Martin, F. X.; Byrne, F. J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  38. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166. ISBN   9780198202424.

Sources