Time in Finland

Last updated

Time in Finland
Helsinki observatory.jpg
The Helsinki University Observatory, where Finland's local mean time was measured
Time zone Eastern European Time
InitialsEET
UTC offset UTC+02:00
Standard meridian 30th meridian east
Time notation 24-hour clock
Adopted30 April 1921
Daylight saving time
Name Eastern European Summer Time
InitialsEEST
UTC offset UTC+03:00
Start03:00 EET on the last Sunday in March
End04:00 EET on the last Sunday in October
In use since1981 (current alignment)
tz database
Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Armenia Time / Azerbaijan Time / Georgia Time (UTC+4)
#### pale colours: standard time observed all year;
### dark colours: summer time observed Time Zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Armenia Time / Azerbaijan Time / Georgia Time (UTC+4)
 pale colours: standard time observed all year;
 dark colours: summer time observed

Finland uses Eastern European Time [lower-alpha 1] (EET) during the winter as standard time and Eastern European Summer Time [lower-alpha 2] (EEST) during the summer as daylight saving time. EET is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00) and EEST is three hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+03:00). Finland adopted EET on 30 April 1921, and has observed daylight saving time in its current alignment since 1981 by advancing the clock forward one hour at 03:00 EET on the last Sunday in March and back at 04:00 EET on the last Sunday in October, doing so an hour earlier for the first two years.

Contents

Before the 19th century, each locality followed its own solar time, which meant the time between the western and easternmost localities of Finland differed by thirty minutes. In the 19th century, a single time zone across Finland was needed to coordinate scheduling for the newly invented railway and telegraph. In 1862, the mean time 1:39:49.2 ahead of UT was adopted for the railway. Two separate, unsuccessful proposals for a standard time zone were made by the Diet of Finland in 1888 and 1897, when Finland was an autonomous duchy of the Russian Empire. On 30 April 1921, the newly-independent government officially adopted the time zone UTC+02:00, known as Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time was first attempted in 1942, but abandoned as not useful. It was introduced again in 1981, so that Finland's time zone could always be aligned with neighbouring countries. In 2017, the Finnish parliament voted in favour of proposals calling on the European Union to consider abolishing daylight saving time.

Finland's time zone is maintained by the VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation. Using atomic clocks, they make sure the official timekeeping devices in Finland do not fall behind. Finland's high latitude means that in summer the nights are short, and daylight saving time has no impact on the population. Northernmost Finland is within the Arctic circle and has a polar night lasting 51 days and a polar day lasting 73 days, whilst the southernmost localities of Finland experience less than six hours of daylight in winter and an average of 20 hours of daylight in summer. The country uses the 24 hour clock notation.

History

Before the 19th century, there was no need for a single time zone across Finland, and each locality followed its own solar time. This meant that if it was 12:00 in Helsinki, the local times in other localities would range from 11:40.02 in Mariehamn, Åland, to 12:10.53 in Kuopio, North Savo. [1] The railway required more precise timetables than earlier means of transport, such as sailing ships and stage-coaches. The telegraph, which allowed near real-time communication, also made it inconvenient for each location to observe its own solar time. [2] [3]

The first railway line in Finland (the HämeenlinnaHelsinki railway) was inaugurated in 1862. Its timetables were noted in a common mean time, measured at the Helsinki University Observatory from the mean time of UTC+01:39:49.2, [lower-alpha 3] known as "Helsinki time". [2] [5] A ball was released at noon and its falling was noted optically at the railway station and the clock adjusted accordingly. If it was raining, which would prevent the ball from being seen from that far away, noon would additionally be announced by a shot from a cannon. The correct time was relayed to the other stations via electrical telegraph, [6] which had been introduced in Finland in 1854. [7] On the Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg railway, inaugurated in 1870, Helsinki time was used as far as Kaipiainen, just east of Kouvola. [8] In 1882, clock synchronisations to Helsinki time by telephone were arranged between the Finnish Meteorological Institute and Sweden's National Meteorological Institute in order to conveniently conduct geomagnetic measurements. [9]

The International Meridian Conference held in Washington, D.C. in October 1884 divided the world into 24 meridians, each one covering 15 degrees of longitude. Each meridian had an hourly offset from Greenwich Mean Time in the United Kingdom (which was agreed to be the prime meridian at the conference), ranging from GMT−12:00 to the west to GMT+12:00 to the east. [lower-alpha 4] [11] [12] However this was not immediately implemented in most countries, including Finland. [8] In October 1893, most of the railways in Europe adopted the offsets GMT (also named Western European Time), GMT+01:00 (Middle European Time or Central European Time) [13] and GMT+02:00 (Eastern European Time). The implementation of this was overseen by the American Railway Association. [14] Between 1893 and 1895, several countries in Europe adopted standard times that corresponded with one of these three time zones, but Finland did not. [15]

In 1888, the Diet of Finland asked Emperor Alexander III of Russia (Finland was at this time an autonomous part of the Russian Empire) for Helsinki time to be established as standard throughout Finland. Alexander thought it was enough that the railways had their standard time. [16] A second motion for a standard time was proposed by the government in 1897, now proposing to adopt Eastern European Time as the nearest standard time to Helsinki time. [17] However it was again without success, as the Diet thought that switching to the proposed GMT+02:00 would be met with protest from the railways which used Helsinki time, and subsequently result in there simultaneously being two time zones in use. [18] Nevertheless, as the range of telecommunications increased, Helsinki time spread to common usage throughout the country as it made communications more convenient. [16] Finland became independent in 1917, [16] and in late 1919 the Geographical Society of Finland  [ fi ] wrote a proposal to the government that Finland adopt Eastern European Time. [19] The government agreed, and on 12 March 1920 the Minister of Justice decreed that from 1 May 1921 the standard time of Finland would be Eastern European Time. [20] On 30 April 1921 at midnight on Walpurgis Night, the official time was advanced 20 minutes and 10.9 seconds to Eastern European Time, to become the standard time zone for the country. [16] [21] The time change went smoothly, and no major objections were made by Finns. The railways easily adapted to the change. [22]

1929 proposal to adopt Central European Time

Between the late 1920s and mid-1930s, development of railway and telegraph connections increased communication between Finland and its western neighbours. Finland's observance of Eastern European Time, while other countries to the west used Central European Time at GMT+01:00, caused difficulties for some businesses, such as differentiating office hours which resulted in inconveniences when making telephone connections. [22] In June 1929, the Finnish Post and Telegraph Board proposed to the Finnish government that Finland's standard time be switched to Central European Time. [23] The proposal failed to gain support, as the Ostrobothnia Chamber of Commerce released a statement in September arguing that Finnish companies were adequately adapting to the two time zones. [22] [24]

The possible time zone change was discussed at the European Timetable Conference in Stockholm in October 1937, where the representatives of Finland, alongside Estonia and Latvia, agreed to present the proposal for the transition to Central European Time to their respective governments. [25] Initial reactions by Finns to the proposal were positive, [22] but the proposal was scrapped after the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim  [ fi ] argued that it would misalign biological time and lead to detrimental health effects. [26] The Finnish Post and Telegraph Board also withdrew its original 1929 proposal, [27] and the Ministry of Transport rejected the proposal. [28]

Introduction of daylight saving time

Daylight saving time was first attempted on 2 April 1942, after the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim claimed that observing daylight saving time would provide economic benefits (the later light in the evenings means less energy consumption) and limit food consumption. [29] The clock moved forward one hour at 24:00 and back again on 4 October at 01:00, but the government did not find daylight saving time useful and its observation was abandoned. [30] In 1980, the other Nordic countries introduced daylight saving time, in line with the directive from the European Economic Community, as did the Soviet Union in 1981. [31] In order to avoid the disturbance of changing time differences with the rest of Europe, daylight saving time was introduced again in Finland in 1981, which was observed from 02:00 EET the last Sunday in March to 03:00 EET on the last Sunday in October, following the same schedule as the other Nordic countries and the Soviet Union so that their time zones could always be aligned. [31] [32] Since 1983, the change has been made an hour later. [30] When Finland joined the European Union (successor to the European Economic Community) in 1995, it continued to observe daylight saving time in line with said directive and is now bound by European Union law to follow it. The current government regulation stipulating that the European Union directive be followed came into effect in 2001. [33]

Daylight saving time

Finland observes daylight saving time by advancing the clock forward one hour from Eastern European Time in UTC+02:00 to Eastern European Summer Time in UTC+03:00 at 03:00 EET on the last Sunday in March and back at 04:00 EET on the last Sunday in October. [34] [35] Finland has observed daylight saving time since 1981. [32] Finland's high latitude means that in summer the nights are short (in Helsinki in July, there are only five hours between sunset and sunrise), and daylight saving time has no impact on the population. In spring and autumn it does (with Helsinki experiencing between 13 to 18 hours of sunlight in spring and 11 to 6 hours in autumn), in addition to the advantage of keeping the time coordinated with other countries. [36] [37]

Proposals to end daylight saving time

In 2017, the Finnish parliament voted in favour of proposals calling on the European Union to consider abolishing daylight saving time, and a citizen's petition that same year asking the state to give up the practice received 70,000 signatures. [38] At the time, the European Commission was reviewing it. On 8 February 2018, the European Parliament voted to ask the European Commission to re-evaluate daylight saving time in Europe, and on 12 September 2018 the European Commission decided to propose an end to daylight saving time, which would thus repeal Directive 2000/84/EC. In order for this to take effect, both the Council of the European Union and the European Parliament were required to approve the proposal. [39] On 4 March 2019, the European Parliament Transport and Tourism Committee approved the Commission's proposal, with a start date planned to be postponed until 2021 at the earliest in order to ensure a smooth transition. [40] This decision was later confirmed by the European Parliament on 26 March. [41] [42]

As of March 2022, [43] the approval from the Council of the European Union had yet to be obtained as the European Union was preoccupied with the COVID-19 pandemic. [44] If the practice were to end, it is not known whether or not Finland would decide to remain on permanent winter time (UTC+02:00) or permanent summer time (UTC+03:00). Yle, Finland's national broadcasting company, has stated that the government would first gather expert opinions and consult the public before implementing changes. [44] A 2018 survey conducted by the Ministry of Justice, which received over 120,000 responses within its first 24 hours, revealed a small majority were in favour of observing permanent winter time over permanent summer time, [44] [45] and a 2019 petition to observe permanent summer time received 50,000 signatures. [46]

Geography and solar time

Midnight sun in Inari, northern Finland Midnight Sun in Inari - panoramio (3).jpg
Midnight sun in Inari, northern Finland

Most of Finland lies within the geographical UTC+02:00 offset. The southwestern coast of Finland, including the city of Turku, the northwestern most part of Finland, including the villages Kilpisjärvi and Kaaresuvanto, and Åland are all located west of 22°30' East, and fall under the geographical offset of UTC+01:00. [47] Finland's standard meridian is located at the 30th meridian east. [21] Northernmost Finland is within the Arctic circle and has a polar night lasting 51 days and a polar day lasting 73 days. [48] Because of Finland's high latitude, in summer there is no local utility to daylight saving time. [36] All localities north of Sodankylä (67°25’N) experience polar night. The southernmost localities of Finland experience less than six hours of daylight in winter and an average of 20 hours of daylight in summer. [49] [50] At Muotkavaara, a tripoint border between Finland, Norway and Russia, three time zones meet during Finland's winter time: Central European Time (UTC+01:00) in Norway, Eastern European Time (UTC+02:00) in Finland, and Moscow Time (UTC+03:00) in Russia. [51]

  Standard time
  Daylight saving time
Sunrise/sunset times for Helsinki, Finland
Month [lower-alpha 5] JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
Sunrise 09:2408:3507:1906:4605:1804:0804:0004:5906:1407:2507:4308:56
Sunset 15:2416:3317:4720:0421:1922:2922:4721:5220:2518:5316:2415:22
Hours of daylight 6810.513.31618.318.716.814.111.48.66.4
Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [37]

Maintenance

The VTT Technical Research Centre in Espoo maintains Finland's official time. Vtt headquarters espoo finland.jpg
The VTT Technical Research Centre in Espoo maintains Finland's official time.

The VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland and the Centre for Metrology and Accreditation are responsible for implementing leap seconds to Finland's time zone, following the International Bureau of Weights and Measures as defined by the International Telecommunication Union. [52] [53] Finland adopted Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) in 1972 in order to implement these leap seconds and remain in the correct atomic time of Earth's rotation. [54] Since Finland's first leap second occurred on 30 June 1972, 28 more have been implemented – occurring on either 30 June or 31 December – the latest occurring on 31 December 2016. [55] [56] VTT also transmits a high-precision time signal produced by six atomic clocks that maintain Finland's official time zone at a frequency of 25 megahertz to make sure the official timekeeping devices in Finland do not fall behind. [57] [58] Since the end of 2009, VTT's official time has remained within 30 nanoseconds of UTC. [59] Furthermore, VTT is also responsible for clock synchronisation on computer networks connected via the Internet, relying on the Network Time Protocol (NTP), which is supported by the Ministry of Finance, and takes time directly from other external sources, either GPS, an atomic clock or a BIOS clock. Though the protocol is designed to account for variable-latency between networks, the accuracy of time synchronisation ultimately still depends on a network's internet connection speed and bandwidth. As an example, VTT noted that a network connection at a speed of 100 Mbit/s results in a 0.0001 second delay between the official time of Finland and that of what is displayed on a computer. The accuracy worsens with slower connection speeds and delayed bandwidth. [57] [60]

Notation

In Finnish writing, the 24-hour clock notation is used. A baseline dot is used as the standardised and recommended separator between the hour and the minute (e.g "15.07" or "8.27"). The use of a colon is also common especially in relation to telecommunications and digital clocks, but is not recommended in normal text. Midnight is written as "24.00". The notation for times within the first hour of the day starts with one zero (e.g "0.15"). Leading zeros are not used (e.g no "09"). If greater accuracy is needed, seconds are added using the same symbol as the one used to separate the hours from the minutes (e.g "1.27.36"). Fractions of a second are added using the comma as separator (e.g "1.27.36,30"). For time ranges, a hyphen is used (e.g "12–21" for noon till 9pm). [61]

In normal text, the time can also be spelled out using the 12-hour clock, with clarifications as needed (e.g nine in the morning: morning+nine → "aamuyhdeksältä"). [61] The practice in Swedish is similar. [62] Finland previously used the 12-hour clock, [22] switching to 24-hour time in 1928 to comply with the 1926 Schedule Conference on European Railways' agreement for universal timetables across railways. [63]

IANA time zone database

In the IANA time zone database, Finland is given two zones in the file zone.tab – Europe/Helsinki and Europe/Mariehamn for Åland. "AX" and "FI" refer to the country's ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes, the former being for Åland and the latter for the country in general. [64] The table below displays data taken directly from zone.tab of the IANA time zone database. Columns marked with * are the columns from zone.tab itself: [65]

c.c.*coordinates*TZ*CommentsUTC offsetDST
FI +6010+02458 Europe/Helsinki +02:00 +03:00
AX +6006+01957 Europe/Mariehamn +02:00 +03:00

Computers which do not support "Europe/Helsinki" or "Europe/Mariehamn" may use the older POSIX syntax: TZ="EET-2EEST,M3.5.0/3,M10.5.0/4". [66]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

  1. Finnish: Itä-Euroopan aika; Swedish: Östeuropeisk tid.
  2. Finnish: Itä-Euroopan kesäaika; Swedish: Östeuropeisk sommartid.
  3. Measured at 60°09′42″N024°57′18″E / 60.16167°N 24.95500°E . [4]
  4. Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) has since replaced Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) as the world time standard. [10]
  5. On the first of every month.

Citations

  1. Bonsdorff, Wäinö Waldemar (1909). "Aikaerot" [Time differences]. Tietosanakirja (in Finnish). Vol. 1. Tietosanakirja-Osakeyhtiö  [ fi ]. p. 144 (72). Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Internet Archive.
  2. 1 2 Heikki 1999, p. 81.
  3. Lehti & Markkanen 2010, pp. 191–192.
  4. Maskelyne 1934, p. 688.
  5. Milne, John (1899). "Civil Time". The Geographical Journal. 13 (2): 185. doi:10.2307/1774359. JSTOR   1774359. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  6. Heikki 1999, pp. 82–83.
  7. Frederiksen, Niels Christian (1902). Finland; Its Public and Private Economy (1 ed.). E. Arnold. p. 244. Retrieved 7 April 2022.
  8. 1 2 Heikki 1999, p. 83.
  9. Simojoki 1978, p. 63.
  10. "XVIth General Assembly: Grenoble, France 1976" (PDF). International Astronomical Union. 1976. pp. 27–28.
  11. International Conference Held at Washington for the Purpose of Fixing a Prime Meridian and a Universal Day. October, 1884. Protocols of the Proceedings. 1884. p. 142. Retrieved 7 April 2022 via Project Gutenberg.
  12. Howse, Derek (1980). Greenwich time and the discovery of the longitude. Oxford University Press. pp. 152–153. ISBN   978-0192159489 . Retrieved 7 April 2022 via Internet Archive.
  13. Gould 1925, p. 8.
  14. American Association of Passenger Traffic Officers (November 1893). W.F. Allen (ed.). "Editorial comments". Traveler's Official Railway Guide: North American Freight Service Edition. No. 6 of the 26th year. New York; Philadelphia: National Railway Publication Company. p. xix (19). Retrieved 11 April 2022.
  15. Gould 1925, p. 2.
  16. 1 2 3 4 Heikki 1999, p. 87.
  17. Donnerin, Anders (8 March 1897). "Yleisen anomuslautakunnan mietintö N:o 2" [Report of the General Petitions Committee No. 2]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 11 April 2022. Retrieved 11 April 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  18. Bonsdorff, Ernst (13 March 1897). "Pappissääty. Yhteinen keskiaika" [Estates. The common mean time]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 15 April 2021. Retrieved 11 April 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  19. "Aikareformi" [Time reform]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). 10 December 1919. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  20. "Keskiaurinkoaika otetaan käytäntöön Suomessa" [Standard solar time is put into practice in Finland]. Aamulehti (in Finnish). 13 March 1920. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  21. 1 2 Gould 1935, p. 17.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 Pekka, Linnainen (18 March 2021). "Ajanlasku Suomenlahden erottajana ja yhdistäjänä" [Time as a divider and unifier of the Gulf of Finland] (in Finnish). Estofennia. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022. Ehdotus kaatui Keskuskauppakamarin epäävään lausuntoon, jossa yritysten arveltiin sopeutuvan mainittuihin hankaluuksiin ja viitattiin Yhdysvaltoihin, jonka liike-elämä toimi tehokkaasti neljällä auringonkiertoa vastaavalla vyöhykkeellä.[The proposal collapsed following a negative statement from the Central Chamber of Commerce, which suggested that businesses would adapt to the difficulties mentioned and referred to the United States, where business operated efficiently in four time zones.]
  23. "Keski-Euroopan aika käytäntöön myös Suomessa" [Central European Time in practice also in Finland]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). 19 June 1929. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  24. "Keski-Euroopan ajan käytäntöönottaminen" [Putting Central European Time into practice]. Demokraatti (in Finnish). 5 September 1929. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot. Keski-Euroopan ajan käytäntöönottaminen meillä. Keskuskauppakamari ehdottaa, että esitys saisi tällä kertaa raueta.[Implementing Central European Time in our country. The Central Chamber of Commerce proposes that the proposal be allowed to lapse at this time.]
  25. "Kellad 1 tund taha" [Clocks 1 hour behind]. Vaba Maa (in Estonian). 9 October 1937. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via DIGAR Eesti artiklid.
  26. "Päivän siirtäminen auringonlaskua kohti tuo terveydellisiä haittoja" [Moving the day towards sunset brings health hazards]. Demokraatti (in Finnish). 10 December 1937. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  27. "Posti- ja lennätinhallitus vastustaa Keski-Euroopan aikaa" [The Finnish Post and Telegraph Board opposes Central European Time]. Ajan Suunta (in Finnish). 18 December 1937. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  28. "Keski-Euroopan ajan käytäntöönotto" [Implementation of Central European Time]. Uusi Suomi (in Finnish). 9 January 1938. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  29. "Kesäaikaan siirtymistä vaativat terveydelliset ja taloudelliset syyt" [The transition to summer time is required for health and economic reasons]. Laatokka (in Finnish). 28 February 1942. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  30. 1 2 Heikki 2013, pp. 104–105.
  31. 1 2 Heikki 2007, p. 105.
  32. 1 2 Yli-Ojanperä, Elina (15 March 2007). "Suomi siirtyi kesäaikaan" [Finland moved to summer time] (in Finnish). Yle. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  33. "753/2001". Finlex (in Finnish). Finnish Government. 30 August 2001. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  34. "Finland". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). n.d. Archived from the original on 17 February 2021. Retrieved 6 May 2021. daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
  35. "Directive 2000/84/EC on summer time arrangements". EUR-Lex . European Commission. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  36. 1 2 Heikki 2013, p. 104.
  37. 1 2 "Europe/Helsinki". NOAA Solar Calculator. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. 2020. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  38. Forsell, Tuomas (26 October 2017). "Finland wants EU to give up daylight saving time". Reuters. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  39. "State of the Union 2018: Q&A on the Commission's proposal to put an end to seasonal clock changes". European Commission. European Union. 12 September 2018. Archived from the original on 23 October 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  40. "Could switching between summer and winter time end in 2021?". European Parliament News Press Releases. 4 March 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  41. "EU Parliament votes to end seasonal clock changes". Yle. 26 March 2019. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  42. "European MPs vote to end summer time clock changes". BBC News. 26 March 2019. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  43. "Clocks will be moved forward to summer time next Sunday". Helsinki Times . 24 March 2022. Archived from the original on 20 May 2022. Retrieved 20 May 2022.
  44. 1 2 3 "Clocks go back as Covid crisis delays EU decision". Yle. 30 November 2021. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  45. Teivainen, Aleksi (28 September 2018). "Over 120,000 Finns respond to time zone survey in little over 24 hours". Helsinki Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  46. "Citizens' initiative backing permanent summer time breaks 50k-mark". Yle. 1 May 2019. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 1 March 2022.
  47. "Time Zones and "Z" Time (Universal Time)". Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. U.S. Naval Observatory. n.d. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  48. OECD (2005). OECD Territorial Reviews: Finland 2005. OECD Publishing. p. 20. ISBN   978-9264012783. Archived from the original on 1 March 2022. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  49. Pirinen, Pentti; Simola, Henriikka; Aalto, Juha; Kaukoranta, Juho-Pekka; Karlsson, Pirkko; Ruuhela, Reija (14 August 2012). Tilastoja Suomen ilmastosta 1981–2010 [Statistics on Finland's climate 1981–2010](PDF). Finnish Meteorological Institute. pp. 67–69. ISBN   978-9516977662. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 January 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  50. "Jälleen lähestymme vuoden synkintä pimeyttä" [Again, we are approaching the darkest darkness of the year]. Finnish Meteorological Institute (in Finnish). 5 December 2014. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  51. Brownstone, Andy (host) (23 March 2011). About Time: Where three time zones meet (Video). BBC News. Event occurs at 00:14. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  52. "1015/2014". Finlex (in Finnish). Finnish Government. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  53. ITU Radiocommunication Assembly (2002). "Standard-frequency and time-signal emissions" (PDF). International Telecommunication Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2022.
  54. Heikki 1999, p. 100.
  55. "Leap Seconds List". International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service. Archived from the original on 5 March 2022. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  56. Bizouard, Christian (6 July 2016). "UTC Time Step on the 1st of January 2017". Bulletin C. International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service; Observatoire de Paris. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved 5 April 2022.
  57. 1 2 Wallin, Anders (3 April 2020). "SI units in Finland, time and frequency". VTT News. VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Archived from the original on 28 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  58. "Metrologia: VTT MIKES" [Metrology: VTT MIKES] (in Finnish). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. n.d. Archived from the original on 30 November 2021. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  59. "UTC–UTC(MIKE)". Time Department Data Base. International Bureau of Weights and Measures. n.d. Archived from the original on 27 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  60. "Suomen aika: NTP-palvelu" [Finnish time: NTP service] (in Finnish). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. n.d. Archived from the original on 17 February 2022. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  61. 1 2 "Ajanilmaukset: kellonajat (merkintä ja taivutus)" [Temporal expressions: (notation and inflection)] (in Finnish). Institute for the Languages of Finland. n.d. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  62. "12.2 Klockslag". Myndigheternas skrivregler [Authorities' writing rules](PDF) (in Swedish) (8 ed.). 2014. ISBN   978-9138326251.
  63. "Uusi aikataulu ja 24 tunnin aikajako [15.5.1928 alkaen]" [New schedule and notation of 24 hours [from 15.5.1928]]. Aamulehti (in Finnish). 12 May 1928. Archived from the original on 22 February 2022. Retrieved 22 February 2022 via Digitaaliset aineistot.
  64. "Aikavyöhykkeet – kesäaika – talviaika" [Time zones – daylight saving time – winter time]. kellonaika.fi (in Finnish). Archived from the original on 30 December 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
  65. "Europe (2020 edition)". tz database . Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  66. Olson, Arthur David (22 April 2016). "[tz] Time zone selection" (Mailing list). ICANN. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 1 December 2021.

Bibliography

Further reading

Related Research Articles

Time zone Area that observes a uniform standard time

A time zone is an area that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial and social purposes. Time zones tend to follow the boundaries between countries and their subdivisions instead of strictly following longitude, because it is convenient for areas in frequent communication to keep the same time.

Daylight saving time Seasonal adjustment of clocks

Daylight saving time (DST), also referred to as daylight savings time or simply daylight time, and summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during warmer months so that darkness falls at a later clock time. The typical implementation of DST is to set clocks forward by one hour in the spring, and to set clocks back by one hour in autumn to return to standard time. As a result, there is one 23-hour day in late winter or early spring and one 25-hour day in autumn.

Indian Standard Time (IST), sometimes also called India Standard Time, is the time zone observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30. India does not observe daylight saving time or other seasonal adjustments. In military and aviation time IST is designated E* ("Echo-Star"). It is indicated as Asia/Kolkata in the IANA time zone database.

Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET) is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. It is used in most parts of Europe and in a few North African countries. CET is also known as Middle European Time and by colloquial names such as Amsterdam Time, Berlin Time, Brussels Time, Madrid Time, Paris Time, Rome Time, Warsaw Time or even Romance Standard Time (RST).

Summer time in Europe Variation of standard clock time

Summer time in Europe is the variation of standard clock time that is applied in most European countries in the period between spring and autumn, during which clocks are advanced by one hour from the time observed in the rest of the year, with a view to making the most efficient use of seasonal daylight. It corresponds to the notion and practice of daylight saving time (DST) to be found in many other parts of the world.

Eastern European Time Time zone (UTC+02:00)

Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+02:00 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. The zone uses daylight saving time, so that it uses UTC+03:00 during the summer.

Time in New Zealand is divided by law into two standard time zones. The main islands use New Zealand Standard Time (NZST), 12 hours in advance of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) / military M (Mike), while the outlying Chatham Islands use Chatham Standard Time (CHAST), 12 hours 45 minutes in advance of UTC / military M^ (Mike-Three).

South African Standard Time Time zone

South African Standard Time (SAST) is the time zone used by all of South Africa as well as Eswatini and Lesotho. The zone is two hours ahead of UTC (UTC+02:00) and is the same as Central Africa Time. Daylight saving time is not observed in either time zone. Solar noon in this time zone occurs at 30° E in SAST, effectively making Pietermaritzburg at the correct solar noon point, with Johannesburg and Pretoria slightly west at 28° E and Durban slightly east at 31° E. Thus, most of South Africa's population experience true solar noon at approximately 12:00 daily.

Time in Australia Time zones in Australia

Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, and Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments, some of which observe daylight saving time (DST). Australia's external territories observe different time zones.

Time in Indonesia Three time zones spanning across the country

The Indonesian archipelago geographically stretches across four time zones from UTC+06:00 in Aceh to UTC+09:00 in Papua. However, the Indonesian government recognizes only three time zones in its territory:

Daylight saving time by country

Daylight saving time (DST), also known as summer time, is the practice of advancing clocks during part of the year, typically by one hour around spring and summer, so that daylight ends at a later time of the day. As of 2022, DST is observed in most of Europe, most of North America and parts of Asia around the Northern Hemisphere summer, and in parts of South America and Oceania around the Southern Hemisphere summer. It was also formerly observed in other areas.

Time in Turkey Time zone (UTC+3)

Time in Turkey is given by UTC+03:00 year-round. This time is also called Turkey Time (TRT). The time is currently the same as in the Arabia Standard Time and Moscow Time zones. Turkey Time was adopted by the Turkish Government on 8 September 2016. It was also in use in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus until it reverted to Eastern European Time (EET) in October 2017.

Time in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is denoted by Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time in the Netherlands, which is one hour ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00). The Caribbean Netherlands – which consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba – all observe Atlantic Standard Time (AST) year-round, which is four hours behind coordinated universal time (UTC−04:00).

Time in Iceland

Iceland observes UTC±00:00 year-round, known as Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time. UTC±00:00 was adopted on 7 April 1968 – in order for Iceland to be in sync with Europe – replacing UTC−01:00, which had been the standard time zone since 16 November 1907. Iceland previously observed daylight saving time, moving the clock forward one hour, between 1917 and 1921, and 1939 and 1968. The start and end dates varied, as decided by the government. Between 1941 and 1946, daylight saving time commenced on the first Sunday in March and ended in late October, and between 1947 and 1967 it commenced on the first Sunday in April, in all instances since 1941 occurring and ending at 02:00. Since 1994, there have been an increasing number of proposals made to the Althing to reintroduce daylight saving time for a variety of reasons, but all such proposals and resolutions have been rejected.

Time in Bulgaria Time zones used in Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the standard time is Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, inline with most EU member states.

Time in Romania Time in Romania

In Romania, the standard time is Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

Time in Svalbard Time zones used in Svalbard

Svalbard, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean belonging to the Kingdom of Norway, uses Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time, which is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00). This is shared with the rest of Norway, as is Svalbard's use of daylight saving time, which the territory observes annually by advancing the clock forward on the last Sunday in March and back again on the last Sunday in October. However, as Svalbard experiences midnight sun during the summer due to being located north of the Arctic Circle, it gives daylight saving time no utility, and is only observed in order to make communicating with Norway Proper more convenient. At the 74th parallel north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at the 81st parallel north are 141 and 128 days.

Time in Transnistria Time in Moldova

Time in Transnistria, a breakaway state internationally recognised as being part of Moldova, is given by Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

Time in Lithuania Time zones used in Lithuania

Time in Lithuania is given by Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Latvia adopted EET in 1920.

Time in Libya Time zone used in Libya

Time in Libya is given by a single time zone, officially denoted as Eastern European Time. The zone is also known as Central Africa Time (CAT). Libya has observed EET since 5 November 2012, after it was announced in 2013 that Libya would be on permeant daylight saving time. Libya previously observed several different time zones as standard time and daylight saving time.