Time in Svalbard

Last updated
Time in Svalbard
Polar-Night Longyearbyen.jpg
Characteristic polar night blue twilight, Longyearbyen, located at 78° north.
Time zone Central European Time
InitialsCET
UTC offset UTC+01:00
Time notation 24-hour time
Adopted1925
Daylight saving time
Name Central European Summer Time
InitialsCEST
UTC offset UTC+02:00
StartLast Sunday in March
EndLast Sunday in October
In use since1996 (current alignment)
tz database
Arctic/Longyearbyen
Time in Europe:
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Armenia Time / Azerbaijan Time / Georgia Time (UTC+4)
#### pale colours: standard time observed all year;
### dark colours: summer time observed Time Zones of Europe.svg
Time in Europe :
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Time / Greenwich Mean Time (UTC)
Western European Summer Time / British Summer Time / Irish Standard Time (UTC+1)
Central European Time (UTC+1)
Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time / Kaliningrad Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Time (UTC+2)
Eastern European Summer Time (UTC+3)
Moscow Time / Turkey Time (UTC+3)
Armenia Time / Azerbaijan Time / Georgia Time (UTC+4)
 pale colours: standard time observed all year;
 dark colours: summer time observed

Svalbard, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean belonging to the Kingdom of Norway, uses Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time, which is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00). This is shared with the rest of Norway, as is Svalbard's use of daylight saving time, which the territory observes annually by advancing the clock forward on the last Sunday in March and back again on the last Sunday in October. However, as Svalbard experiences midnight sun during the summer due to being located north of the Arctic Circle, it gives daylight saving time no utility, and is only observed in order to make communicating with Norway Proper more convenient. At the 74th parallel north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at the 81st parallel north are 141 and 128 days.

Contents

History

The Spitsbergen Treaty of 9 February 1920 recognises Norway's full and absolute sovereignty over the arctic archipelago of Svalbard (formerly Spitsbergen), and has been subject to the laws of Norway since 14 August 1925. [1] [2] Steffen Thorsen of the tz database, which is backed by ICANN, hypotheses that Svalbard has possibly followed Norway's standard time since 1925, and before that had used a local mean time somewhere between 1895 (when Svalbard was first inhabited, same year Norway introduced standard time) and 1925. [3] Accordingly, Svalbard has observed CET since 1925, and has been subject to Norway's laws on daylight saving time. [4]

Daylight saving time

Svalbard observes daylight saving time yearly by advancing the clock forward one hour from Central European Time in UTC+01:00 to Central European Summer Time in UTC+02:00. Daylight saving time begins on the last Sunday in March and ends on the last Sunday in October. [5] This is in-line with the rest of the Kingdom of Norway, [6] and has been observed in this current alignment since 1996. [7] Svalbard first observed daylight saving time by moving the clock forward one hour at inconsistent times between 1943 and 1945, and 1959 and 1965. Daylight saving time was reintroduced for a final time in 1980, and since 1996 Norway has followed the European Union regarding transition dates. [7] As Svalbard experiences midnight sun during summer, it gives daylight saving time no utility, and is only observed in order to make communicating with Norway Proper more convenient. [4]

Geography and solar time

Most of Svalbard lies within the geographical UTC+01:00 offset (also known as zone "Alpha"), including the only permanently-populated island of Spitsbergen. Places located west of 22.5° East, including the western half of Nordaustlandet, are in the geographical UTC+02:00 offset ("Bravo"). [8] [9] [10] As Svalbard is located north of the Arctic Circle, it experiences midnight sun during summer and polar night during winter. At the 74° parallel north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at the 81° parallel north are 141 and 128 days. [11] In Longyearbyen, midnight sun lasts from 20 April until 23 August, and polar night lasts from 26 October until 15 February. [12] The difference of longitude between the western (10°29'31 E; Forlandet National Park, Prins Karls Forland) [13] and easternmost (33°30'59 E; Kræmerpynten, Kvitøya) [14] points of Svalbard results in a difference of approximately 1 hour 32 minutes of solar time.

Notation

As with the rest of Norway, the 24-hour clock is commonly used, however when speaking informally, the 12-hour clock is often used. [15]

IANA time zone database

In the IANA time zone database, Svalbard is given one zone in the file zone.tab – Arctic/Longyearbyen. "SJ" refer's to the country's ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code, which is used for Svalbard and Jan Mayen collectively. The table below displays data taken directly from zone.tab of the IANA time zone database. Columns marked with * are the columns from zone.tab itself: [3]

c.c.*coordinates*TZ*CommentsUTC offsetDST
SJ +7800+01600 Arctic/Longyearbyen +01:00 +02:00

Computers which do not support "Arctic/Longyearbyen" may use the older POSIX syntax: TZ="CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3". [16]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Svalbard</span> Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean

Svalbard, also known as Spitsbergen, or Spitzbergen, is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean. North of mainland Europe, it is about midway between the northern coast of Norway and the North Pole. The islands of the group range from 74° to 81° north latitude, and from 10° to 35° east longitude. The largest island is Spitsbergen, followed by Nordaustlandet and Edgeøya. The largest settlement is Longyearbyen.

Spitsbergen Largest island of the Svalbard archipelago in northern Norway

Spitsbergen is the largest and only permanently populated island of the Svalbard archipelago in northern Norway.

Midnight sun Natural phenomenon when daylight lasts for a whole day

The midnight sun is a natural phenomenon that occurs in the summer months in places north of the Arctic Circle or south of the Antarctic Circle, when the Sun remains visible at the local midnight. When the midnight sun is seen in the Arctic, the Sun appears to move from left to right, but in Antarctica the equivalent apparent motion is from right to left. This occurs at latitudes from 65°44' to 90° north or south, and does not stop exactly at the Arctic Circle or the Antarctic Circle, due to refraction.

Longyearbyen Largest settlement and administrative centre of Svalbard, Norway

Longyearbyen is the world's northernmost settlement and largest inhabited area of Svalbard, Norway. It stretches along the foot of the left bank of the Longyear Valley and on the shore of Adventfjorden, the short estuary leading into Isfjorden on the west coast of Spitsbergen, the island's broadest inlet. As of 2002 Longyearbyen Community Council became an official Norwegian municipality. It is the seat of the Governor of Svalbard. The town's mayor is Arild Olsen.

Time in Germany Overview of the time zones used in Germany

The time zone in Germany is Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. The doubled hour during the switch back to standard time is named 2A and 2B.

Time in Norway Overview of the time zones used in Norway

In Norway the standard time is the Central European Time (CET). Norway observes Summer Time. The transition dates are the same as for other European countries.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Outline of Svalbard</span> Overview of and topical guide to Svalbard

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Svalbard:

Time in Ukraine

Time in Ukraine is defined as UTC+02:00 and in summer as UTC+03:00. Part of Eastern European Time, it is locally referred to as Kyiv Time. The change for the summer time takes place in the last Sunday of March at 03:00 when the time is changed by an hour ahead, and the last Sunday of October at 04:00, when the time changes an hour back. In this way, the clocks in Ukraine are always one hour ahead of those in central Europe.

Time in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is denoted by Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time in the Netherlands, which is one hour ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00). The Caribbean Netherlands – which consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba – all observe Atlantic Standard Time (AST) year-round, which is four hours behind coordinated universal time (UTC−04:00).

Time in Finland Time zones used in Finland

Finland uses Eastern European Time (EET) during the winter as standard time and Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) during the summer as daylight saving time. EET is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00) and EEST is three hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+03:00). Finland adopted EET on 30 April 1921, and has observed daylight saving time in its current alignment since 1981 by advancing the clock forward one hour at 03:00 EET on the last Sunday in March and back at 04:00 EET on the last Sunday in October, doing so an hour earlier for the first two years.

In Sweden, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Sweden adopted CET in 1900.

In Serbia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Serbia adopted CET in 1884.

In Andorra, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Andorra adopted CET after WWII.

Time in Poland Time zones used in Poland

Time in Poland is given by Central European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves an hour ahead, is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

In Slovenia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

Time in Iceland

Iceland observes UTC±00:00 year-round, known as Greenwich Mean Time or Western European Time. UTC±00:00 was adopted on 7 April 1968 – in order for Iceland to be in sync with Europe – replacing UTC−01:00, which had been the standard time zone since 16 November 1907. Iceland previously observed daylight saving time, moving the clock forward one hour, between 1917 and 1921, and 1939 and 1968. The start and end dates varied, as decided by the government. Between 1941 and 1946, daylight saving time commenced on the first Sunday in March and ended in late October, and between 1947 and 1967 it commenced on the first Sunday in April, in all instances since 1941 occurring and ending at 02:00. Since 1994, there have been an increasing number of proposals made to the Althing to reintroduce daylight saving time for a variety of reasons, but all such proposals and resolutions have been rejected.

Time in Bulgaria Time zones used in Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the standard time is Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, inline with most EU member states.

Time in Romania Time in Romania

In Romania, the standard time is Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

Time in Lithuania Time zones used in Lithuania

Time in Lithuania is given by Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Latvia adopted EET in 1920.

Time in Sudan is given by a single time zone, officially denoted as Central Africa Time. Sudan has observed CAT since 1 November 2017. Sudan has not observed daylight saving time since 14 October 1985.

References

  1. National Research Council (U.S.). Polar Research Board (1986). Antarctic treaty system: an assessment. Science of the Total Environment. Vol. 61. National Academies Press. pp. 260–261. Bibcode:1987ScTEn..61..260B. doi:10.1016/0048-9697(87)90375-5. ISBN   978-0309036405. Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  2. "Lov om Svalbard [Svalbardloven]". Lovdata (in Norwegian). Ministry of Justice and Public Security. 1925. Archived from the original on 2022-01-18. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  3. 1 2 "Europe (2020 edition)". tz database . Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Archived from the original on 9 May 2021. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  4. 1 2 Pearce, Chris (2017). The Great Daylight Saving Time Controversy. Australian eBook Publisher. p. 112. ISBN   9781925516968 . Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  5. "Svalbard". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 14 January 2022. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 18 January 2022. daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
  6. Defense Mapping Agency (2002). Summary of Corrections. Vol. 5. National Imagery and Mapping Agency. p. 420. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  7. 1 2 "Sommertid i Norge" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 28 September 2006. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  8. "World Time Zone Map, corrected to August 2017". HM Nautical Almanac Office . United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  9. "TIME ZONES and "Z" TIME (UNIVERSAL TIME)". Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. U.S. Naval Observatory. Archived from the original on 9 March 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  10. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide). National Imagery and Mapping Agency. 2002. p. 80. Archived from the original on 24 March 2022. Retrieved 18 January 2022.
  11. Torkildsen, Torbjørn; et al. (1984). Svalbard, vårt nordligste Norge (in Norwegian). Forlaget Det Beste. pp. 96–97. ISBN   82-7010-167-2. Archived from the original on 18 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  12. "Svalbard". Norwegian Polar Institute. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 7 May 2021.
  13. "Svalbardkartet". Norwegian Polar Institute. Archived from the original on 21 January 2022. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  14. "Geographical survey". Statistical Yearbook of Norway 2008. Statistics Norway. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  15. Time in Svalbard. Lonely Planet . Retrieved 18 January 2022.[ dead link ]
  16. Olson, Arthur David (22 April 2016). "[tz] Time zone selection". tz database. ICANN. Archived from the original on 1 December 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2022.