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The Nine Saints were a group of missionaries who were important in the initial growth of Christianity in what is now Ethiopia during the late 5th century. Their names were Abba Aftse, Abba Alef, Abba Aragawi, Abba Garima (Isaac, or Yeshaq), Abba Guba, Abba Liqanos, Abba Pantelewon, Abba Sehma, and Abba Yem’ata. Although frequently described as coming from Syria, only two or three actually came from that province; according to Paul B. Henze, others have been traced to Constantinople, Anatolia, and even Rome.The Ethiopian historian Tadesse Tamrat speculates that they may have been connected with the anti-Monophysite and anti-Miaphysite persecutions that followed the Council of Chalcedon, which adopted Dyophysitism. Their activities spread Christianity beyond "a narrow corridor between Adulis and Aksum along the caravan routes." Besides converting the local inhabitants to Christianity, they also founded a number of monastic houses that followed the rule of Saint Pachomius: Abba Aftse founded the monastery at Yeha; Abba Alef the northernmost establishment at Bi'isa on the south bank of the Mareb River; the foundation of the important monastery of Debre Damo is attributed to Abba Aragawi; Abbas Liqanos and Pantelewon are credited with establishing Pentalewon Monastery in Axum; Abba Garima founded Abba Garima Monastery north of Adwa; Abba Guba the one at Madara; Abba Sehma one at Sedenya; and Abba Yem’ata founded the southernmost one of the group in the Gar'alta, noted for its Abuna Yemata Guh church named after him.
Recent radiocarbon dating supports the tradition of Saint Abba Garima's arrival at the Abba Garima Monastery in 494.The Garima Gospels, which Garima is said to have written, is now regarded as "the world's earliest illustrated Christian manuscript" and the oldest surviving Ethiopian manuscript of any kind.
A painting belonging to the Cyprus Presidential Palace with the same title (but quite unrelated to the above) was on exhibition in the Λεβέντειος Πινακοθήκη in Nicosia in 2014. Information about the painting is found in the August 25th issue of the Greek-Cypriot Sunday newspaper Καθημερινή, .
The nine saints are also found in the Sinaxaristis (Συναξαριστής in Greek),
The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is the largest of the Oriental Orthodox Christian churches. One of the few pre-colonial Christian churches in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has a membership of about 36 million people, the majority of whom live in Ethiopia. It is a founding member of the World Council of Churches. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church is in communion with the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, and the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, having gained autocephaly in 1959.
Adwa is a market town and separate woreda in Tigray, Ethiopia. It is best known as the community closest to the decisive Battle of Adwa fought in 1896 with Italian troops; the Ethiopian soldiers, aided by Russia and France, won the battle, thus being one of the few African nations to thwart European colonialism. Located in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the Tigray Region, Adwa has a longitude and latitude of, and an elevation of 1907 meters. Adwa is surrounded by Adwa woreda.
Tekle Haymanot or Takla Haymanot was an Ethiopian saint and monk mostly venerated by Ethiopians as a hermit. He has a ecclesiastical title, LikPapas who founded a major monastery in his native province of Shewa. He is significant for being the only Ethiopian saint popular both amongst Ethiopians and outside that country. Tekle Haymanot "is the only Ethiopian saint celebrated officially in foreign churches such as Rome and Egypt." His feast day is August 17, and the 24th day of every month in the Ethiopian calendar is dedicated to Tekle Haymanot.
The Zagwe dynasty was the ruling dynasty of a medieval kingdom in present-day northern Ethiopia. The kingdom itself was perhaps called Begwena, after the historical name of the Lasta province. Centered at Lalibela, it ruled large parts of the territory from approximately 900 to 1270, when the last Zagwe King Za-Ilmaknun was killed in battle by the forces of the Abyssinian King Yekuno Amlak. The name of the dynasty is thought to derive from the ancient Ge'ez phrase Ze-Agaw, meaning "opponent", in reference to the Mara Tekle Hymanote, the founder of the dynasty. Zagwe's best-known King was Gebre Mesqel Lalibela, who is credited with having constructed the rock-hewn monolithic churches of Lalibela.
Emperor Yekuno Amlak was an Amhara prince from Bet Amhara province who became king of kings of Ethiopia following the defeat of the last Zagwe king. He was nəgusä nägäst of Ethiopia and founder of the Solomonic dynasty. He traced his ancestry through his father, Tasfa Iyasus, to Dil Na'od, the last King of Axum.
Dawit I was Emperor of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty. He was the younger son of Newaya Krestos.
Zar'a Ya`qob or Zera Yacob was the Emperor of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonic dynasty who ruled under regnal name Kwestantinos I or Constantine I, from the old province of Shewa, where the capital of the Amhara emperors was located before the post-16th-century Oromo migrations and the destructive war with Gran Ahmad. Born at Telq in the province of Fatajar, Zara Yaqob was the youngest son of Dawit I and his youngest wife, Igzi Kebra.
Nicolò Brancaleon was a painter born in Venice, whose art left a clear influence in Ethiopia from the reign of Baeda Maryam onwards. During his lifetime in Ethiopia, he was commonly called "Marqorewos".
Istifanos Monastery is a monastery in Ethiopia, located in Lake Hayq. The church structure was built around the 9th-century by the Aksumite king Dil Na'od. In the 13th century the church was converted into a monastery in large part due to the work of Saint Iyasus Mo'a & later Emperor Yekuno Amlak.
Ewosṭatewos was an important religious leader of the Orthodox Tewahedo during the early period of the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia. He was a forceful advocate for the observation of the Sabbath in Christianity. His followers, known as the House of Ewostatewos, have been a historic force in Tewahedo Orthodoxy.
Abuna Aregawi was a sixth-century monk, whom tradition holds founded the monastery Debre Damo in Tigray, said to have been commissioned by Emperor Gebre Mesqel of Axum.
Abba Garima Monastery is an Ethiopian Orthodox church, located around five kilometres east of Adwa, in the Mehakelegnaw Zone of the northern Tigray Region in Ethiopia. It was established in the sixth century by one of the Nine Saints, Abba Garima, and built by King Gabra Masqal. The monastery became known for its early manuscript copy of the gospels and its treasury.
The Garima Gospels are two ancient Ethiopic Gospel Books. Garima 2, the earlier of the two, is believed to be the earliest surviving complete illuminated Christian manuscript. Monastic tradition holds that they were composed close to the year 500, a date supported by recent radiocarbon analysis; samples from Garima 2 proposed a date of c. 390-570, while counterpart dating of samples from Garima 1 proposed a date of c. 530-660.
Abba Pentelewon was a Christian monk who is traditionally credited with founding Pentalewon Monastery located on the top of Mai Qoho Hill northwest of Axum in Tigray, Ethiopia. He is one of the members of the group known as the Nine Saints.
Salama II was Abuna, or head of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. During his tenure a number of translations into the Ge'ez language appeared, which has resulted with him being remembered as "Abba Salama, the Translator."
Ethiopian art from the 4th century until the 20th can be divided into two broad groupings. First comes a distinctive tradition of Christian art, mostly for churches, in forms including painting, crosses, icons, illuminated manuscripts, and other metalwork such as crowns. Secondly there are popular arts and crafts such as textiles, basketry and jewellery, in which Ethiopian traditions are closer to those of other peoples in the region. Its history goes back almost three thousand years to the kingdom of D'mt. The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has been the predominant religion in Ethiopia for over 1500 years, for most of this period in a very close relation, or union, with the Coptic Christianity of Egypt, so that Coptic art has been the main formative influence on Ethiopian church art.
The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church with its headquarters in Asmara, Eritrea. Its autocephaly was recognised by Shenouda III, Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria after Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia in 1993.
The Zege Peninsula is located on the southern shore of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, and is situated at. It is 600 km northwest of Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Lake Tana is the largest lake in Ethiopia, and is the source of the Blue Nile river. The peninsula is attached to dry land on its western part. As a place name, the word "zege" signifies a peninsula that encloses two rural qebele, the former monastery and Zägé town at the gate of the main land of the peninsula. At present, Zegé is part of Bahir Dar city administration, and is 32 km from the main town, the capital of Amhara National Regional State. The origin of the term "zegié" is somewhat obscure. Informants from Ura Kidane miheret monastic church, one of the earliest church in the peninsula associated the term to Debra Zegag and Abba Nahom; where as some monks who were servants of Mähal Zegié Giyorgis attributed the term to Zengie and to Abun Betre Maryam, founder of Zegie monastery. Still another church scholar, Aleqa Aynakulu Mersha, related the term to a name of a tribe called Zegie 1955 E.C:466; Tadese Tamrat, 1994:954-959). On the peninsula of Zege there are six Monastic churches, all established between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Giyorgis of Segla, also known as Giyorgis of Gesecha and Abba Giyorgis, was an Ethiopian Oriental Orthodox monk, saint, and author of religious books.
Abuna Yemata Guh is a monolithic church located in the Hawzen woreda of the Tigray Region, Ethiopia. It is situated at a height of 2,580 metres (8,460 ft) and has to be climbed on foot to reach. It is notable for its dome and wall paintings dating back to the 5th century and its architecture.