|Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)|
|Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)|
|Central European Time (UTC+1)|
|Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Time (UTC+2)|
|Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)|
|Further-eastern European Time / Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)|
Western European Summer Time (WEST, UTC+01:00) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Greenwich Mean Time and Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:
The following countries also use the same time zone for their daylight savings time but use a different title:
The scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01:00 UTC+00:00. During the winter, Western European Time (WET, GMT+0 or UTC±00:00) is used.
The start and end dates of the scheme are asymmetrical in terms of daylight hours: the vernal time of year with a similar amount of daylight to late October is mid-February, well before the start of summer time. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight.
Ireland observes Irish Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC±00:00 in winter.As Ireland's winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time.
The following countries and territories use UTC+01:00 during the summer, between 1:00 UTC on the last Sunday of March and 1:00 UTC on the last Sunday of October.
In Ireland, since the Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971, Ireland has used UTC+1 in summer (officially "standard time", : am caighdeánach, though usually called "summer time") and UTC+0 in winter (officially "winter time").Irish
Portugal moved to Central European Time and Central European Summer Time in 1992, but reverted to Western European Time in 1996 after concluding that energy savings were small, it had a disturbing effect on children's sleeping habits as it would not get dark until 22:00 or 22:30 in summer evenings, during winter mornings the sun was still rising at 9:00, with repercussions on standards of learning and school performance, and insurance companies reported a rise in the number of accidents.
Starting in 1916, the dates for the beginning and end of BST each year were mandated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. From 1940 to 1945, the country used British Summer Time in the winter months and British Double Summer Time, a further hour ahead of GMT, in the summer months. From 1968 to 1971, the country used BST throughout the year. In February 2002, the Summer Time Order 2002changed the dates and times to match European rules for moving to and from daylight saving time.
|Summer||Begins (BST)||Ends (GMT)||UK Notes||Ireland Notes|
|2017||Sun 26 March 01:00||Sun 29 October 01:00|
|2016||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 30 October 01:00|
|2015||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|2014||Sun 30 March 01:00||Sun 26 October 01:00|
|2013||Sun 31 March 01:00||Sun 27 October 01:00|
|2012||Sun 25 March 01:00||Sun 28 October 01:00|
|2011||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 30 October 01:00|
|2010||Sun 28 March 01:00||Sun 31 October 01:00|
|2009||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|2008||Sun 30 March 01:00||Sun 26 October 01:00|
|2007||Sun 25 March 01:00||Sun 28 October 01:00|
|2006||Sun 26 March 01:00||Sun 29 October 01:00|
|2005||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 30 October 01:00|
|2004||Sun 28 March 01:00||Sun 31 October 01:00|
|2003||Sun 30 March 01:00||Sun 26 October 01:00|
|2002||Sun 31 March 01:00||Sun 27 October 01:00||UK adopts EU practice||Ireland adopts EU Practice|
|2001||Sun 25 March 01:00||Sun 28 October 01:00|
|2000||Sun 26 March 01:00||Sun 29 October 01:00|
|1999||Sun 28 March 01:00||Sun 31 October 01:00|
|1998||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|1997||Sun 30 March 01:00||Sun 26 October 01:00|
|1996||Sun 31 March 01:00||Sun 27 October 01:00|
|1995||Sun 26 March 01:00||Sun 22 October 01:00|
|1994||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 23 October 01:00|
|1993||Sun 28 March 01:00||Sun 24 October 01:00|
|1992||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|1991||Sun 31 March 01:00||Sun 27 October 01:00|
|1990||Sun 25 March 01:00||Sun 28 October 01:00|
|1989||Sun 26 March 01:00||Sun 29 October 01:00|
|1988||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 23 October 01:00|
|1987||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|1986||Sun 30 March 01:00||Sun 26 October 01:00|
|1985||Sun 31 March 01:00||Sun 27 October 01:00|
|1984||Sun 25 March 01:00||Sun 28 October 01:00|
|1983||Sun 27 March 01:00||Sun 23 October 01:00|
|1982||Sun 28 March 01:00||Sun 24 October 01:00|
|1981||Sun 29 March 01:00||Sun 25 October 01:00|
|1980||Sun 16 March 02:00||Sun 26 October 02:00|
|1979||Sun 18 March 02:00||Sun 28 October 02:00|
|1978||Sun 19 March 02:00||Sun 29 October 02:00|
|1977||Sun 20 March 02:00||Sun 23 October 02:00|
|1976||Sun 21 March 02:00||Sun 24 October 02:00|
|1975||Sun 16 March 02:00||Sun 26 October 02:00|
|1974||Sun 17 March 02:00||Sun 27 October 02:00|
|1973||Sun 18 March 02:00||Sun 28 October 02:00|
|1972||Sun 19 March 02:00||Sun 29 October 02:00|
|1971||Sun 31 October 02:00||BST all year ends||IST all year ends|
|1970||BST all year||IST all year|
|1969||BST all year||IST all year|
|1968||Sun 18 February 01:00||BST all year begins||IST all year begins|
|1967||Sun 19 March 02:00||Sun 29 October 02:00|
|1966||Sun 20 March 02:00||Sun 23 October 02:00|
|1965||Sun 21 March 02:00||Sun 24 October 02:00|
|1964||Sun 22 March 02:00||Sun 25 October 02:00|
|1963||Sun 31 March 02:00||Sun 27 October 02:00|
|1962||Sun 25 March 02:00||Sun 28 October 02:00|
|1961||Sun 26 March 02:00||Sun 29 October 02:00|
|1960||Sun 10 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1959||Sun 12 April 02:00||Sun 4 October 02:00|
|1958||Sun 20 April 02:00||Sun 5 October 02:00|
|1957||Sun 14 April 02:00||Sun 6 October 02:00|
|1956||Sun 22 April 02:00||Sun 7 October 02:00|
|1955||Sun 17 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1954||Sun 11 April 02:00||Sun 3 October 02:00|
|1953||Sun 19 April 02:00||Sun 4 October 02:00|
|1952||Sun 20 April 02:00||Sun 26 October 02:00|
|1951||Sun 15 April 02:00||Sun 21 October 02:00|
|1950||Sun 16 April 02:00||Sun 29 October 02:00|
|1949||Sun 3 April 02:00||Sun 30 October 02:00|
|1948||Sun 14 March 02:00||Sun 31 October 02:00|
|1947||Sun 2 November 02:00||Back to GMT||Back to GMT|
|1947||Sun 13 April 02:00||Sun 10 August 02:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1947||Sun 16 March 02:00||BST begins||IST begins|
|1946||Sun 14 April 02:00||Sun 6 October 02:00||Back to GMT (Oct)||Back to GMT (Oct)|
|1945||Sun 7 October 02:00||Back to GMT||IST|
|1945||Mon 2 April 01:00||Sun 15 July 01:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1944||Sun 2 April 01:00||Sun 17 September 01:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1943||Sun 4 April 01:00||Sun 15 August 01:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1942||Sun 5 April 01:00||Sun 9 August 01:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1941||Sun 4 May 01:00||Sun 10 August 01:00||BDST (2 hours ahead)||IST / no DST|
|1940||Sun 25 February 02:00||BST 1940–1945||IST 1940–1946|
|1939||Sun 16 April 02:00||Sun 19 November 02:00|
|1938||Sun 10 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1937||Sun 18 April 02:00||Sun 3 October 02:00|
|1936||Sun 19 April 02:00||Sun 4 October 02:00|
|1935||Sun 14 April 02:00||Sun 6 October 02:00|
|1934||Sun 22 April 02:00||Sun 7 October 02:00|
|1933||Sun 9 April 02:00||Sun 8 October 02:00|
|1932||Sun 17 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1930||Sun 13 April 02:00||Sun 5 October 02:00|
|1929||Sun 21 April 02:00||Sun 6 October 02:00|
|1928||Sun 22 April 02:00||Sun 7 October 02:00|
|1927||Sun 10 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1926||Sun 18 April 02:00||Sun 3 October 02:00|
|1925||Sun 19 April 02:00||Sun 4 October 02:00|
|1924||Sun 13 April 02:00||Sun 21 September 02:00|
|1923||Sun 22 April 02:00||Sun 16 September 02:00|
|1922||Sun 26 March 02:00||Sun 8 October 02:00|
|1921||Sun 3 April 02:00||Sun 2 October 02:00|
|1920||Sun 28 March 02:00||Sun 24 October 02:00|
|1919||Sun 30 March 02:00||Sun 28 September 02:00|
|1918||Sun 24 March 02:00||Sun 29 September 02:00|
|1917||Sun 8 April 02:00||Sun 16 September 02:00|
|1916||Sun 21 May 02:00||Sun 1 October 02:00||Abolition of DMT|
Note: Until 1 October 1916 time in all of Ireland was based on Dublin Mean Time, GMT − 25 minutes.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries of countries and their subdivisions instead of longitude, because it is convenient for areas in close commercial or other communication to keep the same time.
Daylight saving time (DST), also daylight savings time or daylight time and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls later each day according to the clock. A common implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring and set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. In other words, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in the fall.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. The same standard time, UTC+01:00, is also known as Middle European Time and under other names like Berlin Time, Warsaw Time and Romance Standard Time (RST), Paris Time or Rome Time.
Western European Time is a time zone covering parts of western Europe and consists of countries using UTC±00:00. It is one of the three standard time zones in the European Union along with Central European Time and Eastern European Time.
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states, territories and other US possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time (DST) for approximately the spring, summer, and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and highly precise timekeeping services (clocks) are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) ; and the United States Naval Observatory (USNO). The clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations.
Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, in order to make the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.
UTC+01:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +01:00. In ISO 8601 the associated time would be written as 2019-02-07T23:28:34+01:00. This time is used in:
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have fewer daylight hours.
Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.
The United Kingdom uses Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time (UTC) and British Summer Time or Western European Summer Time (UTC+01:00).
Time in Chile is divided into three time zones. Most of Continental Chile uses the time offset UTC−04:00 in winter time and UTC−03:00 in summer time, while the Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica region uses the time offset UTC-03:00 the whole year. Additionally, Easter Island uses the time offset UTC−06:00 in winter time and UTC−05:00 in summer time
Uzbekistan time is the standard time in Uzbekistan; it is 5 hours ahead of UTC, UTC+05:00. The standard time uses no daylight saving time, though there has been constant debate whether to adopt it in order to increase leisure time.
Metropolitan France uses Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed in Metropolitan France from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. With its overseas territories, France uses 12 different time zones, more than any other country in the world.
Ireland uses Irish Standard Time in the summer months and Greenwich Mean Time in the winter period.
The only African countries and regions that use daylight saving time are:
Portugal has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Continental Portugal and Madeira use UTC+00:00, while the Azores use UTC–01:00. Daylight saving time is observed nationwide from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, so that every year, continental Portugal and Madeira temporarily use UTC+01:00, and the Azores temporarily use UTC+00:00.
Spain has two time zones and observes daylight saving time. Spain mainly uses Central European Time (GMT+01:00) and Central European Summer Time (GMT+02:00) in Peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla and plazas de soberanía. In the Canary Islands, the time zone is Western European Time (GMT±00:00) and Western European Summer Time (GMT+01:00). Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October throughout Spain.
Denmark, including the dependencies Faroe Islands and Greenland, uses six different time zones.
Winter time is the practice of shifting the clock back during winter months, usually −1 hour. It is a form of daylight saving time which is the opposite compensation to the summer time. However, while summer time is widely applied, use of winter time has been and is very rare.