Terminology of the Low Countries

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The Low Countries indicated in Latin as Belgico (1631) 1632 Bello Belgico Stradae.jpg
The Low Countries indicated in Latin as Belgico (1631)
The Low Countries from 1556 to 1648. The Low Countries.png
The Low Countries from 1556 to 1648.

The Low Countries comprise the coastal Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta region in Western Europe, whose definition usually includes the modern countries of Luxembourg, Belgium and the Netherlands. [1] [2] Both Belgium and the Netherlands derived their names from earlier names for the region, due to nether meaning "low" and Belgica being the Latinized name for all the Low Countries, [3] a nomenclature that went obsolete after Belgium's secession in 1830.

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The Low Countries—and the Netherlands and Belgium—had in their history exceptionally many and widely varying names, resulting in equally varying names in different languages. There is diversity even within languages: the use of one word for the country and another for the adjective form is common. This holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form for the country "the Netherlands". Moreover, many languages have the same word for both the country of the Netherlands and the region of the Low Countries, e.g., French (les Pays-Bas) and Spanish (los Países Bajos). The complicated nomenclature is a source of confusion for outsiders, and is due to the long history of the language, the culture and the frequent change of economic and military power within the Low Countries over the past 2000 years.

In general, the names for the language, for the region, and for the countries within the region, and the adjective forms can all be arranged in five main groups according to their origin: it is a reference to a non-Latin, Germanic language— þiudisk —(Dietsc, "Dutch", Nederduits), whose speakers are ancestral to local Germanic tribes (Belgae, Batavi, Frisii); these tribes dissolved into confederations (Franconian, Frisian) which consolidated into local, economic powerful polities (Flanders, Brabant, Holland) in the low-lying, down river land at the North Sea (Germania Inferior, Lower Lorraine, Low Countries, Netherlands).

History

The historic Low Countries made up much of Frisia, home to the Frisii, and the Roman provinces of Gallia Belgica and Germania Inferior, home to the Belgae and Germanic peoples like the Batavi. Throughout the centuries, the names of these ancestors have been in use as a reference to the Low Countries, in an attempt to define a collective identity. But it was in the fourth and fifth centuries that a Frankish confederation of Germanic tribes significantly made a lasting change by entering the Roman provinces and starting to build the Carolingian Empire, of which the Low Countries formed a core part.

By the eighth century, most of the Franks had exchanged their Germanic Franconian languages for the Latin-derived Romances of Gaul. However, the Franks that stayed in the Low Countries had kept their original language, i.e., Old Dutch, also known as "Old Low Franconian" among linguists. At the time the language was spoken, it was known as *þiudisk, meaning "of the people"—as opposed to the Latin language "of the clergy"—which is the source of the English word Dutch. Now an international exception, it used to have in the Dutch language itself a cognate with the same meaning, i.e., Diets(c) or Duuts(c).

The designation "low" to refer to the region has also been in use many times. First by the Romans, who called it Germania "Inferior". After the Frankish empire was divided several times, most of it became the Duchy of Lower Lorraine in the tenth century, where the Low Countries politically have their origin. [4] [5] Lower Lorraine disintegrated into a number of duchies, counties and bishoprics. Some of these became so powerful, that their names were used as a pars pro toto for the Low Countries, i.e., Flanders, Holland and to a lesser extent Brabant. Burgundian, and later Habsburg rulers [6] [7] added one by one the Low Countries' polities in a single territory, and it was at their francophone courts that the term les pays de par deçà arose, that would develop in Les Pays-Bas or in English "Low Countries" or "Netherlands".

Theodiscus and derivatives

A Dutch-German dictionary. The languages are in Dutch indicated as Nederduitsch ("Dutch") and Hoogduitsch ("German"), while in German as Hollandisch and Deutsch respectively (1759). Matthias Kramer Het Nieuw Woordenboek 1759 p2.png
A Dutch-German dictionary. The languages are in Dutch indicated as Nederduitsch ("Dutch") and Hoogduitsch ("German"), while in German as Holländisch and Deutsch respectively (1759).

Dutch, Diets and Duyts

English is the only language to use the adjective Dutch for the language of the Netherlands and Flanders or something else from the Netherlands. The word is derived from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz . The stem of this word, *þeudō , meant "people" in Proto-Germanic, and *-iskaz was an adjective-forming suffix, of which -ish is the Modern English form. [8] Theodiscus was its Latinised form [9] and used as an adjective referring to the Germanic vernaculars of the Early Middle Ages. In this sense, it meant "the language of the common people", that is, the native Germanic language. The term was used as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. [10] It was first recorded in 786, when the Bishop of Ostia writes to Pope Adrian I about a synod taking place in Corbridge, England, where the decisions are being written down "tam Latine quam theodisce" meaning "in Latin as well as Germanic". [11] [12] [13] So in this sense theodiscus referred to the Germanic language spoken in Great Britain, which was later replaced by the name Englisc. [14]

During the Middle Ages the Old English variant þeodisc was subsequently influenced from Middle Dutch duutsc/duitsc/dietsc, and was then mainly used to refer to the inhabitants of the Low Countries, with whom there was extensive trade. Though initially also encompassing a broader definition signifying "speakers of Germanic languages on the continent" or "Non-Romance speakers" the use of the word Dutch in this sense was rare and would become obsolete following the growing and intensive rivalry between England and the Dutch Republic during the 17th century. [15] [16] An exception are the Pennsylvania Dutch, who were originally German immigrants, speak a German dialect and refer to themselves as Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch. [17] [18]

In the Dutch language itself, Diets(c) (later Duyts and Duits) was used as one of several autonyms until the 18th century, when it became obsolete and Duits became the sole Dutch exonym for German. [15] [19]

Nederduits

From the second half of the 16th until the middle of the 18th century, Nederduits appears as the nomenclature for the Dutch language among both scholars and writers of literature. [20] [21] Not only because it was perceived as modern, but also because nederig is Dutch for "humble", thus invoking the sense of a humble language, forming a wordplay, which appealed to the highly religious Dutch people of the time and the low lying features of their country. [22] However, the early 19th century saw the emergence of modern Germanic linguistics, and German linguists used the term Niederdeutsch for the German varieties spoken in the North of Germany which did not experience the High German consonant shift. Dutch linguists subsequently calqued the terminology, and used Nederduits as its translation for these German dialects. [23] As a result, Nederduits started to have two meanings. To avoid this confusion, Nederlands as a reference to the Dutch language prevailed over Nederduits. The Nederduits Hervormde Kerk in Nederland changed in the 19th century its name in Nederlands Hervormde Kerk, however in South Africa, offshoots of this church kept their old name in the Dutch-related Afrikaans. Thus the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika is translated in English as "Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NHK)" and the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk as "Dutch Reformed Church in South Africa (NGK)".

Names from low-lying geographical features

On the title page of Descrittione (1581), an account of the history and the arts of the Low Countries, no less than three names are used to indicate the Low Countries: 1) Belgia (alongside the woman figure on the left), 2) i Paesi Bassi and 3) Germania inferiore (both to the right) Descrittione di M. Lodouico Guicciardini patritio fiorentino di tutti i Paesi Bassi 1567.jpg
On the title page of Descrittione (1581), an account of the history and the arts of the Low Countries, no less than three names are used to indicate the Low Countries: 1) Belgia (alongside the woman figure on the left), 2) i Paesi Bassi and 3) Germania inferiore (both to the right)

Place names with "low(er)" or neder, lage, nieder, nether, nedre, bas and inferior are used everywhere in Europe. They are often used in contrast to either an upstream or higher ground that consecutively is indicated as "upper" or boven, oben, superior and haut. Both downstream at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, and low at the plain near the North Sea apply to the Low Countries. However, the related geographical location of the "upper" ground changed over time tremendously, and rendered over time several names for the area now known as the Low Countries:

Netherlands

Under Philip the Good (1396-1467), Duke of Burgundy, the provinces of the Netherlands began to grow together: Flanders, Artois, Namur, Holland, Zeeland, Hainaut, Brabant, Limburg and Luxembourg were ruled in personal union. He has been honored by later humanists as the founding father of the Netherlands. By Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden, circa 1450). Philip the good.jpg
Under Philip the Good (1396–1467), Duke of Burgundy, the provinces of the Netherlands began to grow together: Flanders, Artois, Namur, Holland, Zeeland, Hainaut, Brabant, Limburg and Luxembourg were ruled in personal union. He has been honored by later humanists as the founding father of the Netherlands. By Early Netherlandish painter Rogier van der Weyden, circa 1450).
The Low Countries in 1786 with the Austrian Netherlands highlighted Southern Netherlands map 003.jpg
The Low Countries in 1786 with the Austrian Netherlands highlighted

Pays d'embas and later Les Pays-Bas was translated as Neder-landen in contemporary Dutch official documents. [26] From the mid-sixteenth century on, this became a commonly used name and lost its specific meaning of a low-lying land as opposed to a high-lying land. But the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) divided the Low Countries into the northern Dutch Republic (Latin: Belgica Foederata) and the southern Spanish Netherlands (Latin: Belgica Regia), introducing a distinction, i.e. Northern vs. Southern Netherlands, the latter being roughly present-day Belgium. Nederlands, as a name for the language, was first attested in a work printed at Gouda in 1482. [27] Since the 15th century it slowly replaced the Dutch autonym Diets and Duyts.

The English adjective "Netherlandish", meaning "from the Low Countries", derived directly from the Dutch adjective Nederlands. It is typically used in reference to paintings or music produced anywhere in the Low Countries during the 15th and early 16th century, which are collectively called Early Netherlandish painting (Dutch : Vlaamse primitieven, "Flemish primitives" — also common in English before the mid 20th century), or (regarding music) the Netherlandish School. Later art and artists from the southern Catholic provinces of the Low Countries are usually called Flemish and those from the northern Protestant provinces Dutch, but art historians sometimes use "Netherlandish art" for art of the Low Countries produced before 1830, i.e., until the secession of Belgium from the Netherlands.

Apart from its use to describe paintings, it is as adjective not common in English. Many languages however, do have a cognate or calque derived from the Dutch adjective Nederlands:

Toponyms:

Low Countries

The Low Countries (Dutch : Lage Landen) refers to the historical region de Nederlanden: those principalities located on and near the mostly low-lying land around the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta. That region corresponds to all of the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, forming the Benelux. The name "Benelux" is formed from joining the first two or three letters of each country's name Belgium, Netherlands and Luxembourg. It was first used to name the customs agreement that initiated the union (signed in 1944) and is now used more generally to refer to the geopolitical and economical grouping of the three countries, while "Low Countries" is used in a more cultural or historical context.

In many languages the nomenclature "Low Countries" can both refer to the cultural and historical region comprising present-day Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg, as to "the Netherlands" alone, i.e., Les Pays-Bas in French, Los Países Bajos in Spanish and i Paesi Bassi in Italian. Several other languages have literally translated "Low Countries" in their own language to refer to the Dutch language:

Names from local polities

Flanders (pars pro toto)

The name of the historic County of Flanders had been a pars pro toto for the Low Countries until the 17th century. Locator County of Flanders (1350).svg
The name of the historic County of Flanders had been a pars pro toto for the Low Countries until the 17th century.

Flemish (Dutch : Vlaams) is derived from the name of the County of Flanders (Dutch : Graafschap Vlaanderen), in the early Middle Ages the most influential county in the Low Countries, and the residence of the Burgundian dukes. Due to its cultural importance, "Flemish" became in certain languages a pars pro toto for the Low Countries and the Dutch language. This was certainly the case in France, since the Flemish are the first Dutch speaking people for them to encounter. In French-Dutch dictionaries of the 16th century, "Dutch" is almost always translated as Flameng. [28]

A calque of Vlaams as a reference to the language of the Low Countries was also in use in Spain. In the 16th century, when Spain inherited the Habsburg Netherlands, the whole area of the Low Countries was indicated as Flandes, and the inhabitants of Flandes were called Flamencos. For example, the Eighty Years' War between the rebellious Dutch Republic and the Spanish Empire was called Las guerras de Flandes [29] and the Spanish army that was based in the Low Countries was named the Army of Flanders (Spanish : Ejército de Flandes).

The English adjective "Flemish" (first attested as flemmysshe, c. 1325; [30] cf. Flæming, c. 1150), [31] was probably borrowed from Old Frisian. [32] The name Vlaanderen was probably formed from a stem flām-, meaning "flooded area", with a suffix -ðr- attached. [33] The Old Dutch form is flāmisk, which becomes vlamesc, vlaemsch in Middle Dutch and Vlaams in Modern Dutch. [34] Flemish is now exclusively used to describe the majority of Dutch dialects found in Flanders, and as a reference to that region. Calques of Vlaams in other languages:

Holland (pars pro toto)

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands. Locator County of Holland (1350).svg
The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.

In many languages including English, (a calque of) "Holland" is a common name for the Netherlands as a whole. Even the Dutch use this sometimes. Strictly speaking, Holland is only the central-western region of the country comprising two of the twelve provinces, North Holland and South Holland, and thus linguistically a pars pro toto similar to use of Russia for the (former) Soviet Union, and England for the United Kingdom.

The use is sometimes discouraged. For example, the "Holland" entry in the style guide of The Guardian and The Observer newspapers states: "Do not use when you mean the Netherlands (of which it is a region), with the exception of the Dutch football team, which is conventionally known as Holland". [35]

From the 17th century onwards, the County of Holland was the most powerful region in the current Netherlands. The counts of Holland were also counts of Hainaut, Friesland and Zeeland from the 13th to the 15th centuries. Holland remained most powerful during the period of the Dutch Republic, dominating foreign trade, and hence most of the Dutch traders encountered by foreigners were from Holland, which explains why the Netherlands is often called Holland overseas. [36]

After the demise of the Dutch Republic under Napoleon, that country became known as the Kingdom of Holland (1806–1810), and the former countship of Holland was split up and became two of its eleven provinces, later known as North Holland and South Holland, because one Holland province by itself was considered too dominant in area, population and wealth compared to the other provinces. Today the two provinces making up Holland, including the cities of Amsterdam, The Hague and Rotterdam, remain politically, economically and demographically dominant 37% of the Dutch population live there. In most other Dutch provinces and also Flanders, the word Hollander is sometimes used in a pejorative sense to refer to the perceived superiority or supposed arrogance of people from the Randstad the main conurbation of Holland proper and of the Netherlands.

In 2009, members of the First Chamber drew attention to the fact that in Dutch passports, for some EU-languages a translation meaning "Kingdom of Holland" was used, as opposed to "Kingdom of the Netherlands". As replacements for the Estonian Hollandi Kuningriik, Hungarian Holland Királyság, Romanian Regatul Olandei and Slovak Holandské kráľovstvo, the parliamentarians proposed Madalmaade Kuningriik, Németalföldi Királyság, Regatul Țărilor de Jos and Nizozemské Kráľovstvo, respectively. Their reasoning was that "if in addition to Holland a recognisable translation of the Netherlands does exist in a foreign language, it should be regarded as the best translation" and that "the Kingdom of the Netherlands has a right to use the translation it thinks best, certainly on official documents". [37] Although the government initially refused to change the text except for the Estonian, recent Dutch passports feature the translation proposed by the First Chamber members. Calques derived from Holland to refer to the Dutch language in other languages:

In football (soccer), the Dutch national team is commonly referred to as "Holland"; here supporter shirts for sale at Amsterdam Airport Amsterdam Airport Schiphol 20080803.JPG
In football (soccer), the Dutch national team is commonly referred to as "Holland"; here supporter shirts for sale at Amsterdam Airport


Toponyms:

Brabant (pars pro toto)

Duchy of Brabant located in the heart of the old Lower Lorraine. Locator Duchy of Brabant (1350).svg
Duchy of Brabant located in the heart of the old Lower Lorraine.
Belgian patriots chose the colours of Brabant (red, yellow and black) for their cockade. This would later influence the Belgian flag created in 1830. National Cockade of Belgium.svg
Belgian patriots chose the colours of Brabant (red, yellow and black) for their cockade. This would later influence the Belgian flag created in 1830.

As the Low Country's prime duchy, with the only and oldest scientific centre (the University of Leuven), Brabant has served as a pars pro toto for the whole of the Low Countries, for example in the writings of Desiderius Erasmus in the early 16th century. [38]

Perhaps of influence for this pars pro toto usage is the Brabantian holding of the ducal title of Lower Lorraine. In 1190, after the death of Godfrey III, Henry I became Duke of Lower Lorraine, where the Low Countries have their political origin. However, by that time the title had lost most of its territorial authority. According to protocol, all his successors were thereafter called Dukes of Brabant and Lower Lorraine (often called Duke of Lothier).

Brabant symbolism served again a role as national symbols during the formation Belgium. The national anthem of Belgium is called the Brabançonne (English: "the Brabantian"), and the Belgium flag has taken its colors from the Brabant coat of arms: black, yellow and red. This was influenced by the Brabant Revolution (French : Révolution brabançonne, Dutch : Brabantse Omwenteling), sometimes referred to as the "Belgian Revolution of 1789–90" in older writing, that was an armed insurrection that occurred in the Austrian Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) between October 1789 and December 1790. The revolution led to the brief overthrow of Habsburg rule and the proclamation of a short-lived polity, the United Belgian States. Some historians have seen it as a key moment in the formation of a Belgian nation-state, and an influence on the Belgian Revolution of 1830.

Seventeen Provinces

Holland, Flanders and 15 other counties, duchies and bishoprics in the Low Countries were united as the Seventeen Provinces in a personal union during the 16th century, covered by the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549 of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, which freed the provinces from their archaic feudal obligations.

Names from tribes of the pre-Migration Period

Belgae

The nomenclature Belgica is harking back to the ancient local tribe of the Belgae and the Roman province named after that tribe Gallia Belgica. Although a derivation of that name is now reserved for the Kingdom of Belgium, from the 15th to the 17th century the name was the usual Latin translation to refer to the entire Low Countries, which was on maps sometimes heroically visualised as the Leo Belgicus. [39] Other use:

Batavi

The Latin title Index Batavicus is translated in the subtitle (not shown) as Naamrol van de Batavise en Hollandse schrijvers ("Index of Batavian and Dutch writers"). The Dutch Virgin sits on the Dutch lion. Left in the background a bookcase bearing the coats of arms of the Dutch Republic (1701). Adrianus-Pars-Index-Batavicus-of-naamrol-van-de-Batavise-en-Hollandse-schrijvers MG 0316.tif
The Latin title Index Batavicus is translated in the subtitle (not shown) as Naamrol van de Batavise en Hollandse schrijvers ("Index of Batavian and Dutch writers"). The Dutch Virgin sits on the Dutch lion. Left in the background a bookcase bearing the coats of arms of the Dutch Republic (1701).

Throughout the centuries the Dutch attempted to define their collective identity by looking at their ancestors, the Batavi. As claimed by the Roman historian Tacitus, the Batavi where a brave Germanic tribe living in the Netherlands, probably in the Betuwe region. In Dutch, the adjective Bataafs ("Batavian") was used from the 15th to the 18th century, meaning "of, or relating to the Netherlands" (but not the southern Netherlands).

Other use:

Frisii

Names from confederations of Germanic tribes

Franconian

Frankish was the West Germanic language spoken by the Franks between the 4th and 8th century. Between the fifth and ninth centuries, the languages spoken by the Salian Franks in Belgium and the Netherlands evolved into Old Low Franconian (Dutch : Oudnederfrankisch), which formed the beginning of a separate Dutch language and is synonymous with Old Dutch. Compare the synonymous usage, in a linguistic context, of Old English versus Anglo-Saxon.

Frisian

Frisii were an ancient tribe who lived in the coastal area of the Netherlands in Roman times. After the Migration Period Anglo-Saxons, coming from the east, settled the region. Franks in the south, who were familiar with Roman texts, called the coastal region Frisia, and hence its inhabitants Frisians, even though not all of the inhabitants had Frisian ancestry. [43] [44] [45] After a Frisian Kingdom emerged in the mid-7th century in the Netherlands, with its center of power the city of Utrecht, [46] the Franks conquered the Frisians and converted them to Christianity. From that time on a colony of Frisians was living in Rome and thus the old name for the people from the Low Countries who came to Rome has remained in use in the national church of the Netherlands in Rome, which is called the Frisian church (Dutch : Friezenkerk; Italian : chiesa nazionale dei Frisoni). In 1989, this church was granted to the Dutch community in Rome.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Holland Region and former province on the western coast of the Netherlands

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Low Countries coastal lowland region in northwestern Europe consisting of Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

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West Frisian language West Germanic language spoken in Friesland

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Dutch people Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands

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Theodiscus was a term used in the early Middle Ages to refer to the West Germanic languages. The Latin term was borrowed from the Germanic adjective meaning "of the people" but, unlike it, was used only to refer to languages. In Medieval Western Europe non-native Latin was the language of science, church and administration, hence Latin theodiscus and its Germanic counterparts were used as antonyms of Latin, to refer to the "native language spoken by the general populace". They were subsequently used in the Frankish Empire to denote the native Germanic vernaculars. As such, they were no longer used as antonym of Latin, but of walhisk, a language descendant from Latin, but nevertheless the speech of the general populace as well. In doing so Latin theodiscus and the Germanic reflexes of *þiudiskaz effectively obtained the meaning of "Germanic", or more specifically one of its local varieties – resulting in the English exonym Dutch, the German endonym Deutsch, the Dutch exonym Duits, and the Dutch endonym Diets, all of which are cognates of theodiscus, which in Italian yielded tedesco.

Dutch is a West Germanic language, that originated from the Old Frankish dialects.

Old Dutch set of Franconian dialects spoke in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages

In linguistics, Old Dutch or Old Low Franconian is the set of Franconian dialects spoken in the Low Countries during the Early Middle Ages, from around the 5th to the 12th century. Old Dutch is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle Dutch and Old Dutch loanwords in French.

Languages of the Netherlands languages of a geographic region

The official language of the Netherlands is Dutch, spoken by almost all people in the Netherlands. Dutch is also spoken and official in Aruba, Bonaire, Belgium, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, Sint Maarten and Suriname. It is a West Germanic, Low Franconian language that originated in the Early Middle Ages and was standardised in the 16th century.

Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both cognate with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language. Dutch dialects are remarkably diverse and are found in the Netherlands and northern Belgium.

Dutch language A West Germanic language

Dutch(Nederlands ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third-most-widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives English and German.

The Flemish or Flemings are a Germanic ethnic group native to Flanders, in modern Belgium, who speak Flemish Dutch. They are one of two principal ethnic groups in Belgium, the other being the French-speaking Walloons. Flemish people make up the majority of the Belgian population.

History of Flanders

This article describes the history of Flanders. The definition of the territory called "Flanders", however, has varied throughout history.

Netherlands in the Roman era

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Flemish variety of the Dutch language as spoken in Flanders (Belgium)

Flemish (Vlaams) also called Flemish Dutch, Belgian Dutch, or Southern Dutch is a Low Franconian dialect cluster of the Dutch language, as spoken in Flanders, a historical region in northern Belgium, by Flemings, the dominant ethnic group of the region. Along with Flanders, it is also spoken to some extent in French Flanders and the Dutch Zeelandic Flanders by approximately 6.5 million people.

County of Flanders French fiefdom and historic territory in the Low Countries

The County of Flanders was a historic territory in the Low Countries.

The Dutch language used in Belgium can also be referred to as Flemish Dutch or Belgian Dutch. Dutch is the mother tongue of about 60% of the population in Belgium, spoken by approximately 6.5 million out of a population 11 million people. It is the only official language in Flanders, that is to say the provinces of Antwerp, Flemish Brabant, Limburg, and East Flanders and West Flanders. Next to French, it is also an official language of Brussels. However, in the Brussels Capital Region and in the adjacent Flemish-Brabant municipalities, Dutch has been largely displaced by French as an everyday language.

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  8. Mallory, J. P.; Adams, D. Q. (2006), The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, USA: Oxford University Press, ISBN   0-19-929668-5 , p. 269.
  9. W. Haubrichs, "Theodiscus, Deutsch und Germanisch - drei Ethnonyme, drei Forschungsbegriffe. Zur Frage der Instrumentalisierung und Wertbesetzung deutscher Sprach- und Volksbezeichnungen." In: H. Beck et al., Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch" (2004), 199–228
  10. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, 2nd revised edn., s.v. "Dutch" (Random House Reference, 2005).
  11. M. Philippa e.a. (2003–2009) Etymologisch Woordenboek van het Nederlands [diets]
  12. Walahfrid Strabo's Libellus de Exordiis Et Incrementis Quarundam in ... a translation by Alice L. Harting-Correa.
  13. Cornelis Dekker: The Origins of Old Germanic Studies in the Low Countries
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  19. J. de Vries (1971), Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek
  20. Frans, Claes (1970). "De benaming van onze taal in woordenboeken en andere vertaalwerken uit de zestiende eeuw". Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (86): 300.
  21. Bree, Marijke van der Wal, Cor van (2008). Geschiedenis van het Nederlands (5., bijgewerkte druk. ed.). Houten: Spectrum. ISBN   90-491-0011-2.
  22. Toorn, M.C. van den (1980). Nederlandse taalkunde (6. verbeterde druk. ed.). Utrecht: Spectrum. ISBN   978-90-274-5245-0.
  23. As based on WNT, Dictionary of the Dutch language, entry Nederduits.
  24. Peters, Wim Blockmans and Walter Prevenier ; translated by Elizabeth Fackelman ; translation revised and edited by Edward (1999). The promised lands the Low Countries under Burgundian rule, 1369–1530. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 85. ISBN   0-8122-0070-5.
  25. "The New Cambridge Modern History: Volume 2, The Reformation, 1520–1559".
  26. Van der Lem, Anton. "De Opstand in de Nederlanden 1555–1609;De landen van herwaarts over" . Retrieved 11 March 2013.
  27. Rijpma & Schuringa, Nederlandse spraakkunst, Groningen 1969, p. 20.)
  28. Frans, Claes (1970). "De benaming van onze taal in woordenboeken en andere vertaalwerken uit de zestiende eeuw". Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (86): 297.
  29. Pérez, Yolanda Robríguez (2008). The Dutch Revolt through Spanish eyes : self and other in historical and literary texts of Golden Age Spain (c. 1548–1673) (Transl. and rev. ed.). Oxford: Peter Lang. p. 18. ISBN   3-03911-136-1 . Retrieved 5 April 2016.
  30. "entry Flēmish". Middle English Dictionary (MED).
  31. "MED, entry "Flēming"". Quod.lib.umich.edu. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  32. "entry Flemish". Online Etymological Dictionary. Etymonline.com. which cites Flemische as an Old Frisian form; but cf. "entry FLĀMISK, which gives flēmisk". Oudnederlands Woordenboek (ONW). Gtb.inl.nl.
  33. "Entry VLAENDREN; ONW, entry FLĀMINK; Woordenboek der Nederlandsche Taal (WNT), entry VLAMING". Vroeg Middelnederlandsch Woordenboek (VMNW). Gtb.inl.nl.
  34. ONW, entry FLĀMISK.
  35. "Guardian and Observer style guide: H". The Guardian. London. 19 December 2008. Retrieved 1 July 2010.
  36. "Holland or the Netherlands?". The Hague: Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
  37. (in Dutch) Article on website of First Chamber
  38. Prevenier, W.; Uytven, R. van; Poelhekke, J. J.; Bruijn, J. R.; Boogman, J. C.; Bornewasser, J. A.; Hegeman, J. G.; Carter, Alice C.; Blockmans, W.; Brulez, W.; Eenoo, R. van. Acta Historiae Neerlandicae: Studies on the History of The Netherlands VII. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 83–87. ISBN   978-94-011-5948-7.
  39. For example, the map "Belgium Foederatum" by Matthaeus Seutter, from 1745, which show the current Netherlands. Archived 25 August 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  40. 1 2 Frans, Claes (1970). "De benaming van onze taal in woordenboeken en andere vertaalwerken uit de zestiende eeuw". Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (86): 296.
  41. "Le Dictionnaire - Définition batavisme et traduction". www.le-dictionnaire.com.
  42. "Le Dictionnaire - Définition batave et traduction". www.le-dictionnaire.com.
  43. De Koning, Jan (2003). Why did they leave? Why did they stay? On continuity versus discontinuity from Roman times to Early Middle Ages in the western coastal area of the Netherlands. In: Kontinuität und Diskontinuität: Germania inferior am Beginn und am Ende der römischen Herrschaft; Beiträge des deutsch-niederländischen Kolloquiums in der Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen, (27. bis 30.6.2001). Walter de Gruyter. pp. 53–83. ISBN   9783110176889.
  44. Vaan, Michiel de (15 December 2017). The Dawn of Dutch: Language contact in the Western Low Countries before 1200. John Benjamins Publishing Company. pp. 42–44. ISBN   9789027264503.
  45. Ethnic Constructs in Antiquity: The Role of Power and Tradition, Volume 13 van Amsterdam archaeological studies, redacteurs: Ton Derks, Nico Roymans, Amsterdam University Press, 2009, ISBN   90-8964-078-9, pp. 332–333
  46. Dijkstra, Menno (2011). Rondom de mondingen van Rijn & Maas. Landschap en bewoning tussen de 3e en 9e eeuw in Zuid-Holland, in het bijzonder de Oude Rijnstreek (in Dutch). Leiden: Sidestone Press. p. 386. ISBN   978-90-8890-078-5.