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The Latinisation of names in the vernacular was a procedure deemed necessary for the sake of conformity by scribes and authors when incorporating references to such persons in Latin texts. The procedure was used in the era of the Roman Republic and Empire. It was used continuously by the Papacy from the earliest times, in religious tracts and in diplomatic and legal documents. It was used by the early European monasteries. Following the Norman Conquest of England, it was used by the Anglo-Norman clerics and scribes when drawing up charters. Its use was revived in the Renaissance when the new learning was written down in Latin and drew much on the work of Greek, Arabic and other non-Latin ancient authors. Contemporary Italian and European scholars also needed to be Latinised to be quoted in such treatises. The different eras produced their own styles and peculiarities. Sophistication was the trademark of the Renaissance Latinisers. The Anglo-Norman scribes on the other hand were not so learned, and often simply translated the vernacular name into Latin words based on similar sounds, without much effort to make sense or to avoid absurdity, which produced some strange results.
In central European circles of academia and ecclesial writers, a specific practice of Latinisation arose during the 15th century with the rediscovery of ancient literature. Thereby writers would seek connection to the ancient writers by taking up surnames or international pen names. We encounter names that follow naming conventions of those ancient languages, especially Latin and Greek, so the occasional Greek names for the same function are also included here.
Especially in the German-speaking regions the use of a “Humanistenname” or “Gelehrtenname” was common for many an academic, cleric, and secular administrative who wished to ascend in societal rank. The other region where the practice became equally common was 1600s Scandinavia and the Swedish Baltic colonies where this practice was called 'lärda namn' or 'humanistnamn' [ circular reference ] [ circular reference ]. Further reasons for assuming such internationally recognisable names, especially in Scandinavia, included leaving agrarian conditions behind and embracing an urban and cosmopolitan way of life. Some academics never had a surname nor a patronymic surname as per their region of origin. However, academics came to Central European universities from all corners of Europe, with surnames from rare languages, so clarity in distinguishing students was necessary. Some Latinizations and Grecizations are exact vernacular translations of profession surnames or dwelling names, but others seem to bear no known connection or resemblance. Humanist names reached varying degrees of stability and heritability, and some exist to this day.
Some humanist names derived from common professions as replacements of the vernacular term, and were found throughout Central European university cities. They included:
Some humanist surnames that were not clearly based on profession or location included:
GEC Complete Peerage (1913) states concerning the Latinization of English names:"When a clerk had to render a name in a charter he usually sought for the nearest Latin equivalent, sometimes took a correct one, as "de Bello Campo" for "Beauchamp"; sometimes a grotesque one". The latter refers to the mediaeval Anglo-Norman family of Orescuilz, which held amongst others the Somersetshire manor of Sandford Orcas (named after it), whose surname was Latinised as de Aureis Testiculis, from French "Couilles d'Or".
A list of "Latin forms of English surnames" is included as an appendix in Andrew Wright's Court Hand Restored, or the Student's Assistant in reading Old Deeds, Charters, Records, etc,published in 9 editions up to 1879.
In 1910 Charles Trice Martin expanded on Wright's list (the 9th edition of which he had edited) in his The record interpreter : a collection of abbreviations, Latin words and names used in English historical manuscripts and records which included a chapter "Latin forms of English Surnames". He acknowledged in compiling his list the assistance of an anonymous work The Norman People and their Existing Descendants (London, 1874). In the preface, p. xi, Martin stated of that chapter: "Many of the [place names and] surnames have been found in classes of records which contain documents in both languages referring to the same case, like the Chancery Proceedings, in which bills and answers are in English and writs in Latin."
Martin stated that some of the Latin names were "due to the ingenuity" of officials and clerks inserting what they thought would be a translation of an English name, being ignorant of its real meaning and history. This led to spurious translations such as Ventus Morbidus (literally "sick wind") for the place name 'Windsor', and de Umbrosa Quercu (literally "from the shady oak") for the surname 'Dimock'. He went on to say that the list includes many names collected from Latin inscriptions on brasses, tombstones, and other monuments, many of them dating to the sixteenth century and later, and said that he had supplied the English equivalents of these from other sources of information.
In Spain traditionally and historically, some autonomous communities are also divided into comarcas.
A matronymic is a personal name based on the given name of one's mother, grandmother, or any female ancestor. It is the female equivalent of a patronymic. Around the world, matronymic surnames are far less common than patronymic surnames . In some cultures in the past, matronymic last names were often given to children of unwed mothers. Or if a woman was especially well known or powerful, her descendants might adopt a matronym based on her name.
Dominicus Gundissalinus, also known as Domingo Gundisalvi or Gundisalvo, was a philosopher and translator of Arabic to Medieval Latin active in Toledo. Among his translations, Gundissalinus worked on Avicenna's Liber de philosophia prima and De anima, Ibn Gabirol's Fons vitae, and al-Ghazali's Summa theoricae philosophiae, in collaboration with the Jewish philosopher Abraham Ibn Daud and Johannes Hispanus. As a philosopher, Gundissalinus crucially contributed to the Latin assimilation of Arabic philosophy, being the first Latin thinker in receiving and developing doctrines, such as Avicenna's modal ontology or Ibn Gabirol's universal hylomorphism, that would soon be integrated into the thirteenth-century philosophical debate.
Vitello was a Polish friar, theologian and natural philosopher. He is an important figure in the history of philosophy in Poland. The lunar crater Vitello is named after him.
The Patrologia Orientalis is an attempt to create a comprehensive collection of the writings by eastern Church Fathers in Syriac, Armenian, Arabic, Coptic, Ge'ez, Georgian, and Slavonic, published with a Latin, English, Italian or mostly French translation. It is designed to complement the comprehensive, influential, and monumental Latin and Greek patrologies published in the 19th century. It began in 1897 as the Patrologia Syriaca, was discontinued in its original form and replaced by the Patrologia Orientalis. The collection began with those liturgical texts that touch on hagiography. Since then critical editions of the Bible, theological works, homilies and letters have been published.
Veroli is a town and comune in province of Frosinone, Lazio, central Italy, in the Latin Valley.
Johannes de Garlandia or John of Garland was a medieval philologist and university teacher. His dates of birth and death are unknown, but he probably lived from about 1190 to about 1270.
Calid, Kalid, or King Calid is a legendary figure in alchemy, latterly associated with the historical Khalid ibn Yazid, an Umayyad prince. His name is a medieval Latin transcription of the Arabic name Khalid.
Mauger is a Norman surname of Germanic origin. It was used first as a given name in the Middle Ages. pronunciation API : French [moʒe] ; English [ˈmeɪ.dʒ.ə(ɹ)].
The constituency of Gloucestershire was a UK Parliamentary constituency. After it was abolished under the 1832 Electoral Reform Act, two new constituencies, West Gloucestershire and East Gloucestershire, were created.
Juhel de Totnes, Latinised to Judhellus filius Aluredi, "Juhel son of Alured") was a soldier and supporter of William the Conqueror (1066-1087). He was the first Anglo-Norman feudal baron of Totnes and feudal baron of Barnstaple, both in Devon.
Cantwell is a surname of Norman origin, originally de Conteville. The surname is from Ireland, found also in English speaking countries such the United Kingdom, United States, Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.
Fitzmaurice is a Hiberno-Norman, Cambro-Norman, Anglo-Norman surname. It is patronymic as the prefix Fitz- derives from the Latin filius, meaning "son of". The surname variants include FitzMaurice, Fitz Maurice, Fitz-Maurice, fitz Maurice, and the alternate spelling Fitzmorris. According to Irish genealogist Edward MacLysaght:
The first Fitzmaurice family known in Ireland and Britain were the sons and daughter of Maurice FitzGerald, Lord of Lanstephan and they were the progenitors of the famous Geraldines through Thomas FitzMaurice, eldest son, known as Lord OConnello, 1st Baron of Kerry, progenitor of the Earls of Desmond and through Gerald FitzMaurice, 2nd eldest son, 1st Lord of Offaly, progenitor of the Earls of Kildare and Earls of Leinster. They were known as lords of Lixnaw in Kerry notable for their resistance to the English in the sixteenth century. They were the grandsons and grand daughter of Gerald FitzWalther, Gerald de Windsor. The name Fitzmaurice is also connected with Mayo because some Connacht Prendergasts adopted it.
Fitz is an Old French noun meaning "son of", ultimately from Latin filius (son), plus genitive case of the father's forename. Whilst Fitz is now the standard form used in Anglo-Norman followed by modern historians the word appears in ancient documents with various spellings such as fiz, filz, etc. The word has developed in modern French to fils de, with which it is thus cognate.
This is a list of articles in medieval philosophy.
Totnes Priory was a priory at Totnes in south Devon, England.
Johannes Enschedé III was a Haarlem newspaper editor and printer.
Fulk I FitzWarin was a powerful marcher lord seated at Whittington Castle in Shropshire in England on the border with Wales, and also at Alveston in Gloucestershire. His grandson was Fulk III FitzWarin the subject of the famous mediaeval legend or "ancestral romance" entitled Fouke le Fitz Waryn, himself the grandfather of Fulk V FitzWarin, 1st Baron FitzWarin (1251-1315).