County Kerry

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County Kerry

Contae Chiarraí
Kerrycocologo.svg
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): 
The Kingdom
Motto(s): 
Comhar, Cabhair, Cairdeas  (Irish)
"Co-operation, Help, Friendship"
Island of Ireland location map Kerry.svg
Location in Ireland
Coordinates: 52°10′N9°45′W / 52.167°N 9.750°W / 52.167; -9.750 Coordinates: 52°10′N9°45′W / 52.167°N 9.750°W / 52.167; -9.750
Country Ireland
Province Munster
Establishedc. 1300 [1]
County town Tralee
Government
  Type Kerry County Council
   Dáil Éireann Kerry
   European Parliament South
Area
  Total4,807 km2 (1,856 sq mi)
Area rank 5th
Highest elevation1,039 m (3,409 ft)
Population
 (2016) [2]
  Total147,707
  Rank  15th
  Density31/km2 (80/sq mi)
Time zone UTC±0 (WET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (IST)
Eircode routing keys
V23, V31, V92, V93 (primarily)
Telephone area codes 064, 066, 068 (primarily)
Vehicle index
mark code
KY
Website www.kerrycoco.ie

County Kerry (Irish : Contae Chiarraí) is a county in Ireland. It is located in the South-West Region and forms part of the province of Munster. It is named after the Ciarraige who lived in part of the present county. The population of the county was 147,707 at the 2016 census. [2]

Contents

Geography and political subdivisions

Kerry is the fifth-largest of Ireland's 32 traditional counties by area and the 15th-largest by population. [3] It is the second-largest of Munster's six counties by area, and the fourth-largest by population. Uniquely, it is bordered by only two other counties: County Limerick to the east and County Cork to the south-east. The county town is Tralee. The Catholic diocesan seat is Killarney, which is one of Ireland's most famous tourist destinations. The Lakes of Killarney, an area of outstanding natural beauty are located in Killarney National Park. The Reeks District is home to Carrauntoohil, Ireland's highest mountain at 1,039m. The tip of the Dingle Peninsula is the most westerly point of Ireland.

Baronies

There are nine historic baronies in the county. While baronies continue to be officially defined units, they are no longer used for many administrative purposes. Their official status is illustrated by Placenames Orders made since 2003, where official Irish names of baronies are listed under "Administrative units".

The Three Sisters, West Kerry. Dingle North West (stevefe) 2.jpg
The Three Sisters, West Kerry.

Most populous towns

RankTownPopulation
(2016 census)
1 Tralee 23,691
2 Killarney 14,504
3 Listowel 4,820
4 Castleisland 2,486
5 Kenmare 2,376
6 Killorglin 2,199
7 Dingle 2,050
8 Ballybunion 1,413
9 Cahersiveen 1,041

Physical geography

Near Teeravane, County Kerry, Ireland County Kerry West of Ballyferriter.jpg
Near Teeravane, County Kerry, Ireland

Kerry faces the Atlantic Ocean and, typically for an Eastern-Atlantic coastal region, features many peninsulas and inlets, principally the Dingle Peninsula, the Iveragh Peninsula, and the Beara Peninsula. The county is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean and on the north by the River Shannon. Kerry is one of the most mountainous regions of Ireland and its three highest mountains, Carrauntoohil, Beenkeragh and Caher, all part of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks range.

Just off the coast are a number of islands, including the Blasket Islands, Valentia Island and the Skelligs. Skellig Michael is a World Heritage Site, famous for the medieval monastery clinging to the island's cliffs. The county contains the extreme west point of Ireland, Dunmore Head on the Dingle Peninsula, or including islands, Tearaght Island, part of the Blaskets. The most westerly inhabited area of Ireland is Dún Chaoin, on the Dingle Peninsula. The River Feale, the River Laune and the Roughty River flow through Kerry, into the Atlantic.

Dingle Peninsula Dingle peninsula panorama crop.jpg
Dingle Peninsula

Climate

The North Atlantic Current, part of the Gulf Stream, flows north past Kerry and the west coast of Ireland, resulting in milder temperatures than would otherwise be expected at the 52 North latitude. This means that subtropical plants such as the strawberry tree and tree ferns, not normally found in northern Europe, thrive in the area.

Because of the mountainous area and the prevailing southwesterly winds, Kerry is among the regions with the highest rainfall in Ireland. Owing to its location, there has been a weather reporting station on Valentia for many centuries. The Irish record for rainfall in one day is 243.5 mm (9.59 in), recorded at Cloore Lake in Kerry in 1993. [4]

In 1986 the remnants of Hurricane Charley crossed over Kerry as an extratropical storm causing extensive rainfall, flooding and damage.

History

Kerry (Irish : Ciarraí or more anciently Ciarraighe) means the "people of Ciar" which was the name of the pre-Gaelic tribe who lived in part of the present county. The legendary founder of the tribe was Ciar, son of Fergus mac Róich. [6] In Old Irish "Ciar" meant black or dark brown, and the word continues in use in modern Irish as an adjective describing a dark complexion. [7] The suffix raighe, meaning people/tribe, is found in various -ry place names in Ireland, such as OsryOsraigheDeer-People/Tribe. The county's nickname is the Kingdom. [8]

Lordship of Ireland

On 27 August 1329, by Letters Patent, Maurice FitzGerald, 1st Earl of Desmond was confirmed in the feudal seniority of the entire county palatine of Kerry, to him and his heirs male, to hold of the Crown by the service of one knight's fee. In the 15th century, the majority of the area now known as County Kerry was still part of the County Desmond, the west Munster seat of the Earl of Desmond, a branch of the Hiberno-Norman FitzGerald dynasty, known as the Geraldines.

Kingdom of Ireland

Gallarus Oratory near Dingle, which dates back to the 6th century. Gallarus Oratory.JPG
Gallarus Oratory near Dingle, which dates back to the 6th century.
Little Skellig, as seen from Skellig Michael. Skellig Michael.png
Little Skellig, as seen from Skellig Michael.

In 1580, during the Second Desmond Rebellion, one of the most infamous massacres of the Sixteenth century, the Siege of Smerwick, took place at Dún an Óir near Ard na Caithne (Smerwick) at the tip of the Dingle Peninsula. The 600-strong Italian, Spanish and Irish papal invasion force of James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald was besieged by the English forces and massacred.

In 1588, when the fleet of the Spanish Armada in Ireland were returning to Spain during stormy weather, many of its ships sought shelter at the Blasket Islands and some were wrecked.

During the Nine Years' War, Kerry was again the scene of conflict, as the O'Sullivan Beare clan joined the rebellion. In 1602 their castle at Dunboy was besieged and taken by English troops. Donal O'Sullivan Beare, in an effort to escape English retribution and to reach his allies in Ulster, marched all the clan's members and dependants to the north of Ireland. Due to harassment by hostile forces and freezing weather, very few of the 1,000 O'Sullivans who set out reached their destination.

In the aftermath of the War, much of the native owned land in Kerry was confiscated and given to English settlers or 'planters'. The head of the MacCarthy Mor family, Florence MacCarthy was imprisoned in London and his lands were divided between his relatives and colonists from England, such as the Browne family.

In the 1640s Kerry was engulfed by the Irish Rebellion of 1641, an attempt by Irish Catholics to take power in the Protestant Kingdom of Ireland. The rebellion in Kerry was led by Donagh McCarthy, 1st Viscount Muskerry. His son the Earl of Clancarty held the county during the subsequent Irish Confederate Wars and his forces were among the last to surrender to the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland in 1652. The last stronghold to fall was Ross Castle, near Killarney.

The Famine

In the 17th and 18th centuries Kerry became increasingly populated by poor tenant farmers, who came to rely on the potato as their main food source. As a result, when the potato crop failed in 1845, Kerry was very hard hit by the Great Irish Famine of 1845–49. In the wake of the famine, many thousands of poor farmers emigrated to seek a better life in America and elsewhere. Kerry was to remain a source of emigration until recent times (up to the 1980s). Another long term consequence of the famine was the Land War of the 1870s and 1880s, in which tenant farmers agitated, sometimes violently for better terms from their landlords.

War of Independence and Civil War

Ross Castle and Lough Leane, Killarney National Park. RossCastleAndLoughLeane.jpg
Ross Castle and Lough Leane, Killarney National Park.

In the 20th century, Kerry was one of the counties most affected by the Irish War of Independence (1919–21) and Irish Civil War (1922–23). In the war of Independence, the Irish Republican Army fought a guerilla war against the Royal Irish Constabulary, and British military. One of the more prominent incidents in the conflict in Kerry was the siege of Tralee in November 1920, when the Black and Tans placed Tralee under curfew for a week, burned many homes, and shot dead a number of local people in retaliation for the IRA killing of five local policemen the night before. Another was the Headford Junction ambush in spring 1921, when IRA units ambushed a train carrying British soldiers outside Killarney. About ten British soldiers, three civilians and two IRA men were killed in the ensuing gun battle. Violence between the IRA and the British was ended in July 1921, but nine men, four British soldiers and five IRA men, were killed in a shoot-out in Castleisland on the day of the truce itself, indicating the bitterness of the conflict in Kerry.

Following the Anglo-Irish Treaty, most of the Kerry IRA units opposed the settlement. One exception existed in Listowel where a pro-Treaty garrison was established by local Flying Column commandant Thomas Kennelly in February 1922. This unit consisted of 200 regular soldiers along with officers and NCOs. A batch of rifles, machine guns and a Crossley tender were sent from Dublin. Listowel would remain a base for those supporting the treaty throughout the conflict. [9] The town was eventually overcome by superior numbers of anti-Treaty forces belonging to the Kerry No. 2 and 3 Brigades in June 1922. In the ensuing civil war between pro- and anti-treaty elements, Kerry was perhaps the worst affected area of Ireland. Initially the county was held by the Anti-Treaty IRA but it was taken for the Irish Free State after seaborne landings by National Army troops at Fenit, Tarbert and Kenmare in August 1922. Thereafter the county saw a bitter guerilla war between men who had been comrades only a year previously. The republicans, or "irregulars", mounted a number of successful actions, for example attacking and briefly re-taking Kenmare in September 1922. In March 1923 Kerry saw a series of massacres of republican prisoners by National Army soldiers, in reprisal for the ambush of their men—the most notorious being the killing of eight men with mines at Ballyseedy, near Tralee. The internecine conflict was brought to an end in May 1923 as the rule of law was re-established following the death of IRA Chief of Staff Liam Lynch, and the order by Frank Aiken to dump all arms.

Local government

County council

The principal local authority is Kerry County Council. The council provides a number of services including planning, roads maintenance, fire brigade, council housing, water supply, waste collection, recycling and landfill, higher education grants and funding for arts and culture. [10]

Town councils

An additional tier of local government existed in the three largest towns in the county, Killarney, Listowel and Tralee until the 2014 local elections were held on 23 May 2014. These elections were held following the changes effected by the Local Government Reform Act 2014. The act abolished town councils and introduced municipal districts. County Kerry was divided into four municipal districts, which are identical with the local electoral areas (LEA) used for election of Councillors. [11]

Parliamentary representation

Following boundary changes in 2016, Kerry is represented in Dáil Éireann by five TDs returned from a single parliamentary constituency. The TDs elected to the 33rd Dáil Éireann at the 2020 general election included Pa Daly (SF), Norma Foley (FF), Brendan Griffin (FG), Danny Healy-Rae (Independent) and Michael Healy-Rae (Independent).[ citation needed ]

Culture

As a region on the extremity of Ireland, the culture of Kerry was less susceptible to outside influences and has preserved the Irish language, as well as Irish traditional music, song and dance. The Sliabh Luachra area of northeast Kerry, that borders Limerick and Cork, is renowned for its traditional music, dance and song, especially its slides, polkas and fiddle playing. The Siamsa Tíre centre in Tralee is a hub of traditional Irish pastimes. Corca Dhuibhne and Uíbh Ráthach are considered Gaeltacht regions and Irish culture is also very strong in these areas.

The Blasket Islands off the Dingle Peninsula are known for their rich literary heritage; authors such as Peig Sayers, Muiris Ó Súilleabháin and Tomás Ó Criomhthain have all written books about life on the islands, which were evacuated in 1953 due to increasingly extreme weather conditions that made them uninhabitable. John B Keane, a native of Listowel, is considered one of Ireland's greatest playwrights and is known for his works such as The Field , Sive and Big Maggie. The annual Listowel Writers' Week Festival serves as a celebration of Irish writers past and present.

Sport

Gaelic games

Kerry is known for its senior Gaelic football team. Gaelic football is by far the dominant sport in the county, and Kerry has the most successful of all football teams; the Kerry footballers have won the Sam Maguire cup 37 times, with the next nearest team Dublin on 29 wins. [12] Hurling is popular at club level in north Kerry, although the county has only won one All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, in 1891. The senior team currently compete in the Joe McDonagh Cup. [13]

Association football

The Kerry District League is the main competition for association football in the county. Tralee Dynamos have represented Kerry in the A Championship, while they and Killarney Celtic also competed in the Munster Senior League during the late 1990s and early 2000s.

Irish language

In 2011 there were 6,083 Irish language speakers in County Kerry, with 4,978 native speakers within the Kerry Gaeltacht. This does not count the 1,105 attending the four Gaelscoils (Irish language primary schools) and two Gaelcholáiste (Irish language secondary schools) outside the Kerry Gaeltacht. [14]

Places of interest

Lakes of Killarney Panorama from Torc Mountain (2) - geograph.org.uk - 777017.jpg
Lakes of Killarney
Cliffs in West Co. Kerry Cliffs in Kerry.jpg
Cliffs in West Co. Kerry

Kerry, with its mountains, lakes and Atlantic coastline is among the most scenic areas in Ireland and is among the most significant tourist destinations in Ireland. Killarney is the centre of the tourism industry, which is a significant element of the economy in Kerry. The Kerry Way, Dingle Way and Beara Way are walking routes in the county. The Ring of Kerry on the Iveragh Peninsula is a popular route for tourists and cyclists. The pedestrian version is the scenic Kerry Way which follows ancient paths generally higher than that adopted by the Ring of Kerry.

Attractions:

Media

County Kerry has two local newspapers, The Kerryman and Kerry's Eye , both published in Tralee.

The county has a commercial radio station, Radio Kerry, which commenced operations in 1990. RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta has a studio in Baile na nGall in the west Kerry gaeltacht. [15] Spin South West has a studio in Tralee, which commenced operations in 2016.

Infrastructure

Road

National primary routes:

The main National Primary Routes into Kerry are the N21 road from Limerick and the N22 road from Cork, each terminating in Tralee. Kerry Airport is situated on the N23 road between Castleisland and Farranfore which connects the N21 and N22.

National secondary routes:

Within Kerry the main National Secondary Routes include the well-known Ring of Kerry which follows the N70 road that circles the Iveragh Peninsula and links at Kenmare with the N71 road to west Cork. The N86 road connects Tralee with Dingle along the Dingle Peninsula, while the N69 road from Limerick links Listowel and Tralee through north Kerry.

Rail

Killarney railway station Train at Killarney Station - geograph.org.uk - 2556130.jpg
Killarney railway station

Kerry is served by rail at Tralee railway station, Farranfore railway station, Killarney railway station and Rathmore railway station which connect to Cork and Dublin Heuston, via Mallow.

Branch line services existed to each of the peninsulas (Beara, Iveragh and Dingle) and also to the north of the county. They were closed during the rationalisations of the 1950s and 1960s.

Listowel to Ballybunion had the distinction of operating experimental Lartigue Monorail services from 1882 to 1924. A 500m section was re-established in 2003. A road-car route, the Prince of Wales Route, was a link from Bantry to Killarney, operated by the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway as a service for tourists.

Bus

Bus Éireann operates an extensive bus service network on routes throughout the county, with connection hubs in Killarney and Tralee.

Air

Kerry Airport Kerry Airport.jpg
Kerry Airport

Kerry Airport is located at Farranfore in the centre of the county and has operated scheduled services since 1989. Destinations served as of 2014 are London (Stansted & Luton), Frankfurt-Hahn Airport, Faro, Portugal and Alicante all operated by Ryanair. Aer Lingus Regional also operate an all-year-round service to Dublin.

The airport is served by Farranfore railway station.

Sea

Fenit Marina Fenit harbour ireland.jpg
Fenit Marina

Fenit harbour near Tralee is a regional harbour capable of handling ships of up to 17,000 tonnes. Large container cranes from Liebherrs in Killarney are regularly exported worldwide. A rail-link to the port was closed in the 1970s. The harbour at Dingle is one of Ireland's secondary fishing ports[ citation needed ]. [16] In the north of the county, a ferry service operates from Tarbert to Killimer in County Clare.

Hospitals

Hospitals in Kerry include the public University Hospital Kerry which is the second-largest acute hospital in the Health Service Executive South Region. It serves as the main hospital for County Kerry and also serves the people in parts of north Cork and west Limerick. Other hospitals include the private Bon Secours Hospital in Tralee and community hospitals in Cahirciveen, Dingle, Kenmare, Killarney and Listowel.

Education

The Institute of Technology, Tralee (IT Tralee), soon to be merged into Munster Technological University (MTU), is the main third-level institution in the county. It was established in 1977 as the Regional Technical College, Tralee but acquired its present name in 1997. It has an enrolment of about 3,500 students. The institute has two campuses: the North campus (opened in Dromtacker in 2001) and the South campus (opened in Clash in 1977) approximately 2.4 km (1.5 mi) apart.

Septs, families, and titles

A number of Irish surnames are derived from septs who hail from the Kerry area, such as Falvey, Foley, McCarthy, Murphy, O'Connor, O'Moriarty, Clifford, Kennelly, McGrath, O'Carroll, O'Sullivan, O'Connell, O'Donoghue, O'Shea, Quill, Scannell, Stack, Sugrue and Tangney.

The area was also home to the Hiberno-Norman families, the FitzMaurices and the Desmonds, a branch of the FitzGeralds.

Titles in the British Peerage of Ireland with a family seat in Kerry are

Viscount Valentia appears to have been associated with lands in County Armagh, rather than Kerry.

People

See also

Related Research Articles

Tralee Town in Munster, Ireland

Tralee is the county town of County Kerry in the south-west of Ireland. The town is on the northern side of the neck of the Dingle Peninsula, and is the largest town in County Kerry. The town's population including suburbs was 23,691 as of the 2016 census making it the 8th largest town, and 14th largest urban settlement in Ireland. Tralee is well known for the Rose of Tralee International Festival which has been held annually in August since 1959.

Dingle Town in Munster, Ireland

Dingle is a town in County Kerry, Ireland. The only town on the Dingle Peninsula, it sits on the Atlantic coast, about 50 kilometres (30 mi) southwest of Tralee and 71 kilometres (40 mi) northwest of Killarney.

Ring of Kerry

The Ring of Kerry is a 179-kilometre-long (111-mile) circular tourist route in County Kerry, south-western Ireland. Clockwise from Killarney it follows the N71 to Kenmare, then the N70 around the Iveragh Peninsula to Killorglin – passing through Sneem, Waterville, Cahersiveen, and Glenbeigh – before returning to Killarney via the N72.

Iveragh Peninsula Peninsula in County Kerry, Ireland

The Iveragh Peninsula is located in County Kerry in Ireland. It is the largest peninsula in southwestern Ireland. A mountain range, the MacGillycuddy's Reeks, lies in the centre of the peninsula. Carrauntoohil, its highest mountain, is also the highest peak in Ireland.

Listowel Town in Munster, Ireland

Listowel is a heritage market town in County Kerry, Ireland. It is on the River Feale, 28 km (17 mi) from the county town, Tralee. The town of Listowel had a population of 4,820 according to the CSO Census 2016.

Newcastle West Town in Munster, Ireland

Newcastle West or simply Newcastle is a town in west County Limerick, Ireland. It is the largest town in the county, excluding Limerick city, and sits on the River Arra which flows into the River Deel. Newcastle West is in the middle of a great bowl-shaped valley in West Limerick, known one time as the valley of the Wild Boar, apparently due to the abundance of this animal here when the area was thickly wooded. The crest of the town carries the image of a wild boar. Newcastle West is on the N21 road from Limerick to Tralee, between Rathkeale and Abbeyfeale. In 2016, the population of the town was 6,619.

Farranfore Village in Munster, Ireland

Farranfore is a village in County Kerry, Ireland. It lies on the N22 road approximately midway between Tralee and Killarney and on the railway line connecting the two towns.

Fenit Village in Munster, Ireland

Fenit is a small village in County Kerry, Ireland, located on north side of Tralee Bay about 10 km (6 mi) west of Tralee town, just south of the Shannon Estuary. The bay is enclosed from the Atlantic by the Maharee spit which extends northwards from the Dingle peninsula. Fenit harbour is a mixed function sea port, where fishing, freight import and export, and a 136 berth marina are the main forms of business. The population was 527 in the 2011 CSO census compared to 427 in 2006.

Kerry Way

The Kerry Way is a long-distance trail in County Kerry, Ireland. It is a 214-kilometre (133-mile) long circular trail that begins and ends in Killarney. It is typically completed in 8 to 10 days. It is designated as a National Waymarked Trail by the National Trails Office of the Irish Sports Council and is managed by Kerry County Council, South Kerry Development Partnership and the Kerry Way Committee. The Way circles the Iveragh Peninsula and forms a walkers' version of the Ring of Kerry road tour. It is the longest of Ireland's National Waymarked Trails.

Kerry Senior Football Championship

The Kerry Senior Football Championship is an annual Gaelic football competition organised by the Kerry County Board of the Gaelic Athletic Association since 1889 for the top Gaelic football teams in the county of Kerry in Ireland.

South-West Region, Ireland

The South-West Region is a NUTS Level III statistical region of Ireland. It consists of the territory of Cork City, the regional capital, as well as the counties of Cork and Kerry. The South-West region spans 12,161 km2, roughly 16% of the total area of the state and according to the 2016 census has a population of 689,750.

Roman Catholic Diocese of Kerry

The Diocese of Kerry is a Roman Catholic diocese in south-western Ireland. It is one of six suffragan dioceses in the ecclesiastical province of Cashel and is subject to the Archbishop of Cashel and Emly. The diocese was established in the early 12th century as the "Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe". It changed its name to the "Diocese of Kerry" on 20 December 1952. The cathedral church of the diocese is St Mary's Cathedral in Killarney.

Geokaun

Geokaun Mountain is the highest mountain on Valentia Island, County Kerry.

Mallow–Tralee line

The Mallow-Tralee railway line runs from Mallow to Killarney and Tralee Casement. Intermediate stations are Banteer, Millstreet, Rathmore, and Farranfore.

The High Sheriff of Kerry was the British Crown's judicial representative in County Kerry, Ireland from the 16th century until 1922, when the office was abolished in the new Free State and replaced by the office of Kerry County Sheriff. The sheriff had judicial, electoral, ceremonial and administrative functions and executed High Court Writs. In 1908, an Order in Council made the Lord-Lieutenant the Sovereign's prime representative in a county and reduced the High Sheriff's precedence. However the sheriff retained his responsibilities for the preservation of law and order in the county. The usual procedure for appointing the sheriff from 1660 onwards was that three persons were nominated at the beginning of each year from the county and the Lord Lieutenant then appointed his choice as High Sheriff for the remainder of the year. Often the other nominees were appointed as under-sheriffs. Sometimes a sheriff did not fulfil his entire term through death or other event and another sheriff was then appointed for the remainder of the year. The dates given hereunder are the dates of appointment. All addresses are in County Kerry unless stated otherwise.

Limerick–Tralee line

The Limerick–Tralee line, also known as the North Kerry line, is a former railway line from Limerick railway station to Tralee railway station in Ireland. It also has branch lines to Foynes and Fenit. Most of the line today has now been converted into the Great Southern Trail.

Farranfore to Valencia Harbour Railway

The Farranfore to Valentia Harbour Railway was 39.5 miles (63.5 km) long single-track broad gauge railway line that operated from 1892 to 1960 along Dingle Bay's southern shore in Ireland. It was the most westerly railway in Europe.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 "Census 2016 Sapmap Area: County Kerry". Central Statistics Office (Ireland) . Retrieved 27 October 2018.
  3. Corry, Eoghan (2005). The GAA Book of Lists. Hodder Headline Ireland. pp. 186–191.
  4. "Rainfall – Climate – Met Éireann – The Irish Meteorological Service Online". Met.ie. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  5. Census for post 1821 figures Archived 9 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine . For 1653 and 1659 figures from Civil Survey Census of those years, Paper of Mr Hardinge to Royal Irish Academy 14 March 1865.t For a discussion on the accuracy of pre-famine census returns see JJ Lee, "On the accuracy of the Pre-famine Irish censuses Irish Population, Economy and Society" edited by JM Goldstrom and LA Clarkson (1981) p.54, and also "New Developments in Irish Population History, 1700–1850" by Joel Mokyr and Cormac O Grada in The Economic History Review, New Series, Vol. 37, No. 4 (Nov. 1984), pp. 473–488.
  6. T J Barrington, Discovering Kerry, its History Heritage and toponymy, Dublin, 1976
  7. Gearrfhoclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, Dublin, 1981
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  9. Listowel and its Vicinity. Anthony Gaughan. 1973.
  10. "All Services". Kerry County Council. Archived from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  11. "S.I. No. 51/2014 - County of Kerry Local Electoral Areas and Municipal Districts Order 2014". Irish Statute Book. Office of the Attorney General. Retrieved 19 May 2014.
  12. "Roll of Honour". Cumann Lúthcleas Geal. Archived from the original on 23 August 2008. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
  13. "Kerry GAA – Hurling – Clubs and Information". gaainfo.com. Archived from the original on 14 March 2009. Retrieved 26 September 2008.
  14. "Oideachas Trí Mheán na Gaeilge in Éirinn sa Ghalltacht 2010–2011" (PDF) (in Irish). gaelscoileanna.ie. 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
  15. "Labhair Linn". RTÉ Raidió na Gaeltachta . Retrieved 19 December 2010.
  16. "Kerry". Welcome To Ireland. Retrieved 30 January 2017.