Time in the Netherlands

Last updated
Time in the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Time zone Central European Time (Netherlands)
Atlantic Standard Time (Caribbean Netherlands)
UTC offset UTC+01:00 (Netherlands)
UTC−04:00 (Caribbean Netherlands)
Time notation 24-hour clock
Daylight saving time
Name Central European Summer Time (Netherlands)
InitialsCEST
UTC offset UTC+02:00
StartLast Sunday in March (02:00 CET)
EndLast Sunday in October (03:00 CEST)
tz database
Europe/Amsterdam
America/Kralendijk

Time in the Kingdom of the Netherlands is denoted by Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time in the Netherlands, which is one hour ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of coordinated universal time (UTC+02:00). [1] The Caribbean Netherlands – which consist of the islands of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba – all observe Atlantic Standard Time (AST) year-round, which is four hours behind coordinated universal time (UTC−04:00). [1]

Contents

History

Early history

Christiaan Huygens, who was Dutch, invented the revolutionary pendulum clock Christiaan Huygens-painting.jpeg
Christiaan Huygens, who was Dutch, invented the revolutionary pendulum clock

Before the 19th century, there was no need for a standard time zone across the country. Instead, sundials were historically used to measure the mean solar time. [2] But they could not function at night or if the sky was cloudy, in which case other methods such as the clepsydra were used, which measured time by the regulated flow of water into or out from a vessel. Sundials, which divide a day into 24 hours, were subject to inaccuracies, as Earth's rotation around the Sun does not follow a uniform time of 24 hours. On a sundial, the position of the sun would be 14 minutes behind around 11 February, and 16½ minutes ahead around 3 November. From the 13th century, mechanical clocks began to be used across Europe. However, they too remained imprecise, and had to be adjusted almost daily on the basis of the position of the Sun with a sundial in order to remain accurate. In 1656, Christiaan Huygens invented the pendulum clock, a clock that uses a pendulum swinging weight as its timekeeping element. It was immensely accurate, misaligning only about one second per year, and soon became the world's standard timekeeper until it was superseded as a time standard by the quartz clock in the 1930s. [2] [3] [4]

Advent of the railway and telegraph

In the mid-19th century, the need for a standard time zone across the country began to be realised with the advent of the railway, which would follow precise timetables – sailing ships and stage-coaches could not – and with the telegraph, which allowed near real-time communication. [2]

While a mean time was proposed as early as 1835, the first law relating to a standardised time zone was the Telegraph Act of 1852, which stipulated that the national telegraph service adjust the clocks in its offices to "the central time of Amsterdam", which would later become known as "Amsterdam Time" (Dutch: Amsterdamse Tijd  [ nl ]) the mean time of Amsterdam (UTC+00:19:32.13). [5] Later amendments to the Telegraph Act allowed telegraph offices to indicate their opening hours in local mean time, but Amsterdam Time always had to be stated when the telegrams were sent. From 1 January 1866, both the opening hours and the times stated on the telegrams had to be given in both local time and Amsterdam Time. [2]

According to the General Regulations for Railway Services Act, passed on 12 May 1863, each station had to be "provided with a well-running clock, regulated according to the mean time after which the service on the railway takes place", the choice of the maintained time being left to the railway companies themselves. Most railway stations chose to observe Amsterdam Time, and in a government decree dated 31 July 1866 to amend the railway regulations, it was stipulated that the time at all stations and in all timetables should henceforth be given according to Amsterdam Time. [2]

The International Meridian Conference was held in Washington, D.C. in October 1884, which was attended by a delegate from the Netherlands. Geographically, the Netherlands is located closer to the prime meridian in Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; UTC±00:00; also called Western European Time) than to the 15th meridian east in Central European Time (CET; UTC+01:00). However, a government decree dated 19 April 1892 proclaimed that from 1 May the Dutch railways would legally be required to observe GMT whilst the telegraph companies would have to observe CET. The latter decision came as to convenience shipping between the Netherlands and the rest of continental Europe, where the bordering countries observed CET. The ship's chronometers were also adjusted accordingly. [2]

Nationwide standard times and the introduction of daylight saving time

On 1 May 1909, a government decree stipulated that the entirety of the Netherlands (including the Dutch railways) would be required by law to observe Amsterdam Time. [2] Daylight saving time was first attempted on 1 May 1916; the clock moved forwards one hour at 00:00 to UTC+01:19:32.13, and moved back on 1 October at 00:00. [6] Daylight saving time continued the following year, this time moving forwards on 16 April at 02:00 and back on 17 September at 03:00. [7] The government found the results pleasing, and formally implemented daylight saving time into law on 23 March 1918. [8] Between 1918 and 1925 [lower-alpha 1] daylight saving time began on the first Monday in April at 02:00 and ended on the last Monday in September at 03:00 until 1921, when the end date was changed to the Sunday in the first weekend of October. Between 1926 and 1939, daylight saving time began on 15 May – one week later if it fell on Whitsun – at 02:00, and ended at 03:00 at Sunday in the first weekend of October. On 1 July 1937, the time zone of the Netherlands was simplified to UTC+00:20, and became generally known as "Dutch Time" (Dutch: Nederlandse Tijd). [2] In 1940 when Germany occupied the Netherlands in World War II, Berlin Time (UTC+01:00) was adopted, and daylight saving time was removed. The Netherlands has retained UTC+01:00 ever since, today known as Central European Time (CET; Dutch: Midden-Europese Tijd (MET)).

Daylight saving time

In-line with the EU directive, the Netherlands observes daylight saving time yearly by advancing the clock forward one hour from Central European Time in UTC+01:00 to Central European Summer Time in UTC+02:00 at 02:00 on the last Sunday in March and back at 03:00 on the last Sunday in October. [1] [9]

Geography and solar time

Map of Europe with differences between time zones and UTC offsets, showing the Netherlands

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0 h +- 30 m
1 h +- 30 m ahead Tzdiff-Europe-winter.png
Map of Europe with differences between time zones and UTC offsets, showing the Netherlands
  0 h ± 30 m
  1 h ± 30 m ahead

Geographically, the Netherlands lies within the UTC±00:00 offset. [10] [11] The difference of longitude between the western (3°21′30″E) and easternmost points (7°13′40″E) of the Netherlands results in a difference of approximately 16 minutes of solar time.

Date and notation

IANA time zone database

In the IANA time zone database, the Netherlands is given two zones in the file zone.tabEurope/Amsterdam and America/Kralendijk for the Caribbean Netherlands. [lower-alpha 2] "NL" and "BQ" refer to the country's ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes, the former being for the Caribbean Netherlands and the latter for the country in general. Data for the Netherlands directly from zone.tab of the IANA time zone database; columns marked with * are the columns from zone.tab itself: [12]

c.c.*coordinates*TZ*CommentsUTC offsetDST
NL +5222+00454 Europe/Amsterdam +01:00 +02:00
BQ +120903−0681636 America/Kralendijk −04:00 −04:00

Computers which do not support "Europe/Amsterdam" or "America/Kralendijk" may use the older POSIX syntax: TZ="CET-1CEST,M3.5.0,M10.5.0/3". [13]

See also

Notes

  1. Except for the years 1923 and 1925, when daylight saving time began on the first Friday in June.
  2. Kralendijk, the capital of Bonaire, is the largest city in the Caribbean Netherlands.

Related Research Articles

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Central European Time Standard time (UTC+01:00)

Central European Time (CET) is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). The time offset from UTC can be written as UTC+01:00. It is used in most parts of Europe and in a few North African countries. CET is also known as Middle European Time and by colloquial names such as Amsterdam Time, Berlin Time, Brussels Time, Madrid Time, Paris Time, Rome Time, Warsaw Time or even Romance Standard Time (RST).

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The Indonesian archipelago geographically stretches across four time zones from UTC+06:00 in Aceh to UTC+09:00 in Papua. However, the Indonesian government recognizes only three time zones in its territory:

Time in the Czech Republic

Time in the Czech Republic is given by Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. The Czech Republic has observed Central European Time since 1979. Until 1993 when Czechoslovakia was separated into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, they also had Central European Time and Central European Summer Time. After the summer months, time in the Czech Republic is shifted back by one hour to Central European Time. Like most states in Europe, Summer time is observed in the Czech Republic, when time is shifted forward by one hour, two hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time.

Switzerland uses Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time, which is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00).

Time in Tunisia is given by a single time zone, officially denoted as Central European Time. Tunisia adopted WAT on 12 April 1911, and does not observe daylight saving time, though previously it has.

In Croatia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

Time in Austria Time zones used in Austria

In Austria, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October.

Time in Albania Time zones used in Albania

In Albania, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to Central European Summer Time, is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Albania adopted CET in 1914.

In Serbia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Serbia adopted CET in 1884.

In Montenegro, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Montenegro has consistently used CET since it gained independence in 2006.

Time in Poland Time zones used in Poland

Time in Poland is given by Central European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves an hour ahead, is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

In Slovenia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

In North Macedonia, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

In Monaco, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. This is shared with several other EU member states.

Time in Bulgaria Time zones used in Bulgaria

In Bulgaria, the standard time is Eastern European Time. Daylight saving time, which moves one hour ahead to UTC+03:00 is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October, inline with most EU member states.

Time in Svalbard Time zones used in Svalbard

Svalbard, an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean belonging to the Kingdom of Norway, uses Central European Time (CET) during the winter as standard time, which is one hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+01:00), and Central European Summer Time (CEST) during the summer as daylight saving time, which is two hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC+02:00). This is shared with the rest of Norway, as is Svalbard's use of daylight saving time, which the territory observes annually by advancing the clock forward on the last Sunday in March and back again on the last Sunday in October. However, as Svalbard experiences midnight sun during the summer due to being located north of the Arctic Circle, it gives daylight saving time no utility, and is only observed in order to make communicating with Norway Proper more convenient. At the 74th parallel north, the midnight sun lasts 99 days and polar night 84 days, while the respective figures at the 81st parallel north are 141 and 128 days.

In Liechtenstein, the standard time is Central European Time. Daylight saving time is observed from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October. Liechtenstein adopted CET in 1894.

Time in Libya Time zone used in Libya

Time in Libya is given by a single time zone, officially denoted as Eastern European Time. The zone is also known as Central Africa Time (CAT). Libya has observed EET since 5 November 2012, after it was announced in 2013 that Libya would be on permeant daylight saving time. Libya previously observed several different time zones as standard time and daylight saving time.

References

  1. 1 2 3 "Netherlands". The World Factbook . Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 27 December 2021. daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October […] time zone note: time descriptions apply to the continental Netherlands only, for the constituent countries in the Caribbean, the time difference is UTC-4
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 De wettelijke tijdregeling in Nederland (met een overzicht van de zomertijdregeling vanaf 1916). (in Dutch). Faculty of Science. Utrecht University. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  3. Milham 1945, p. 330, 334.
  4. Marrison, Warren (1948). "The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock". Bell System Technical Journal. 27 (3): 510, 524. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01343.x. Archived from the original on 13 May 2007.
  5. Gould 1935, p. 19.
  6. Straatsblad (Stb.) 1916/172. (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands – via the Faculty of Science, Utrecht University. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  7. Straatsblad (Stb.) 1917/286. (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands – via the Faculty of Science, Utrecht University. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  8. Straatsblad (Stb.) 1918/221. (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands – via the Faculty of Science, Utrecht University. Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  9. "Directive 2000/84/EC on summer time arrangements". EUR-Lex . European Commission . Retrieved 27 December 2021.
  10. "World Time Zone Map, corrected to August 2017". HM Nautical Almanac Office . United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. Archived from the original on 18 April 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  11. "TIME ZONES and "Z" TIME (UNIVERSAL TIME)". Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences. U.S. Naval Observatory . Retrieved 1 January 2021.
  12. Europe (2020 edition) at the tz database. Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA). Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  13. Olson, Arthur David (22 April 2016). "[tz] Time zone selection". tz database. ICANN . Retrieved 27 December 2021.

Bibliography