Western European Time

Last updated
Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed Time zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed

Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00 (also known as Greenwich Mean Time). [1] [2] It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time. [3] [2]

Contents

The following Western European countries and regions use UTC±00:00 in winter months:

All the above countries except Iceland [14] implement daylight saving time in summer (from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year), switching to Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00), which is one hour ahead of WET. [15] WEST is called British Summer Time in the UK and is legally defined as Irish Standard Time in Ireland.

The nominal span of the UTC±00:00 time zone is 7.5°E to 7.5°W (0° ± 7.5°), but does not include the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Gibraltar or Spain (except Canary Islands) which use Central European Time (CET) even though these are mostly or completely west of 7.5°E. Conversely, Iceland and eastern Greenland use UTC±00:00 although both are west of 7.5°W. In September 2013, a Spanish parliamentary committee recommended switching to UTC±00:00. [16] [17] [18]

Historical uses

A slight variation of UTC±00:00, based until 1911 on the Paris Meridian, was used in:

Until the Second World War, France used UTC±00:00. However, the German occupation switched France to German time, and it has remained in CET since then. [31] Two other occupied territories, Belgium and the Netherlands, did the same, and Spain also switched to CET in solidarity with Germany under the orders of General Franco. [32]

In the United Kingdom, from 1940 to 1945 British Summer Time (BST=CET) was used in winters, and from 1941 to 1945 and again in 1947, British Double Summer Time (BDST=CEST) was used in summers. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, BST was used all year round. [33] [34]

In Ireland, from 1940 to 1946 Irish Summer Time (IST=CET) was used all year round, with no 'double' summer time akin to that in the United Kingdom. Between 18 February 1968 and 31 October 1971, Irish Standard Time was used all year round. [35] [36]

In Portugal, CET was used in the mainland from 1966 to 1976 and from 1992 to 1996. The autonomous region of the Azores used WET from 1992 to 1993. [37] [38] [39]

Anomalies

Difference between legal time and local mean solar time in Europe during the winter Tzdiff-Europe-winter.png
Difference between legal time and local mean solar time in Europe during the winter
ColourLegal time vs local mean time
1 h ± 30 m behind
0 h ± 30 m
1 h ± 30 m ahead
2 h ± 30 m ahead

Regions located outside UTC longitudes

Located west of 22°30′ W ("physical" UTC−2)

Located west of 7°30′ W ("physical" UTC-1)

Areas located within UTC+00:00 longitudes using other time zones

These areas are actually located between 7°30′E and 7°30′W (nominally UTC+0) but use UTC+01:00 (Central European Time, nominally for longitudes between 7°30′E and 22°30′E):

All of

and most of

and minor parts of other countries.

Related Research Articles

Greenwich Mean Time Time zone of western Europe, same as WET

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London. Historically used as a world reference time, nowadays it is one of the names for the time zone UTC+00:00. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from midnight and noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a particular time unless a context is given.

Time zone Area that observes a uniform standard time

A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries between countries and their subdivisions instead of strictly following longitude, because it is convenient for areas in frequent communication to keep the same time.

Western European Summer Time Time zone (UTC+01:00)

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET) is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. It is used in most parts of Europe and in a few North African countries. CET is also known as Middle European Time and by colloquial names such as Amsterdam Time, Berlin Time, Brussels Time, Madrid Time, Paris Time, Rome Time, and Warsaw Time.

Summer time in Europe Variation of standard clock time

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Eastern European Time Time zone (UTC+2)

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

Central European Summer Time Time zone (UTC+2)

Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometimes referred to as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time during the other part of the year. It corresponds to UTC+02:00, which makes it the same as Eastern European Time, Central Africa Time, South African Standard Time, Egypt Standard Time and Kaliningrad Time in Russia.

UTC+01:00

UTC+01:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +01:00. In ISO 8601, the associated time would be written as 2019-02-07T23:28:34+01:00. This time is used in:

UTC+02:00 Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +2

UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02:00. In ISO 8601, the associated time would be written as 2020-11-08T23:41:45+02:00. This time is used in:

UTC+13:00

UTC+13:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +13:00. Because it does not contain any land in the Northern Hemisphere, this time zone is exclusive to the Southern Hemisphere.

Time in Russia About the 11 time zones of Russia

There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00. Daylight saving time (DST) has not been used in Russia since 26 October 2014. From 27 March 2011 to 26 October 2014, permanent DST was used.

UTC±00:00 Identifier for the UTC

UTC±00:00 is the following time:

Mauritius Time Time zone

Mauritius Time, or MUT, is the time zone used by the Indian Ocean island nation of Mauritius. The zone is four hours ahead of UTC (UTC+04:00).

Time in Europe Time zones in Europe

Europe spans seven primary time zones, excluding summer time offsets. Most European countries use summer time and harmonise their summer time adjustments; see Summer time in Europe for details.

Daylight saving time in the Americas is the arrangement in the Americas by which clocks are advanced by one hour in spring and moved back in autumn, to make the most of seasonal daylight. The practice is widespread in North America, with most of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America participating, but much less so in South America.

The Falkland Islands has officially used Falkland Islands Standard Time (UTC−3) all year round since 5 September 2010. However, many residents of Camp use UTC−4, known on the Falklands as "Camp Time".

Daylight saving time by country

Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during part of the year, typically by one hour around spring and summer, so that daylight ends at a later time of the day. As of 2021, DST is observed in most of Europe, most of North America and parts of Asia around the Northern Hemisphere summer, and in parts of South America and Oceania around the Southern Hemisphere summer. It was also formerly observed in other areas.

Alaska is officially covered by two time zones, as described below:

In North Macedonia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

References

  1. "EU summer-time arrangements under Directive 2000/84/EC" (PDF). European Parliament. 2017.
  2. 1 2 "Reasoned opinion on subsidiarity" (PDF). Committee on Legal Affairs –European Parliament. 2019.
  3. "Seasonal clock change in the EU". European Commission . 2016-09-22. Retrieved 2019-11-18.
  4. 1 2 "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
  5. "Lighter nights would keep youngsters fitter and safer, say doctors". Western Mail. Cardiff. 27 June 2005.
  6. David Ennals "British Standard Times Bill [Lords]", Hansard, House of Commons Debate, 23 January 1968, vol 757 cc290-366, 290–92
  7. "British Standard Time", Hansard (HC), 2 December 1970, vol 807 cc1331-422
  8. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  9. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  10. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, Spain". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  11. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Tórshavn, Faroe Islands". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  12. "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Danmarkshavn, Greenland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  13. "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Reykjavik, Iceland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  14. "Countries that do not observe DST | GreenwichMeanTime.com". greenwichmeantime.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  15. "What Countries Do Daylight Savings?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  16. "Spain considers time zone change to boost productivity". BBC News. 27 September 2013.
  17. Hamilos, Paul (26 September 2013). "Adiós, siesta? Spain considers ending Franco's change to working hours". The Guardian (London).
  18. Dewey, Caitlin (26 September 2013). "Spaniards are less productive, constantly tired because Spain is in the wrong time zone". The Washington Post.
  19. "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Andorra La Vella, Andorra". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  20. "Time Zone & Clock Changes in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  21. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  22. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Brussels, Belgium". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  23. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  24. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Paris, Île-de-France, France". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  25. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1850-1899 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  26. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1950-1959 in Gibraltar, Gibraltar". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  27. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  28. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Luxembourg, Luxembourg". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  29. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1900-1924 in Monaco, Monaco". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  30. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1925-1949 in Monaco, Monaco". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  31. Poulle, Yvonne (1999). "La France à l'heure allemande" (PDF). Bibliothèque de l'école des chartes. 157 (2): 493–502. doi:10.3406/bec.1999.450989. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
  32. "Spain Has Been In The 'Wrong' Time Zone For 7 Decades". NPR.org. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  33. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in London, England, United Kingdom". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  34. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in London, England, United Kingdom". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  35. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1960-1969 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  36. "Time Zone & Clock Changes 1970-1979 in Dublin, Ireland". www.timeanddate.com. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  37. Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 29/92/A (23-12-1992) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 295, p. 5932-(2), 23 December 1992. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  38. Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 8/93/A (26-03-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 72, p. 1496-(272), 23 March 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014
  39. Decreto Legislativo Regional n.º 9/93/A (15-07-1993) (in Portuguese), Diário da República (Diary of the Republic) – 1st Series - A, nr. 164, p. 3845–3846, 15 July 1993. Retrieved 11 January 2014