Time in the Republic of Ireland

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Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed Time zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
pale colours indicate where standard time is observed all year; dark colours indicate where a summer time is observed

Ireland uses Irish Standard Time (IST, UTC+01:00; Irish : Am Caighdeánach Éireannach) in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time (UTC+00:00; Meán-Am Greenwich) in the winter period. [1] (Roughly half of the state is in the 7.5°W to 22.5°W sector, half is in the same sector as Greenwich: 7.5°E to 7.5°W).

Contents

In Ireland, the Standard Time Act 1968 legally established that the time for general purposes in the State (to be known as standard time) shall be one hour in advance of Greenwich mean time throughout the year. [2] This act was amended by the Standard Time (Amendment) Act 1971, which legally established Greenwich Mean Time as a winter time period. [1] Ireland therefore operates one hour behind standard time during the winter period, and reverts to standard time in the summer months. This is defined in contrast to the other states in the European Union, which operate one hour ahead of standard time during the summer period, but produces the same end result.

The instant of transition to and from daylight saving time is synchronised across Europe. In Ireland, winter time begins at 02:00 IST on the last Sunday in October (changing the clocks to 01:00 GMT), and ends at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday in March (changing to 02:00 IST). [3] [4]

The following table lists recent past and near-future starting and ending dates of Irish Standard Time or Irish Summer Time (use of DST beyond 2019 is under discussion, see below):

YearStartEnd
201726 March29 October
201825 March28 October
201931 March27 October
202029 March25 October
202128 March31 October
202227 March30 October
202326 March29 October
202431 March27 October

History

Time (Ireland) Act 1916 Time (Ireland) Act 1916.jpg
Time (Ireland) Act 1916

Before 1880, the legal time at any place in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was defined as local mean time, as held by the appeal in the 1858 court case Curtis v. March. [5] [6] The Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880 defined Dublin Mean Time as the legal time for Ireland. This was the local mean time at Dunsink Observatory outside Dublin, and was about 25 minutes 21 seconds behind Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), which was defined by the same act to be the legal time for Great Britain. [5] [7] [8] After the Easter Rising, the time difference between Ireland and Britain was found inconvenient for telegraphic communication and the Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 provided that Irish time would be the same as British time, from 2:00 am Dublin Mean Time on Sunday 1 October 1916. [5] [9] Summer time (daylight saving time) had been introduced in May 1916 across the United Kingdom as a temporary efficiency measure for the First World War, and the changeover from Dublin time to Greenwich time was simultaneous with the changeover from summer time to winter time. [10] John Dillon opposed the first reading of the Time (Ireland) Bill for having been introduced without consultation of the Irish Parliamentary Party; he said the different time in Ireland "reminds us that we are coming into a strange country". [10] [11] T. M. Healy opposed the second reading on the basis that "while the Daylight Saving Bill added to the length of your daylight, this Bill adds to the length of your darkness". [12]

After the Irish Free State became independent in 1922, subsequent developments tended to mirror those in the United Kingdom. This avoided having different times on either side of the border with Northern Ireland. [3] [13] Summer time was provided on a one-off basis by acts in 1923 and 1924, [14] [15] and then on an ongoing basis by the Summer Time Act, 1925. [16] The 1925 act provided a default summer time period, which could be varied by ministerial order. Double summer time was considered but not introduced during the Emergency of World War II. [17] [18] As a consequence, following the introduction of double summer time in the United Kingdom in 1940, Northern Ireland was one hour ahead of the Republic of Ireland throughout the year until the UK returned to GMT in the autumn of 1947. [19]

From 1968 standard time (GMT+01:00) was observed all year round, with no winter time change. [2] This was an experiment in the run-up to Ireland's 1973 accession to the EEC, and was undone in 1971. [1] In those years, time in Ireland was the same as in the six EEC countries, except in the summer in Italy, which switched to Central European Summer Time (CEST). One artefact of the 1968 legislation is that "standard time" (Irish : am caighdeánach [20] ) legally refers to summer time; [2] the 1971 act defined a period of time in the winter as "winter time" during which the time observed would be GMT, leaving "standard time" unchanged. [1]

From the 1980s, the dates of switch between winter and summer time have been synchronised across the European Union. [3] [21]

Orders

The statutory instruments (SIs) that have been issued under the Standard Time Acts are listed below, in format year/SI-number, and linking to the Irish Statute Database text of the SI. Except where stated, those issued up to 1967 (under the 1925 Act) were called "Summer Time Order <year>", while those issued from 1981 (under the 1971 Act) are "Winter Time Order <year>".

1926/(unnumbered), 1947/71, 1948/128, 1949/23, 1950/41, 1951/27, 1952/73, 1961/11, 1961/232 (Summer Time (No. 2) Order 1961), 1962/182, 1963/167, 1964/257, 1967/198, 1981/67, 1982/212, 1986/45, 1988/264, 1990/52, 1992/371, 1994/395, 1997/484, 2001/506

Possible changes

Possible adjustments to the Irish practice were discussed by the Oireachtas joint committee on Justice, Defence and Equality in November 2011, [22] but the government stated it had no plans to change. [13] In November 2012, Tommy Broughan introduced a private member's bill to permit a three-year trial of advancing time by one hour, to CET in winter and CEST in summer. [23] Debate on the bill's second stage was adjourned on 5 July 2013, when Alan Shatter, the Minister for Justice and Equality, agreed to refer the matter to the joint committee for review, and suggested that it consult with the British parliament and devolved assemblies. [24] [25] In July 2014, the joint committee issued an invitation for submissions on the bill. [26]

On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate the principle of Summer Time in Europe. [27] After a web survey showing high support for not switching clocks twice annually, [28] on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose that an end be put to seasonal clock changes (repealing Directive 2000/84/EC) [29] In order for this to be valid, the European Union legislative procedure must be followed, mainly that the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament must both approve the proposal. The United Kingdom left the EU on 31 January 2020 and, if the UK does not follow the reform and continues to operate summer/winter time, Northern Ireland will have a one-hour time difference for half the year either with the rest of Ireland or United Kingdom. [30] As this would add a further complication to the Irish border question, [30] it remains to be seen what action the Irish Government would take should this happen. The Department of Justice and Equality ran a consultation on seasonal clock changes in November 2018. [31] As of September 2018, the UK Government "has no plans" to end daylight saving. [32] In July 2019, the Minister for Justice and Equality announced that while there was support for ending daylight saving time, the proposal was not straightforward and Ireland would oppose the end of seasonal clock changes. [33] At the same time, a report of an interdepartmental working group on the proposal was published, along with submissions to the consultation on seasonal clock changes.

Seán Kelly, MEP, has been lobbying to end the bi-annual clock change in the EU, [34] but is in favour of Ireland adopting year round summertime or Central European Time instead of its present, closer to solar time, Western European Time. [35] If permanent summertime was adopted in Ireland, mornings would get darker, and in late December the sun would rise at 9:40 UTC+01:00 instead of 8:40 UTC+00:00 in Dublin.

Other laws

Closing time in Irish public houses was half an hour later during summer time (23:30 instead of 23:00). [36] In 2000, the closing time hours were simplified by removing summer/winter time changes. [37] Between 1933 and 1961, lighting-up time was an hour before/after sunrise/sunset in summer-time, as opposed to half-an-hour in winter time. [38] Since 1961, it has been half-an-hour in all cases. A similar change in the definition of night for aviation was made in 1967. [39]

IANA time zone database

The IANA time zone database contains one zone for Ireland in the file zone.tab, named Europe/Dublin.

Related Research Articles

Greenwich Mean Time time zone

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

Time zone Region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes

A time zone is a designated area of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions instead of strictly following longitude because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time. France, including its overseas territories, has the most time zones of any country, with a total of 12.

Daylight saving time Time adjustment practice

Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day according to the clock. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the autumn.

Western European Summer Time

Western European Summer Time is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

Western European Time

Western European Time is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00. It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time.

Summer time in Europe

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Time in New Zealand

Time in New Zealand is divided by law into two standard time zones. The main islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST), 12 hours in advance of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / military M (Mike), while the outlying Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time (CHAST), 12 hours 45 minutes in advance of UTC / military M^ (Mike-Three).

Singapore Standard Time Time zone

Singapore Standard Time (SST), also known as Singapore Time (SGT), is used in Singapore and is 8 hours ahead of GMT (GMT+08:00). Singapore does not currently observe daylight saving time.

British Summer Time Identifier for a time offset from UTC of +1

During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), so that mornings have one hour less daylight, and evenings one hour more.

Israel Summer Time

Israel Summer Time, also in English, Israel Daylight Time (IDT) is the practice in Israel by which clocks are advanced by one hour, beginning on the Friday before the last Sunday of March, and ending on the last Sunday of October.

Time in Australia Time zones in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Time in Canada Time zones of Canada

Canada is divided into six time zones, based on proposals by Scottish Canadian railway engineer Sandford Fleming, who pioneered the use of the 24-hour clock, the world's time zone system, and a standard prime meridian. Most of Canada operates on standard time from the first Sunday in November to the second Sunday in March and daylight saving time the rest of the year.

Time in the United Kingdom

The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).

Malaysian Standard Time or Malaysian Time (MYT) is the standard time used in Malaysia. It is 8 hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time. The local mean time in Kuala Lumpur was originally GMT+06:46:46. Peninsular Malaysia used this local mean time until 1 January 1901, when they changed to Singapore mean time GMT+06:55:25. Between the end of the Second World War and the formation of Malaysia on 16 September 1963, it was known as British Malayan Standard Time, which was GMT+07:30. At 2330 hrs local time of 31 December 1981, people in Peninsular Malaysia adjusted their clocks and watches ahead by 30 minutes to become 00:00 hours local time of 1 January 1982, to match the time in use in East Malaysia, which is GMT+08:00. SGT (Singapore) followed on and uses the same until now.

UTC−00:25:21 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −00:25:21.

Time in Saskatchewan

The Canadian province of Saskatchewan is geographically located in the Mountain Time Zone (GMT−07:00). However, most of the province observes Central Standard Time (CST) (GMT−06:00) year-round. As a result, it is effectively on daylight saving time (DST) year-round, as clocks are not turned back an hour in autumn when most jurisdictions return to standard time.

Time in Spain Time zones in Spain

Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain.

Time in the Danish Realm

Denmark, including the dependencies Faroe Islands and Greenland, uses six time zones.

Winter time (clock lag)

Winter time is the practice of shifting the clock back during winter months, usually −1 hour. It is a form of daylight saving time which is the opposite compensation to the summer time. However, while summer time is widely applied, use of winter time has been and is very rare.

Time in Namibia

Namibia since September 2017 is in the Central Africa Time zone at UTC+02:00, congruous with South African Standard Time.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971
  2. 1 2 3 Standard Time Act, 1968
  3. 1 2 3 "Topical Issue Debate – Daylight Saving Time". Dáil Debates. 26 October 2011. p. 19.
  4. "S.I. No. 506/2001 – Winter Time Order, 2001". 24 October 2001.
  5. 1 2 3 Dyson, Frank Watson (November 1916). "Standard time in Ireland". The Observatory. 39: 467–468. Bibcode:1916Obs....39..467D.
  6. Whitrow, G. J. (1989). Time in History: Views of Time from Prehistory to the Present Day. Oxford University Press. pp. 164–165. ISBN   9780192852113.
  7. Statutes (Definition of Time) Act, 1880 (43 & 44 Vict. c. 9)
  8. Malone, David. "Dunsink and Timekeeping". Ireland. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  9. Time (Ireland) Act, 1916 (6 & 7 Geo. 5. c. 45)
  10. 1 2 Shorten, Ben. "Here comes the summer: how Daylight Saving Time came to Ireland". Century Ireland. RTÉ.ie . Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  11. "Time (Ireland) Bill". Hansard. 1 August 1916. HC Deb vol 85 cc72–5. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  12. "Time (Ireland) Bill". Hansard. 17 August 1916. HC Deb vol 85 cc2222–36. Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  13. 1 2 Dáil debates Vol.760 No.3 p.342
  14. Summer Time Act 1923 Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Irish Statute Book
  15. Summer Time Act 1924 Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Irish Statute Book
  16. "Summer Time Act, 1925". Irish Statute Book. Ireland: Attorney General. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
  17. Dáil debates Vol.93 No.8 p.11 c.1021 Oireachtas
  18. Kennedy, Michael J. (2008). Guarding neutral Ireland: the Coast Watching Service and military intelligence, 1939–1945. Four Courts Press. p. 144. ISBN   9781846820977.
  19. Luke Sproule (30 March 2019). "Time zones: When Ireland had two" . Retrieved 6 November 2019.
  20. "Standard Time" . Retrieved 10 October 2016.
  21. Seanad debates Vol.111 No.13 p.6 c.1212–14 Oireachtas
  22. Joint Committee on Justice, Defence and Equality (30 November 2011). "Autumn and Spring Time Adjustments: Discussion" . Retrieved 18 August 2012.
  23. "Brighter Evenings Bill 2012 -PMB- (Bill Number 96 of 2012)". Bills 1992–2012. Oireachtais. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
  24. "Brighter Evenings Bill – Second Stage". Dáil debates. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  25. "Written Answer No.1096: Daylight Savings". Dáil debates. 18 September 2013. Retrieved 24 September 2013.
  26. Oireachtas joint committee on Justice, Defence and Equality (28 July 2014). "Invitation for submissions – Brighter Evenings Bill" (Microsoft Word). Submissions. Oireachtas. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  27. "EU Parliament Votes to Re-Evaluate DST in Europe". www.timeanddate.com.
  28. Summertime Consultation: 84% want Europe to stop changing the clock
  29. State of the Union 2018: Q&A on the Commission's proposal to put an end to seasonal clock changes European Commission − Press Release (Strasbourg, 12 September 2018)
  30. 1 2 EU daylight saving switch could leave Northern Ireland out of step with rest of UK
  31. "Consultation on Seasonal Clock Changes". www.justice.ie.
  32. Northern Ireland won't change time zone to suit the EU, say unionists   Belfast Telegraph, 1 September 2018
  33. "Ireland to oppose ending of seasonal clock changes". www.justice.ie.
  34. “High time to end bi-annual clock change” – MEP Kelly
  35. Keep summer time year round: MEP Kelly
  36. Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1988 §§25,26,28 Archived 22 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine ; Intoxicating Liquor Act, 1995 §§4,5. Irish Statute Book.
  37. Intoxicating Liquor Act, 2000 §§2. Irish Statute Book.
  38. Road Traffic Act 1933 §3; repealed by Road Traffic Act 1961
  39. S.I. No. 272/1967 — Air Navigation (Rules of the Air) (Amendment) (No. 2) Order, 1967