Irish House of Commons

Last updated
Irish House of Commons
Arms of Ireland (historical).svg
Type
Type
History
Established1297
Disbanded31 December 1800
Succeeded by House of Commons of the United Kingdom
Leadership
John Foster (1785–1801)
Seats3001
Elections
First past the post with limited suffrage
Meeting place
IrishHC1780.jpg
The House of Commons in session (by Francis Wheatley, 1780)
Footnotes
1 In 1800
See also: House of Commons of Great Britain

The Irish House of Commons was the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland that existed from 1297 until 1800. The upper house was the House of Lords. The membership of the House of Commons was directly elected, but on a highly restrictive franchise, similar to the Unreformed House of Commons in contemporary England and Great Britain. In counties, forty-shilling freeholders were enfranchised whilst in most boroughs it was either only the members of self-electing corporations or a highly-restricted body of freemen that were able to vote for the borough's representatives. Most notably, Catholics were disqualified from sitting in the Irish parliament from 1691, even though they comprised the vast majority of the Irish population. From 1728 until 1793 they were also disfranchised. Most of the population of all religions had no vote. The vast majority of parliamentary boroughs were pocket boroughs, the private property of an aristocratic patron. When these boroughs were disfranchised under the Act of Union, the patron was awarded £15,000 compensation for each. [1]

Contents

The British-appointed Irish executive, under the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, was not answerable to the House of Commons but to the British government. However, the Chief Secretary for Ireland was usually a member of the Irish parliament. In the Commons, business was presided over by the Speaker. The House of Commons was abolished when the Irish parliament merged with its British counterpart in 1801 under the Act of Union, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The House sat for the last time in Parliament House, Dublin on 2 August 1800.

Speaker of the Commons

Drawing of the front of the Irish Parliament House with the dome, seen from the street-level, in the 18th century GILBERT(1896) p109 PROSPECTIVE VIEW OF THE PARLIAMENT HOUSE, DUBLIN.jpg
Drawing of the front of the Irish Parliament House with the dome, seen from the street-level, in the 18th century

The Speaker of the Irish House of Commons was the presiding officer of the House and its most senior official. The position was one of considerable power and prestige, and in the absence of a government chosen from and answerable to the Commons, he was the dominant political figure in the Parliament. The last Speaker was John Foster.

Constituencies

Engraving of section of the Irish House of Commons chamber by Peter Mazell based on the drawing by Rowland Omer 1767 Irish Commons.jpg
Engraving of section of the Irish House of Commons chamber by Peter Mazell based on the drawing by Rowland Omer 1767

The House was elected in the same way as the British House of Commons. By the time of the Union, the shape of the House had been fixed with two members elected for each of the 32 Counties of Ireland, two members for each of 117 Boroughs, and two members for Dublin University, a total of 300 members. The number of Boroughs invited to return members had originally been small (only 55 Boroughs existed in 1603) but was doubled by the Stuart monarchs.

ConstituencyTypeCountyCreation [n 1] EnfranchisedFate after the union
Antrim Borough Borough Antrim 1666 Potwalloper
Antrim County County Antrim 1570 [2] Freeholders
Ardee Borough Louth 1378Corporation
Ards County Down By 1560 [3]
Ardfert Borough Kerry 1639?Corporation
Armagh Borough Borough Armagh 1613 (26 March) [4] Corporation
Armagh County County Armagh 1585 (September) [5] Freeholders
Askeaton Borough Limerick 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Athboy Borough Meath By 1560 [3] Manor
Athenry Borough Galway 1310?Corporation
Athlone Borough Westmeath 1606 (10 December) [4] Corporation
Athy Borough Kildare By 1560 [3] Corporation
Augher Borough Tyrone 1613 (15 April) [4] Corporation
Ballynakill Borough Queen's County 1612 (10 December) [4] Corporation
Ballyshannon Borough Donegal 1613 (23 March) [4] Corporation
Baltimore Borough Cork 1613 (25 March) [4] Potwalloper
Baltinglass Borough Wicklow 1664Corporation
Banagher Borough King's County 1629Corporation
Bandonbridge Borough Cork 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Bangor Borough Down 1613 (18 March) [4] Corporation
Bannow Borough Wexford Between 1614 and 1692Corporation
Belfast Borough Antrim 1613 (27 April) [4] Corporation
Belturbet Borough Cavan 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Blessington Borough Wicklow 1670Corporation
Boyle Borough Roscommon 1613 (25 March) [4] Corporation
Callan Borough Kilkenny 1585Corporation
Carlingford Borough Louth 13??Corporation
Carlow Borough Borough Carlow 1613 (19 April) [4] Corporation
Carlow County County Carlow 1297Freeholders
Carrick Borough Leitrim 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Carrickfergus County borough Antrim [n 3] 1326Freeholder and householder
Carysfort Borough Wicklow 1629Corporation
Cashel Borough Tipperary By 1585 [3] Corporation
Castlebar Borough Mayo 1613 (26 March) [4] Corporation
Castlemartyr Borough Cork 1676Corporation
Cavan Borough Borough Cavan 1610 (15 November) [4] Corporation
Cavan County County Cavan 1579 [6] or 1584 [7] or 1585 [5] Freeholders
Charlemont Borough Armagh 1613 (29 April) [4] Corporation
Charleville Borough Cork 1673Corporation
Clare County Clare By 1560Freeholders
Clogher Borough Tyrone Between 1614 and 1692Ecclesiastical
Clonakilty Borough Cork 1613 (5 March) [4] Corporation
Clonmel Borough Tipperary By 1560 [3] Corporation
Clonmines Borough Wexford Between 1614 and 1692Corporation
Coleraine Borough Londonderry 1613 (25 March) [4] Corporation
Connacht County Multiple [n 4] 1297
Cork City County borough Cork [n 3] 1299Freeholder and Freemen
Cork County County Cork 1297Freeholders
Coleraine County County Londonderry 1585 (September) [5] FreeholdersAlready disfranchised
Dingle Borough Kerry By 1585 [3] [8] Corporation
Donegal Borough Borough Donegal 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Donegal County County Donegal 1585 (September) [5] Freeholders
Doneraile Borough Cork 1640Manor
Down County Down 1570 [2] Freeholders
Downpatrick Borough Down 1586 Potwalloper
Drogheda County borough Louth [n 3] 1299Freeholders and freemen
Dublin City County borough Dublin [n 3] 1299Freeholders and freemen
Dublin County County Dublin 1297Freeholders
Dublin University University Dublin [n 5] 1603Graduates
Duleek Borough Meath Between 1614 and 1692Corporation
Dundalk Borough Louth By 1560 [3] Corporation
Dungannon Borough Tyrone 1612 (27 November) [4] Corporation
Dungarvan Borough Waterford By 1560 [3] Potwalloper
Dunleer Borough Louth 1679Corporation
Ennis Borough Clare 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Enniscorthy Borough Wexford 1613 (25 May) [4] Corporation
Enniskillen Borough Fermanagh 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Fermanagh County Fermanagh 1585 (September) [5] Freeholders
Ferns County Wexford By 1579 [9] Freeholders
Fethard Borough Tipperary 1613 (15 April) [4] Corporation
Fethard Borough Wexford 1613 (15 April) [4] Corporation
Fore Borough Westmeath Between 1614 and 1692Corporation
Galway Borough County borough Galway [n 3] By 1560 [3] Freemen
Galway County County Galway By 1579 [10] Freeholders
Gorey (also Newburgh) Borough Wexford 1620Corporation
Gowran Borough Kilkenny 1608 (15 September) [4] Corporation
Granard Borough Longford 1679Manor
Harristown Borough Kildare 1684Corporation
Hillsborough Borough Down 1662Corporation
Inistioge Borough Kilkenny By 1585 [3] Corporation
Jamestown Borough Leitrim 1622Corporation
Kells Borough Meath By 1560 [3] Corporation
Kerry County Kerry 1297Freeholders
Kilbeggan Borough Westmeath 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Kildare Borough Borough Kildare By 1560 [3] Corporation
Kildare County County Kildare 1297Freeholders
Kilkenny City County borough Kilkenny [n 3] 1299?Freeholders and Freemen
Kilkenny County County Kilkenny 1297Freeholders
Killybegs Borough Donegal 1616Corporation
Killyleagh Borough Down 1613 (10 March) [4] Corporation
Kilmallock Borough Limerick By 1560 [3] Corporation
King's County County King's County 1556 [11] [12] Freeholders
Kinsale Borough Cork 1334?Corporation and Freemen
Knocktopher Borough Kilkenny 1665 Potwalloper
Lanesborough Borough Longford 1642Corporation
Leitrim County Leitrim 1583Freeholders
Lifford Borough Donegal 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Limerick City County borough Limerick [n 3] 1299Freeholders and Freemen
Limerick County County Limerick 1297Freeholders
Lisburn Borough Antrim 1661 Potwalloper
Lismore Borough Waterford 1613 (6 May) [4] Manor
Londonderry City Borough Londonderry 1613 (29 March) [4] [13] Corporation
Londonderry County County Londonderry 1613Freeholders
Longford Borough Borough Longford 1669Corporation
Longford County County Longford 1571 [14] [15] Freeholders
Louth County Louth 1297Freeholders
Mallow Borough Cork 1613 (27 February) [4] Manor
Maryborough Borough Queen's County 1571Corporation
Mayo County Mayo By 1579 [10] Freeholders
Meath County Meath 1297Freeholders
Midleton Borough Cork 1671Corporation
Monaghan Borough Borough Monaghan 1613 (26 March) [4] Corporation
Monaghan County County Monaghan 1585 (September) [5] Freeholders
Mullingar Borough Westmeath By 1560 [3] Manor
Naas Borough Kildare By 1560 [3] Corporation
Navan Borough Meath 1469Corporation
New Ross Borough Wexford By 1560 [3] Corporation
Newcastle Borough Dublin 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Newry Borough Down 1613 (27 February) [4] Potwalloper
Newtown Limavady Borough Londonderry 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Newtownards Borough Down 1613 (25 March) [4] Corporation
Old Leighlin Borough Carlow Between 1614 and 1692Ecclesiastical corporation
Philipstown Borough King's County 1571Corporation
Portarlington Borough Queen's County 1668Corporation
Queen's County County Queen's County 1556 [11] [12] Freeholders
Randalstown Borough Antrim 1683Freeman / Potwalloper
Rathcormack Borough Cork Between 1614 and 1692 Potwalloper / Manor
Ratoath Borough Meath Between 1614 and 1692Manor
Roscommon Borough Borough Roscommon 1613 (27 February) [4] Corporation
Roscommon County County Roscommon 1297Freeholders
St Canice Borough Kilkenny [n 7] Between 1614 and 1692Corporation
St Johnstown Borough Donegal 1618Corporation
St Johnstown Borough Longford 1628Corporation
Sligo Borough Borough Sligo 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Sligo County County Sligo By 1579 [10] Freeholders
Strabane Borough Tyrone 1613 (18 March) [4] Corporation
Swords Borough Dublin By 1585 [3] Potwalloper
Taghmon Borough Wexford bef. 1642Corporation
Tallow Borough Waterford 1613 (1 May) [4] Manor / Potwalloper
Thomastown Borough Kilkenny 1541Corporation
Tipperary County Tipperary 1297Freeholders
Cross Tipperary County Tipperary by 1585Freeholders
Tralee Borough Kerry 1613 (31 March) [4] Corporation
Trim Borough Meath By 1560 [3] Corporation
Tuam Borough Galway 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Tulsk Borough Roscommon 1663Corporation
Tyrone County Tyrone 1585 (September) [5] Freeholders
Liberty of Ulster County Multiple [n 9] 1297
Waterford City County borough Waterford [n 3] 1299Freemen and freeholders
Waterford County County Waterford 1297Freeholders
Westmeath County Westmeath 1543 [16] Freeholders
Wexford Borough Borough Wexford By 1560 [3] Freemen
Wexford County County Wexford 1297Freeholders
Wicklow Borough Borough Wicklow 1613 (30 March) [4] Corporation
Wicklow County County Wicklow 1577 [17] [18] 1606 [19] Freeholders
Youghal Borough Cork 1374Corporation and Freemen
Notes
  1. The date of either: the earliest Parliament at which it is known to have received a writ of election or sent representatives; or else: the earliest charter or statute granting representation. Outside the Pale, places enfranchised after the Norman conquest often had long periods unrepresented prior to the Tudor reconquest.
  2. The territory of Ards, one of the medieval sheriffdoms of the Earldom of Ulster, was included in the reconstituted County Down in 1570
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Actually a separate county corporate.
  4. 1 2 The medieval county of Connacht was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Galway and Mayo.
  5. The University was in the county of the city of Dublin. The electorate was its Fellows and Scholars.
  6. The area of Ferns, corresponding to the northern part of County Wexford, was briefly made a separate shire between the 1570s before merging back into Wexford in the 1600s.
  7. Actually in the county of the city of Kilkenny rather than county Kilkenny
  8. Cross Tipperary last returned MPs in 1634, and was definitively merged with Tipperary in 1716.
  9. 1 2 The medieval liberty of Ulster was subdivided in 1570 into the modern counties of Antrim and Down.

Sessions

Parliaments of Edward III

Parliament of 1374

Parliament of 1375 [20]

Parliaments of Richard II

[21]

Parliament of 1380

Parliaments of Henry VI

[22]

Parliament of 1429

Parliament of 1450

Parliaments of Henry VIII

Parliament 1516

Parliament 1521–22

Parliament 1531

Parliament 1533

Parliament 1536–37

Members

Parliament 1541–43

  • First session held at Dublin 13 June to 20 or 23 July 1541, 7 November 1541, 22 December 1541 [23]
  • Second session held at Limerick 15 February to 7 or 10 March 1542 [23]
  • Third session held at Trim June 1542
  • Dissolved 19 November 1543 [23]

Speaker: Sir Thomas Cusack [24]

Parliament of Mary I

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
11 June 15571 March 1558 James Stanyhurst 3

Parliaments of Elizabeth I

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
112 January 15601 February 1560 James Stanyhurst 1
217 January 156925 April 1571 James Stanyhurst 10

Members:

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
326 April 158514 May 1586 Nicholas Walsh 7

Members: List of Irish MPs 1585–86

Parliaments of James I

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
118 May 161324 October 1615Sir John Davies ?

Members

Parliaments of Charles I

Parliament of 1634–35

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
114 July 163418 April 1635Sir Nathaniel Catelyn
Members

Parliament of 1639–49

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
216 March 1639 (prorogued 1641)30 January 1649Sir Maurice Eustace ?

Members: List of Irish MPs 1639–49

Parliament of Charles II

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
18 May 16617 August 1666Sir Audley Mervyn ?

Members: List of Irish MPs 1661–66

Members:

Parliaments of James II

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
17 May 168920 July 1689Sir Richard Nagle [28] ?

Members:

Parliaments of William III and Mary II

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
15 October 169226 June 1693 Sir Richard Levinge 1

Members: List of Irish MPs 1692–93

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
227 August 169514 June 1699 Robert Rochfort 2

Members: List of Irish MPs 1695–99

Parliaments of Anne

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
121 September 17036 May 1713 Alan Brodrick; John Forster (from 19 May 1710)6

Members: List of Irish MPs 1703–13

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
225 November 17131 August 1714 on death of Queen Anne Alan Brodrick 1

Members: List of Irish MPs 1713–14

Parliament of George I

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
112 November 171511 June 1727 William Conolly 6

Members: List of Irish MPs 1715–27

Parliament of George II

Henry Boyle, speaker between 1733-1756 GILBERT(1896) p077 HENRY BOYLE.jpg
Henry Boyle, speaker between 1733–1756
John Ponsonby, speaker between 1756-1771 GILBERT(1896) p095 JOHN PONSONBY.jpg
John Ponsonby, speaker between 1756–1771
NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
128 November 172725 October 1760 on death of King George II William Conolly; Sir Ralph Gore, Chancellor of the Exchequer (from 13 October 1729); Henry Boyle (from 4 October 1733); John Ponsonby (from 26 April 1756)17

Members: List of Irish MPs 1727–60

Members: (elected 1727)

Members: (elected 1728/29)

Members: (elected 1739)

Members: (in 1747)

Members: (elected 1751/1752)

Members: (elected 1753/1754)

Members:

Parliaments of George III

Edmund Perry, speaker between 1771 and 1785 GILBERT(1896) p101 EDMOND SEXTON PERY - SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS.jpg
Edmund Perry, speaker between 1771 and 1785
John Foster, last speaker of the Irish House of Commons (1785-1800) The Right Honorable John Foster by Gilbert Stuart, c. 1790-1791 - Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art - DSC09033.JPG
John Foster, last speaker of the Irish House of Commons (1785–1800)
NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
122 October 176128 May 1768 Octennial Act John Ponsonby 4

Members: List of Irish MPs 1761–68

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
217 October 17695 April 1776 John Ponsonby to 4 March 1771, Edmond Pery Sexton 5

Members: List of Irish MPs 1769–76

Grattan's Parliament

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
318 June 177625 July 1783 Edmund Sexton Pery 4

Members: List of Irish MPs 1776–83

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
414 October 17838 April 1790 Edmund Sexton Pery, then John Foster from 5 September 17857

Members: List of Irish MPs 1783–90

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
52 July 179011 July 1797 John Foster 8

Members: List of Irish MPs 1790–97

NumberOpenedDismissed Speaker Sessions
69 January 179831 December 1800 John Foster 3

Members: List of Irish MPs 1798–1800


Means of resignation

Until 1793 members could not resign their seats. They could cease to be a member of the House only by one of four ways:

In 1793 a methodology for resignation was created, equivalent to the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Chiltern Hundreds or the Manor of Northstead as a means of resignation from the British House of Commons. From that date, Irish members could be appointed to the Escheatorship of Munster, the Escheatorship of Leinster, the Escheatorship of Connaught or the Escheatorship of Ulster. Possession of one of these Crown offices, "office of profit under the Crown" with a 30-shilling salary, terminated one's membership of the House of Commons.

Famous members

See also

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References

  1. Porritt, Edward (1963). The Unreformed House of Commons. Parliamentary Representation Before 1832. CUP Archive. pp. 185–7. Retrieved 23 July 2013.
  2. 1 2 Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 1530
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 Hardiman, James (1842). "Appendix III: The lordes spirituall and temporall, counties, cytties, and borough-townes, as are answerable to the Parlyament in this realme of Ireland ; and souche as weare sommoned unto the Parlyament holden before the right honorable Sir John Perrot, knyght, Lord Deputie Generall of the realme of Ireland, xxvi. die Aprilis, anno regni Regine nostre Elizabeth, vicesimo septimo. A. D. 1585.". A Statute of the fortieth Year of Edward III., enacted in a Parliament held in Kilkenny, A. D. 1367, before Lionel Duke of Clarence, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Now first printed from a MS.in the Library of his Grace the Archbishop of Canterbury, Lambeth. With a Translation and Notes. Tracts relating to Ireland. Vol.II. Dublin: Irish Archaeological Society.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, PP 72-76
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166. Inquisitionum in Officio Rotulorum Cancellariae Hiberniae Asservatarum Repertorium (Repertory of the Inquisitions of the Chancery of Ireland) Volume II, page xix 'An Order for the division, setting out and appoyntinge of the boundes, lymytts and circuits of sixe severall sheires or countyes within the pvince of Ulster within this realme of Ireland, viz. the countye of Tyron, the countye of Donnyngall, the countye of Fermanaghe, the countye of Colrane, the countye of Armaghe and the countye of Monohon ... the firste of September anno dei 1585, annoque d[omi]n[a]e Regin[a]e Elizabeth', 27mo'
  6. "Turlough Lynagh (O'Neill)'s pretence to harm ... the new made county of Cavan" Proceedings and orders of the Chancellor, Council and Gentlemen of Meath and Dublin, August 21 1579, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 184
  7. "O'Reilly's country erected into the County of Cavan" Lord Deputy Perrot to Walsyngham, 16 November 1584, Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 2, 1574-1585 page 537
  8. Then called Dengenechoyshe
  9. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  10. 1 2 3 "Orders to be observed by Sir Nicholas Malby, Knight, for the better government of the Province of Connaght" Printed in O'Flaherty's Chorographical Description of West Or H-Iar Connaught: Written A.D. 1684 ed. Hardiman, P. 304
  11. 1 2 An Act "whereby the King and Queen's Majesties, and the Heires and Successors of the Queen, be entituled to the Counties of Leix, Slewmarge, Irry, Glinmaliry, and Offaily, and for making the same Countries Shire Grounds." 3 & 4 Phil & Mar, c.2 (1556). The Act was repealed in 1962 Archived 2012-10-11 at the Wayback Machine .
  12. 1 2 Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. pp. 118–9. ISBN   1-144-76601-X.
  13. Previously incorporated as Derry, 11 July 1604
  14. Maginn, Christopher (2012). William Cecil, Ireland, and the Tudor State. Oxford. p. 194.
  15. "The Annaley, formerly governed by O’Farrale Bane and O’Farrale Boy, is erected into a shire called Longford." Lord Chancellor and Council to the Queen, March 23, 1571,Calendar of the State Papers relating to Ireland, of the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, Volume 1, 1509-1573, page 440
  16. Counties of Meath and Westmeath Act 1543 34 Henry VIII cap 1 (Ire) An Act for the division of Methe into two shires.”Falkiner, Caesar Litton (1904). Illustrations of Irish history and topography, mainly of the seventeenth century. London: Longmans, Green, & Co. p. 117. ISBN   1-144-76601-X.
  17. Fiants Ire. Eliz. No 3003, 22 March 1577
  18. The county of Wicklow created in 1577 seems not to have functioned and ceased to exist some time after 1586 - Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1984). A New History of Ireland, Vol IX, Maps, Genealogies, Lists. Oxford University Press. p. 108.
  19. Moody, T.W.; Martin, F.X.; Byrne, F.J. (1991). Early Modern Ireland, 1534-1691. Oxford University Press. p. 166.
  20. Hart, A.R. The History of the King's Serjeants at law in Ireland Four Courts Press 2000 pp.19-20
  21. Hart p.20
  22. Ball, F. Elrington The Judges in Ireland 1221-1921 John Murray London 1926 Vol.1 p.102
  23. 1 2 3 Alan Bryson, ‘St Leger, Sir Anthony (1496?–1559)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 14 June 2014
  24. O'Flanagan "[could not] say for what place he sat in Parliament, although [he had] carefully examined the List as given in the ‘Liber Munerum Publicorum Hiberniæ.’" O'Flanagan, J.Roderick Lives of the Lord Chancellors of Ireland 2 Volumes London 1870, page 219
  25. Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, P65
  26. 1 2 Ceased to sit after the first session, as his borough was declared not to have the franchise
  27. Moody, T.W.; The Irish Parliament under Elizabeth and James I, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, Vol 45 (1939) No 6, P64
  28. Seaward, Paul: Parliamentary History: Speakers and the Speakership. Blackwell Publishing. 2010. p 62.

Sources