Journeyman

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A journeyman is a skilled worker who has successfully completed an official apprenticeship qualification in a building trade or craft. Journeymen are considered competent and authorized to work in that field as a fully qualified employee. They earn their license by education, supervised experience and examination. [1] Although journeymen have completed a trade certificate and are allowed to work as employees, they may not yet work as self-employed master craftsmen. [2]

Apprenticeship

An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study. Apprenticeship also enables practitioners to gain a license to practice in a regulated profession. Most of their training is done while working for an employer who helps the apprentices learn their trade or profession, in exchange for their continued labor for an agreed period after they have achieved measurable competencies. Apprenticeships typically last 3 to 7 years. People who successfully complete an apprenticeship reach the "journeyman" or professional certification level of competence.

Craft pastime or profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work

A craft or trade is a pastime or a profession that requires particular skills and knowledge of skilled work. In a historical sense, particularly the Middle Ages and earlier, the term is usually applied to people occupied in small-scale production of goods, or their maintenance, for example by tinkers. The traditional term craftsman is nowadays often replaced by artisan and rarely by craftsperson (craftspeople).

Master craftsman occupational rank

A master craftsman or master tradesman was a member of a guild. In the European guild system, only masters and journeymen were allowed to be members of the guild.

Contents

The term was originally used in the medieval trade guilds. Journeymen were paid each day. The word "journey" is derived from journée, meaning "day" in French. Each individual guild generally recognised three ranks of workers: apprentices, journeymen, and masters. A journeyman, as a qualified tradesman could become a master and run their own business, but most continued working as employees. [3]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Guidelines were put in place to promote responsible tradesmen, who were held accountable for their own work and to protect the individual trade and the general public from unskilled workers. To become a master, a journeyman has to submit a master piece of work to a guild for evaluation. Only after evaluation can a journeyman be admitted to the guild as a master. [4] Sometimes, a journeyman was required to accomplish a three-year working trip, which may be called the journeyman years.

Journeyman years

In a certain tradition, the journeyman years are a time of travel for several years after completing apprenticeship as a craftsman. The tradition dates back to medieval times and is still alive in German-speaking countries. Normally three years and one day is the minimum period of journeyman/woman. Crafts include roofing, metalworking, woodcarving, carpentry and joinery, and even millinery and musical instrument making/organ building.

Origin

German journeymen in traditional uniform during journeyman years Gesellen1.jpg
German journeymen in traditional uniform during journeyman years

The word journey comes from the French journée (day), which in turn comes from the Latin diurnus (pertaining to a day, daily). The title "journeyman" refers to the right to charge a fee for each day's work. A journeyman has completed an apprenticeship but is employed by another [5] such as a master craftsman, but they would live apart and might have a family of their own. A journeyman could not employ others. In contrast, an apprentice would be bound to a master, usually for a fixed term of seven years, and lived with the master as a member of the household, receiving most or all compensation in the form of food, lodging, and training.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

In parts of Europe, as in Late Medieval Germany, spending time as a wandering journeyman (Wandergeselle), [6] moving from one town to another to gain experience of different workshops, was an important part of the training of an aspirant master. Carpenters and other artisans in German speaking countries have retained the tradition of traveling journeymen even today, [7] but only a few still practice it. In France, wandering journeymen were known as compagnons.

Germany Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe

Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, and the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north, Poland and the Czech Republic to the east, Austria and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, and Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands to the west.

Carpentry skilled trade

Carpentry is a skilled trade and a craft in which the primary work performed is the cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc. Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are considered carpentry. In the United States, 98.5% of carpenters are male, and it was the fourth most male-dominated occupation in the country in 1999. In 2006 in the United States, there were about 1.5 million carpentry positions. Carpenters are usually the first tradesmen on a job and the last to leave. Carpenters normally framed post-and-beam buildings until the end of the 19th century; now this old fashioned carpentry is called timber framing. Carpenters learn this trade by being employed through an apprenticeship training—normally 4 years—and qualify by successfully completing that country's competence test in places such as the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and South Africa. It is also common that the skill can be learned by gaining work experience other than a formal training program, which may be the case in many places.

France Republic with mainland in Europe and numerous oversea territories

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Modern era

In modern apprenticeship systems, a journeyman has a trades certificate to show the required completion of an apprenticeship. In many countries, it is the highest formal rank, as that of master has been eliminated, and they may perform all tasks of the trade in the area certified as well as supervise apprentices and become self-employed.

The modern apprenticeship system aims to build skills by on-the-job training. An apprentice is able to earn a living while learning new skills. The working environment is closely linked to the employer giving the individual company the opportunity to shape the apprentice, within the guidelines, to suit particular requirements. Quite often, a strong working relationship is built between employee and employer. [8]

In Germany, however, master craftsmen, after they complete their apprenticeships, are required to take part-time courses that last three to four years or full-time courses that last one year.

Qualifications

A person who has completed the traditional live-in apprenticeship can be considered a journeyman, just like someone who is educated in the field and passed a board-certified test.

United States

In the United States, employment in some building trades, such as an electrician, carpenter, plumber, machinist, and HVAC contractor, usually requires holding state or local (city or county) license as a journeyman or master. The license certifies that the craftsman has met the requirements of time in the field (usually a minimum of 8,000 hours) and time in an approved classroom setting (usually 700 hours). A journeyman has the responsibility of supervising workers of lesser experience and training them and has the qualifications (knowledge and skills) to work unsupervised himself. A journeyman is commonly expected to have a wide range of experience, covering most fields of their trade. For example, a non-journeyman worker of some 20 or 30 years' experience may have most or all of their experience in only residential, commercial, or industrial applications. A journeyman, however, has a broad field of experience in residential, commercial, and industrial applications.

Australia

In Australia, a journeyman registration allows the permit holder to work under the general direction of an advanced tradesman. A journeyman may oversee the work of apprentices and trades assistants but may not contract for work using that particular registration. A journeyman level qualification is obtained by completing a formal apprenticeship. An apprenticeship is learning a skilled trade under the supervision of an advanced tradesperson. [9] An apprentice is a trainee who is becoming formally trained and qualified in a particular type of trade. The duration of an apprenticeship is usually three to four years, depending on the individual trade. On completion of the training the apprentice will receive a nationally recognised qualification, a trade certificate. Practical on-the-job learning makes up the majority of an apprenticeship, but it also incorporates some classroom learning. Apprenticeships offer real-life experience in the workplace, a regular income and new skills. [10] Examples of licensed trades are plumbers and gas-fitters, electricians, air-conditioning and refrigeration mechanics and carpenters and joiners. [11]

Modern journeyman

The modern journeyman is a term for the many paths of adult education and can be used to describe life's process of continual learning. Although the term journeyman is typically traditional, modern journeyman is used to refer to current concepts of adult education: life-long learning, up-skilling, the knowledge wave and modern apprenticeships. [12]

See also

Further reading

Related Research Articles

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area. The earliest types of guild formed as a confraternities of tradesmen. They were organized in a manner something between a professional association, a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society. They often depended on grants of letters patent from a monarch or other authority to enforce the flow of trade to their self-employed members, and to retain ownership of tools and the supply of materials. A lasting legacy of traditional guilds are the guildhalls constructed and used as guild meeting-places. Guild members found guilty of cheating on the public would be fined or banned from the guild.

Electrician tradesperson specializing in electrical wiring of buildings, stationary machines and related equipment

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Stonemasonry The craft of creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone

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Tradesman worker that specializes in a particular trade or craft requiring skill

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Masterpiece creation that has been given much critical praise

Masterpiece, magnum opus or chef-d’œuvre in modern use is a creation that has been given much critical praise, especially one that is considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, skill, profundity, or workmanship. Historically, a "masterpiece" was a work of a very high standard produced to obtain membership of a guild or academy in various areas of the visual arts and crafts.

The Compagnons du Devoir, full name Compagnons du Devoir et du Tour de France, is a French organization of craftsmen and artisans dating from the Middle Ages. Their traditional, technical education includes taking a tour, the Tour de France, around France and doing apprenticeships with masters. For a young man or young woman today, the Compagnonnage is a traditional mentoring network through which to learn a trade while developing character by experiencing community life and traveling. The community lives in a Compagnon house known as a cayenne and managed by a mère (mother) or maîtresse (mistress), a woman who looks after the well-being of the residents, of which there are more than 80 in France. The houses vary in size from a small house for five people to a larger one with more than 100 people living together.

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Pipefitter occupation

A pipefitter is a tradesperson who installs, assembles, fabricates, maintains and repairs mechanical piping systems. Pipefitters usually begin as helpers or apprentices. Journeyman pipefitters deal with industrial/commercial/marine piping and heating/cooling systems. Typical industrial process pipe is under high pressure, which requires metals such as carbon steel, stainless steel, and many different alloy metals fused together through precise cutting, threading, grooving, bending and welding. A plumber concentrates on lower pressure piping systems for sewage and potable water, in the industrial, commercial, institutional, or residential atmosphere. Utility piping typically consists of copper, PVC, CPVC, polyethylene, and galvanized pipe, which is typically glued, soldered, or threaded. Other types of piping systems include steam, ventilation, hydraulics, chemicals, fuel, and oil.

Also called a journeyman's license. Certification that, graduated from their training as an apprentice, a worker has acquired a trade skill. With such papers, a worker can travel, and request work in his or her industry, various places. A journeyman is a tradesman or craftsman who has completed an apprenticeship.

An electrical contractor is a business person or firm that performs specialized construction work related to the design, installation, and maintenance of electrical systems.

Instrument mechanics in engineering are tradesmen who specialize in installing, troubleshooting, and repairing instrumentation, automation and control systems. The term instrument mechanic came about because it was a combination of light mechanical and specialised instrumentation skills. The term is still is used in certain industries; predominantly in industrial process control.

Interprovincial Standards

The Red Seal Interprovincial Standards Program, also known as Red Seal or simply IP, is a set of trade qualifications in Canada, jointly administered by the Federal, Provincial and Territorial governments. The program has run since 1959.

Work and labour organization in Upper Canada

The cultural and legal framework within which tradesmen contracted for work, and hired men was similar to that of Great Britain. These immigrants quickly sought to establish and regulate the basic institutions of the trades: Friendly societies, the house of call and apprenticeship. Friendly societies were worker controlled mutual insurance organizations. They provided an income in the case of strike, injury or economic downturn. Their association with specific trades also made them useful vehicles for trade union organization.

Australian Industry Trade College

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References

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  3. Journeyman. (2015). In The Hutchinson unabridged encyclopedia with atlas and weather guide. Abington, United Kingdom: Helicon. Retrieved from http://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/heliconhe/journeyman/0
  4. Salt, L. E., & Sinclair, R. (Eds.). (1957). Oxford junior encyclodaedia: Industry and commerce (Vol. VII). London: Oxford University Press.
  5. "Journeyman" def. 1. Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0), Oxford University Press, 2009
  6. Dicke, Hugo, and Hans H. Glismann. Vocational Training in Germany. Kiel: Institut für Weltwirtschaft, 1994. page 34. Print.
  7. Europe journeymen NYTimes, August 8, 2017
  8. Cassels, J. (2001). Modern Apprenticeships: the way to work, The Report of the Modern Apprenticeship Advisory Committee. Retrieved from http://dera.ioe.ac.uk/id/eprint/6323
  9. Northern Territory Government. (2016). Journeyman registration. Retrieved from http://www.plumberslicensing.nt.gov.au/licensing#journey
  10. Work Ready. (2016). What is an apprenticeship or traineeship? Retrieved from http://www.skills.sa.gov.au/apprenticeships-traineeships/get-an-apprenticeship-or-traineeship/what-is-an-apprenticeship-or-traineeship
  11. Commonwealth of Australia. (2016). Licence recognition. Retrieved from http://www.licencerecognition.gov.au/About/Pages/default.aspx
  12. Emms, M. (2005). The modern journeyman: Influences and controls of apprentice-style learning in culinary education. Retrieved from https://aut.researchgateway.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10292/85/EmmsS.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y