Kaduna

Last updated
Kaduna
Nigeria location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 10°31′23″N7°26′25″E / 10.52306°N 7.44028°E / 10.52306; 7.44028
Country Flag of Nigeria.svg Nigeria
State Kaduna State
Government
   Governor Nasir Ahmad el-Rufai
Area
  Total131 km2 (51 sq mi)
Elevation
250 m (820 ft)
Population
(2006 census) [1]
  Total760,084
  Rank 8th
  Density5,800/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
  Ethnicities
Gbagyi, Adara, Hausa, Atyap-Bajju, Ham, Yoruba, Fulani, Kanuri, Marghi, Nupe, and Igbo,
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+1 (CEST)
Climate Aw
Website www.kdsg.gov.ng

Kaduna is the state capital of Kaduna State in north-western Nigeria, on the Kaduna River. It is a trade centre and a major transportation hub for the surrounding agricultural areas, with its rail and road junction. The population of Kaduna was at 760,084 as of the 2006 Nigerian census.

Kaduna State State in Nigeria

Kaduna, usually referred to as Kaduna State to distinguish it from the city of Kaduna, is a state in Northwest Nigeria. Its capital is Kaduna.

Nigeria Federal republic in West Africa

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, and Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean. The federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja is located. Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.

Kaduna River river in Nigeria

The Kaduna River is a tributary of the Niger River which flows for 550 kilometres (340 mi) through Nigeria. It got its name from the crocodiles that lived in the river and surrounding area. Kaduna in the native dialect, Hausa, was the word for "crocodiles". It starts in Plateau State on the Jos Plateau 29 kilometres (18 mi) southwest of Jos town, flows through its namesake Kaduna State and through its capital Kaduna, and meets the Niger River in Niger State. Most of its course passes through open savanna woodland, but its lower section has cut several gorges above its entrance into the extensive Niger floodplains.

Contents

Rapid urbanisation since 2005 has created an increasingly large population, now estimated to be around 1.3 million. Kaduna's name derives from the Hausa word kada, for crocodile (kaduna being the plural form). [2]

History

Kaduna was founded by British colonists in 1913 and became the capital of Nigeria's former Northern Region in 1917. [3] It retained this status until 1967. The first British governor of Northern Nigeria, Sir Frederick Lugard, chose the present site for development due to its proximity to the Lagos-Kano Railway. [4] Sir Ahmadu Bello, the premier of Northern Nigeria (1954-1966), was assassinated in Kaduna on 15 January, 1966 in a mainly Igbo military coup. This event contributed to the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970). [4]

British Empire States and dominions ruled by the United Kingdom

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states. It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the foremost global power. By 1913, the British Empire held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time, and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2 (13,700,000 sq mi), 24% of the Earth's total land area. As a result, its political, legal, linguistic and cultural legacy is widespread. At the peak of its power, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" was often used to describe the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun was always shining on at least one of its territories.

Northern Region, Nigeria former autonomous division within Nigeria

Northern Nigeria was an autonomous division within Nigeria, distinctly different from the southern part of the country, with independent customs, foreign relations and security structures. In 1962 it acquired the territory of the British Northern Cameroons, which voted to become a province within Northern Nigeria.

Igbo people Ethnic group in south eastern Nigeria

The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern and a western section. The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

The Nigerian Islamic umbrella association, Jama’atu Nasril Islam, is based in the city. [5]

Jama’atu Nasril Islam (JNI) is an umbrella group for the Nigerian Muslim community its headquarter is in the city of Kaduna, and its president is the Sultan of Sokoto. The organisation conducts Islamic education and missionary work in Nigeria, and has had particular success amongst recent converts from the Igbo tribe.

Religious strife

With both Muslim and Christian populations, Kaduna has been a site of religious tension between Muslims and Christians, particularly over the implementation of shari'a law in Kaduna State beginning in 2001. In February 2000, nearly 1,000 people were killed in a riot, and several cars and houses were burned to ashes. The city remains segregated to this day, with Muslims living mainly in the north and Christians in the south. [6]

Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in West Africa. The CIA estimates 50% while the BBC estimates slightly over 50% (2007). Muslims in Nigeria are predominantly Sunni of the Maliki school of thought. However, there is a significant Shia minority, primarily in Kaduna, Kano, Katsina and Sokoto states;. A smaller minority follow the Ahmadiyya, a reformatory sect originating in 19th-century India. In particular Pew Forum on religious diversity identifies 12 percent as Shia Muslims.

Christianity in Nigeria Christianity in Nigeria

Christians in Nigeria comprise an estimated 49.3% of the population. Christians are dominant in the southern and central region in Nigeria. According to the Pew Research Center, Nigeria has the largest Christian population of any country in Africa, with more than 80 million persons in Nigeria belonging to the church with various denominations.

Muslims Adherents of Islam

Muslims are people who follow or practice Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion. Muslims consider the Quran, their holy book, to be the verbatim word of God as revealed to the Islamic prophet and messenger Muhammad. The majority of Muslims also follow the teachings and practices of Muhammad (sunnah) as recorded in traditional accounts (hadith). "Muslim" is an Arabic word meaning "submitter". The largest denomination of Islam are Sunni Muslims who constitute 85-90% of the total Muslim population, followed by the Shia who make up most of the remainder of Muslims.

In 2002 some Muslims were offended by an article in a Lagos newspaper about the upcoming Miss World pageant scheduled for that week in the capital city of Abuja; it suggested that if Muhammad watched the beauty pageant he would end up marrying one of its contestants. A massive riot ensued. Churches were among the most frequently attacked targets: More than 20 were burned by Muslims. In retaliation, Christians burned eight mosques. Several hotels were also burned. The city suffered widespread damage, and 11,000 people were left homeless. The local offices of the newspaper that had published the offending article were burned. As a result, thousands of civilians fled the city to escape.

Lagos Metropolis in Nigeria

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos. The city, with its adjoining conurbation, is the most populous in Nigeria, and the most populous on the African continent. It is one of the fastest growing cities in the world, and also one of the most populous urban agglomerations. Lagos is a major financial centre in Africa; the megacity has the highest GDP, and also houses one of the largest and busiest seaports on the continent.

Miss World beauty contest

Miss World is the oldest running international beauty pageant. It was created in the United Kingdom by Eric Morley in 1951. Since his death in 2000, Morley's widow, Julia Morley, has co-chaired the pageant. Along with Miss Universe, Miss International and Miss Earth, this pageant is one of the Big Four international beauty pageants—the most coveted beauty titles when it comes to international pageant competitions.

Abuja Federal capital in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory. It is a planned city and was built mainly in the 1980s, replacing the country's most populous city of Lagos as the capital on 12 December 1991. Abuja's geography is defined by Aso Rock, a 400-metre (1,300 ft) monolith left by water erosion. The Presidential Complex, National Assembly, Supreme Court and much of the city extend to the south of the rock. Zuma Rock, a 792-metre (2,598 ft) monolith, lies just north of the city on the expressway to Kaduna.

Civil unrest soon spread to the capital, Abuja. After four days of rioting, Nigerian security forces quelled the riots and arrested hundreds of rioters. The government imposed a temporary curfew, but although individual killings continued. Some 215 bodies were counted on the streets or in morgues, while others were buried by their families before being counted. 1,000 people were wounded. The funerals of many of the victims took place shortly after the riot ended.

Muslim rioters were tried in Sharia courts, while Christian rioters were tried by civilian jurisdictions. The editor of the newspaper that had published the article was arrested. [Isioma Daniel]], the reporter who wrote the article, resigned and fled to Norway. [7]

Climate

Climate data for Kaduna
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)37.8
(100.0)
37.8
(100.0)
38.3
(100.9)
38.3
(100.9)
37.8
(100.0)
34.4
(93.9)
32.2
(90.0)
31.7
(89.1)
32.2
(90.0)
34.4
(93.9)
35.6
(96.1)
35.6
(96.1)
38.3
(100.9)
Average high °C (°F)31.7
(89.1)
33.4
(92.1)
35.0
(95.0)
34.2
(93.6)
31.7
(89.1)
29.5
(85.1)
27.5
(81.5)
27.0
(80.6)
29.0
(84.2)
31.1
(88.0)
32.7
(90.9)
31.8
(89.2)
31.2
(88.2)
Daily mean °C (°F)23.4
(74.1)
25.0
(77.0)
27.7
(81.9)
27.9
(82.2)
26.3
(79.3)
24.6
(76.3)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
24.0
(75.2)
24.9
(76.8)
24.2
(75.6)
23.0
(73.4)
24.8
(76.6)
Average low °C (°F)15.1
(59.2)
16.7
(62.1)
20.4
(68.7)
21.6
(70.9)
20.9
(69.6)
19.8
(67.6)
19.4
(66.9)
19.3
(66.7)
19.1
(66.4)
18.7
(65.7)
15.6
(60.1)
14.3
(57.7)
18.4
(65.1)
Record low °C (°F)9.4
(48.9)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
14.7
(58.5)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
16.7
(62.1)
16.7
(62.1)
15.6
(60.1)
13.3
(55.9)
10.0
(50.0)
9.4
(48.9)
8.9
(48.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)0.5
(0.02)
2
(0.1)
13
(0.5)
66
(2.6)
157
(6.2)
178
(7.0)
206
(8.1)
290
(11.4)
277
(10.9)
86
(3.4)
5
(0.2)
0
(0)
1,280
(50.4)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.3 mm)00251316182221800105
Average relative humidity (%)26243757738286888574483159
Mean monthly sunshine hours 279.0262.7266.6243.0241.8216.0155.0120.9171.0248.0285.0294.52,783.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 9.09.38.68.17.87.25.03.95.78.09.59.57.6
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst [8]

Demographics

Muslims compose roughly 60% of the population and Christians constitute roughly 40% of the population. [2]

Economy and transport

Kaduna River promotes the economy of the town. Kaduna River, Kaduna (Nigeria), 2007.JPG
Kaduna River promotes the economy of the town.

Kaduna is an industrial centre of Northern Nigeria and the Middle Belt, manufacturing products like textiles, machinery, steel, aluminium, petroleum products and bearings. However, the textile industry has been declining because of factory closings due to neglect during military rule and competition with Chinese imports. Automobile manufacturing also remains an important part of Kaduna's economy. [2] Pottery is highly prized from Kaduna, especially from the Nok culture, which precedes Abuja and Minna. Other light manufactures include: plastics, pharmaceuticals, leather goods, furniture, and televisions. [4] Some of the main agricultural exports include: cotton, peanuts, sorghum, and ginger. [9]

One of Nigeria's four main oil refineries is located in Kaduna. It is supplied by a pipeline from the Niger Delta oil fields. [4]

A 2009 World Bank survey states that Kaduna is one of the top six cities with the highest unemployment. 20% of the population is estimated to be unemployed. [2]

The main highway through the city is called Ahmadu Bello Way. Many of the place names come from past sultans, emirs and decorated Civil War heroes. Kaduna has a large market, recently rebuilt after an extensive fire in the mid-1990s.

There is a large racecourse, approximately 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) round, inside which the Ahmadu Yakubu Polo Club and Kaduna Crocodile Club are situated, whilst the Kaduna and Rugby Clubs are on the periphery.

There are two airports, one of which is Kaduna Airport. Chanchangi Airlines has its head office in Kaduna. [10]

Kaduna also has a branch of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. [4]

Railways

Kaduna is an important junction on Nigeria's Cape gauge railway network. At Kaduna, a branch line connects the Lagos–Nguru Railway to the Port Harcourt–Maidugur Railway.

Kaduna is also on the route of the planned Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway, which has been completed between the national capital of Abuja and Kaduna. Trains for Abuja depart from the Rigasa Railway Station in Kaduna. [11]

Notable residents

See also

Related Research Articles

Kano Capital city in Northern Nigeria

Kano is the state capital of Kano State in North West, Nigeria. It is situated in the Sahelian geographic region, south of the Sahara. Kano is the commercial nerve centre of Northern Nigeria and is the second largest city in Nigeria. The Kano metropolis initially covered 137 square kilometres, and comprised six local government areas (LGAs) — Kano Municipal, Fagge, Dala, Gwale, Tarauni and Nasarawa; However, it now covers two additional LGAs — Ungogo and Kumbotso. The total area of Metropolitan Kano is now 499 square kilometres, with a population of 2,828,861 as of the 2006 Nigerian census; the latest official estimate is 3,931,300.

Abubakar Tafawa Balewa Nigerian politician

Alhaji Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, KBE was a Nigerian politician, and the first prime minister of an independent Nigeria.

Jos Place in Plateau State, Nigeria

Jos is a city in the Middle Belt of Nigeria. The city has a population of about 900,000 residents based on the 2006 census. Popularly called "J-Town", it is the administrative capital of Plateau State.

Chanchangi Airlines Nigeria Limited was a privately owned and operated airline with its head office in the Chanchangi Office Complex in Kaduna, Nigeria. It operates scheduled domestic passenger services. Its main base was Murtala Mohammed International Airport, Lagos, with hubs at Kaduna, Abuja, and Port Harcourt. Alhaji Ahmadu Chanchangi, its founder, hails from Chanchangi village in Takum Local Government of Taraba state, Nigeria.

Zaria LGA and city in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Zaria is a major city in Kaduna State in northern Nigeria, as well as being a Local Government Area. Formerly known as Zazzau, it was one of the original seven Hausa city-states. Today, it is known for housing Nigeria's largest university, Ahmadu Bello University, as well as being home to a number of prominent Nigerians.

Ahmadu Bello University Public university in Zaria, Nigeria

Ahmadu Bello University (ABU) is a federal government research university in Zaria, Kaduna State. ABU was founded on 4 October 1962, as the University of Northern Nigeria.

Bayero University Kano Public university in Kano, Nigeria

Bayero University Kano (BUK) is a university situated in Kano, Kano State, Nigeria. It was founded in 1977, when it was renamed from Bayero University College and upgraded from university college to university.

Malumfashi LGA and town in Katsina State, Nigeria

Malumfashi is a Local Government Area in Katsina State, Nigeria. Its headquarters are in the town of Malumfashi.

2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup

The 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup was the thirteenth tournament of the FIFA U-17 World Cup held in Nigeria from 24 October to 15 November 2009.

Sabon Gari section of cities and towns in West Africa

A Sabon Gari is a section of cities and town in Northern Nigeria south central Niger and northern Cameroon whose residents are not indigenous to Hausa lands.

Rail transport in Nigeria

Railways in Nigeria are operated by the Nigerian Railway Corporation. Nigeria's rail system consists of 3,505 km of 3 ft 6 in gauge lines and 507 km of standard gauge lines. Efforts are underway to rehabilitate the Cape gauge network and construct a new standard gauge network.

Railway stations in Nigeria Wikimedia list article

Railway stations in Nigeria include:

The Federal Republic of Nigeria operates two court systems. Both systems can punish blasphemy. The Constitution provides a Customary (secular) system and a system that incorporates Sharia. The Customary system prohibits blasphemy by section 204 of Nigeria's Criminal Code. Section 204 is entitled "Insult to religion". The section states:

Abdullahi Musa Abu-Abdissamad is a business consultant and educator. He is the founder and Chief Consultant of Unique International Consultants which offers consultancy services in Nigeria.

Jaiz Bank Plc, is a bank in Nigeria operating under Islamic banking principles and is a non-interest bank. It is the first non-interest bank established in Nigeria and is headquartered in Abuja, the capital city of the country.

Miss World riots

The Miss World riots were a series of religiously-motivated riots in the Nigerian city of Kaduna in November 2002, claiming the lives of more than 200 people. The Miss World beauty pageant, which was controversial in Nigeria, was relocated to London after bloody clashes between Muslims and Christians, caused by what some Muslims deemed to be a "blasphemous" article in the Christian newspaper ThisDay about the event. The Miss World riots were part of the Sharia conflict in Nigeria, that started in 1999 when several predominantly Islamic states in Northern Nigeria decided to introduce Sharia law.

Religious violence in Nigeria refers to Christian-Muslim strife in modern Nigeria, which can be traced back to 1953. Today, religious violence in Nigeria is dominated by the Boko Haram insurgency, which aims to impose Sharia on the entire nation.

The Lagos–Kano Standard Gauge Railway is an under construction standard gauge railway across Nigeria, from the Atlantic Ocean port of Lagos to Kano, near the Niger border. The railway will run parallel to the British-built Cape gauge line, which has a lower design capacity and is in a deteriorated condition.

Abidina Coomassie was a Nigerian journalist and newspaper publisher.

References

  1. Summing the 2 LGAs Kaduna North/South as per Federal Republic of Nigeria Official Gazette (15 May 2007). "Legal Notice on Publication of the Details of the Breakdown of the National and State Provisional Totals 2006 Census" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 2007-05-19.
  2. 1 2 3 4 "Kaduna". The Forum for Cities in Transition. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  3. Fletcher, Banister; Dan Cruickshank (1996). "Africa". Sir Banister Fletcher's a History of Architecture. Architectural Press. p. 1466. ISBN   0-7506-2267-9.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 "Kaduna". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  5. Nagendra Kr Singh. International Encyclopaedia of Islamic Dynasties. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2002. ISBN   81-261-0403-1, ISBN   978-81-261-0403-1. Pg 411
  6. Isaacs, Dan (2002-12-20). "Kaduna: Nigeria's religious flashpoint". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  7. "BBC News - Nigeria Buries Its Dead". 2002-11-25. Retrieved 2009-02-07.
  8. "Klimatafel von Kaduna / Nigeria" (PDF). Baseline climate means (1961-1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  9. "Kaduna". Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia (6th ed.). ISBN   9780787650155 . Retrieved 13 November 2016.
  10. "Contacts Archived 2009-12-27 at the Wayback Machine ." Chanchangi Airlines. Retrieved on 19 October 2009.
  11. Muhammad, Hamisu (23 July 2016). "A memorable trip on the Abuja-Kaduna train". Daily Trust.
  12. Nossiter, Adam (2010-01-17). "Lonely Trek to Radicalism for Terror Suspect". The New York Times.

13. https://www.powpedia.com/news.php#news5 Kaduna Seminar on Business and Agriculture

14. "Bikin Sallah: An rufe wuraren shakatawa a Kaduna". Hausa.ng. 2018-08-13. Retrieved 2018-10-22.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Kaduna at Wikimedia Commons

Coordinates: 10°31′N7°26′E / 10.517°N 7.433°E / 10.517; 7.433