Euro banknotes

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Euro banknotes from the Europa series (since 2013) Euro banknotes, Europa series.png
Euro banknotes from the Europa series (since 2013)
Euro banknotes from the first series (The Ages and Styles of Europe) (2002-2013) Euro banknotes, First series.png
Euro banknotes from the first series (The Ages and Styles of Europe) (2002–2013)

Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the euro area and institutions, have been in circulation since the first series (also called ES1) was issued in 2002. They are issued by the national central banks of the Eurosystem or the European Central Bank. [1] In 1999 the euro was introduced virtually, [2] and in 2002 notes and coins began to circulate. The euro rapidly took over from the former national currencies and slowly expanded around the European Union.

Contents

Denominations of the notes range from €5 to €500 and, unlike euro coins, the design is identical across the whole of the Eurozone, although they are issued and printed in various member states. The euro banknotes are pure cotton fibre, which improves their durability as well as giving the banknotes a distinctive feel. They measure from 120 by 62 millimetres (4.7 in × 2.4 in) to 160 by 82 millimetres (6.3 in × 3.2 in) and have a variety of color schemes. The euro notes contain many complex security features such as watermarks, invisible ink characteristics, holograms, optically variable inks and microprinting that document their authenticity. While euro coins have a national side indicating the country of issue (although not necessarily of minting), euro notes lack this. Instead, this information is shown by the first character of each note's serial number.

According to European Central Bank estimates, in May 2019, there were about 22.563 billion banknotes in circulation around the Eurozone, with a total value of about €1.231 trillion. [3] On 8 November 2012, the European Central Bank announced that the first series of notes would be replaced by the Europa series (also called ES2), starting with the 5 euro note on 2 May 2013. [4]

Estimates suggest that the average life of a euro banknote is about three years before it is replaced due to wear, but individual lifespans vary depending on denomination, from less than a year for €5 banknote to over 30 years for €500 banknote. High denomination banknotes (€100, €200, €500) last longer as they are less frequently used. The Europa series of the lower denominations €5 and €10 is designed to last longer than the previous one due to additional coating. [5] [6] [7]

History

The euro is used in the 19 Eurozone countries (dark blue).
It is also used de facto in two other countries (Kosovo and Montenegro) (light blue) Eurozone.svg
The euro is used in the 19 Eurozone countries (dark blue).
It is also used de facto in two other countries (Kosovo and Montenegro) (light blue)

The euro came into existence on 1 January 1999. [2] The euro's creation had been a goal of the European Union (EU) and its predecessors since the 1960s. [2] The Maastricht Treaty entered into force in 1993 with the goal of creating economic and monetary union by 1999 for all EU states except the UK and Denmark (though Denmark has a policy of a fixed exchange rate with the euro). [8]

In 1999, the currency was born virtually, [2] and in 2002 notes and coins began to circulate. [2] It rapidly took over from the former national currencies and slowly expanded around the rest of the EU. [2] In 2009, the Lisbon Treaty formalised the Euro's political authority, the Euro Group, alongside the European Central Bank. [9]

Slovenia joined the Eurozone in 2007, [10] Cyprus and Malta in 2008, [11] Slovakia in 2009, [12] Estonia in 2011, [13] Latvia in 2014 [14] and Lithuania in 2015. [15]

Specification

There are seven different denominations of the euro banknotes: €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500. Each has a distinctive colour and size. [16] The designs for each of them have a common theme of European architecture in various artistic eras. [16] [17] The obverse of the banknote features windows or gateways while the reverse bears different types of bridges. [16] [17] The architectural examples are stylised illustrations, not representations of existing monuments. [16] [17]

1st series ES1 (issued 2002)

The following table depicts the design characteristics of the 1st series (ES1) of euro notes.

ImageValueYearDimensions
(millimetres)
Main colourDesignPrinter code position
ObverseReverseArchitectureCentury
EUR 5 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 5 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €5 2002120 × 62 mmGrey [18] Classical < 5thLeft image edge [19]
EUR 10 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 10 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €10 2002127 × 67 mmRed [20] Romanesque 11–12th8 o'clock star [21]
EUR 20 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 20 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €20 2002133 × 72 mmBlue [22] Gothic 12–14th9 o'clock star [23]
EUR 50 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 50 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €50 2002140 × 77 mmOrange [24] Renaissance 15–16thRight image edge [25]
EUR 100 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 100 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €100 2002147 × 82 mmGreen [26] Baroque & Rococo 17–18thRight of 9 o'clock star [27]
EUR 200 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 200 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €200 2002153 × 82 mmYellow [28] The age of iron and glass19–20thAbove 7 o'clock star [29]
EUR 500 obverse (2002 issue).jpg EUR 500 reverse (2002 issue).jpg €500 2002160 × 82 mmPurple [30] Modern 20th century 20–21st9 o'clock star [31]
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

All the notes of the initial series of euro notes bear the European flag, a map of the continent on the reverse, the name "euro" in both Latin and Greek script (EURO / ΕΥΡΩ) and the signature of a president of the ECB, depending on when the banknote was printed. [16] [17] The 12 stars from the flag are also incorporated into every note. [16] [17]

The notes also carry the acronyms of the name of the European Central Bank in five linguistic variants, covering all official languages of the EU in 2002 (the time of the banknote introduction), and now 19 out of 24 official languages of the EU28, in the following order: [16]

The order is determined by the EU country listing order, [44] with BCE ahead of ECB because of the national precedence of Belgium's two main languages, followed by the remaining languages of Germany (Deutschland), Greece (Ελλάδα/Elláda [45] ) and Finland (Suomi), in that order.

The euro banknote initial designs were chosen from 44 proposals in a design competition, launched by the Council of the European Monetary Institute (EMI) on 12 February 1996. [46] The winning entry, created by Robert Kalina from the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, was selected on 3 December 1996. [46]

The euro banknotes are pure cotton fibre, which improves their durability as well as giving the banknotes a distinctive feel. [47]

In the first and Europa series, the Azores, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Madeira, Martinique, Réunion, and the Canary Islands, overseas territories of the eurozone member states, which also use the euro, are shown under the map in separate boxes. Cyprus and Malta were not shown on the first series because they were not in the EU in 2002, when the banknotes were issued, even though they joined the Eurozone in 2008. The map did not stretch as far east as Cyprus, while Malta was too small to be depicted.2. [17] However, both Cyprus and Malta are depicted on the Europa series note. [4]

2nd series ES2 (Europa series, issued from 2013)

The following table depicts the design characteristics of the 2nd series (ES2) of euro notes. [48]

ImageValueYearDimensions
(millimetres)
Main colourDesignPrinter code position
ObverseReverseArchitectureCentury
EUR 5 obverse (2013 issue).png EUR 5 reverse (2013 issue).png €5 2013120 × 62 mmGrey [49] Classical < 5thTop right
EUR 10 obverse (2014 issue).png EUR 10 reverse (2014 issue).png €10 2014127 × 67 mmRed [50] Romanesque 11–12thTop right
The Europa series 20 EUR obverse side.jpg The Europa series 20 EUR reverse side.jpg €20 2015133 × 72 mmBlue [51] Gothic 12–14thTop right
The Europa series 50 EUR obverse side.png The Europa series 50 EUR reverse side.png €50 2017140 × 77 mmOrange [52] Renaissance 15–16thTop right
The Europa series 100 EUR obverse side.jpg The Europa series 100 EUR reverse side.jpg €100 2019147 × 77 mmGreen [53] Baroque & Rococo 17–18thTop right
The Europa series 200 EUR obverse side.jpg The Europa series 200 EUR reverse side.jpg €200 2019153 × 77 mmBrown [54] The age of iron and glass19–20thTop right
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixel per millimetre. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
100 euro note
The Europa series 100 EUR obverse side.jpg
147 x 77 mm (ES2)
EUR 100 obverse (2002 issue).jpg
147 x 82 mm (ES1)
200 euro note
The Europa series 200 EUR obverse side.jpg
153 x 77 mm (ES2)
EUR 200 obverse (2002 issue).jpg
153 x 82 mm (ES1)

The Europa series banknotes, similarly to the first series, bear the European flag, a map of the continent on the reverse and the signature of Mario Draghi, since 1 November 2011 president of the ECB. The 12 stars from the flag are also incorporated into the notes. [16] [17] On 4 May 2016 the European Central Bank decided not to issue a 500 euro banknote for the Europa series. [55]

The banknote also has the name "euro", but in three scripts: Latin, Greek and Cyrillic (EURO / ΕΥΡΩ / ЕВРО). [4]

The 2nd series €100 and €200 notes are a different size to the €100 and €200 notes from the 1st series. Both denominations are now the same height (77 mm) as the €50 banknote, which makes them more comfortable to use. Their length remains unchanged.

The design for the 50, 100 and 200 euro notes features the acronyms of the name of the European Central Bank in ten linguistic variants, covering all official languages of the EU28, in the following order: [4]

The 5 euro, 10 euro and 20 euro notes do not feature ESB, as Croatian became an official language only in July 2013 with the accession of Croatia, after the introduction of the banknote design earlier that year. The order in which the acronyms are shown is determined by the same principles as for Series 1: [44] the language of Bulgaria (България/Bulgaria [45] ) precedes that of Germany (Deutschland); EKP now precedes ΕΚΤ due to the accession of Estonia (Eesti); and the languages of Croatia (Hrvatska), Hungary (Magyarország), Malta and Poland (Polska) trail the list.

The notes of the Europa series do not show the same year. The year shown is the year the note is issued.

The Europa series euro banknotes are supposedly more durable than the first series banknotes. [4]

Reinhold Gerstetter, an independent banknote designer (and one of participants of the 1996 design contest), was chosen by the European Central Bank to redesign the euro notes. [4]

Design

Bridges

Banknotes printed from 2004 to 2012 show the signature of the second president of the ECB, Jean-Claude Trichet. Trichet signature.svg
Banknotes printed from 2004 to 2012 show the signature of the second president of the ECB, Jean-Claude Trichet.
20 and 50 Euro banknotes (ES1). Euro Banknotes.jpg
20 and 50 Euro banknotes (ES1).
Face of Europa on the new 20 euro banknote (ES2). 20 euro 6.png
Face of Europa on the new 20 euro banknote (ES2).
The 50 euro banknote (ES1) has an orange colour scheme, and its gateway and bridge are from the Renaissance. 50 Eurobanknoten in der Hand aufgefaechert.JPG
The 50 euro banknote (ES1) has an orange colour scheme, and its gateway and bridge are from the Renaissance.
5 euro banknote under infrared light (Europa series)
5 euro infrared front 2S.jpg
Obverse
5 euro infrared back 2S.jpg
Reverse

Due to the great number of historic bridges, arches, and gateways throughout the European continent, all the structures represented on the notes are entirely stylised illustrations of the relevant architectural styles, designed to evoke the landmarks within the European Union, [16] representing various European ages and styles. [16] For example, the 5 euro note has a generic rendition of Classical architecture, [16] the 10 euro note of Romanesque architecture, [16] the 20 euro note of Gothic architecture, [16] the 50 euro note of the Renaissance, [16] the 100 euro note of Baroque and Rococo, [16] the 200 euro note of Art Nouveau [16] and the 500 euro note of modern architecture. [16] The initial designs by Robert Kalina were of actual bridges, including the Rialto Bridge in Venice and the Pont de Neuilly in Paris, and were subsequently rendered more generic. [69] In 2011, Dutch artist Robin Stam and the town of Spijkenisse in the Netherlands built seven bridges of colored concrete after the designs on the seven euro banknotes. [70] [71] [72] [73]

Signature

Mario Draghi's signature on a 10 euro banknote 10eurounterschrmario.png
Mario Draghi's signature on a 10 euro banknote

The euro banknotes bear the signature of the President of the European Central Bank. [17]

In the first series, notes printed between November 2003 and March 2012 show the signature of Jean Claude Trichet, the second President of the ECB, [17] [74] replacing that of the first president, Wim Duisenberg, [17] who was the ECB president when the first euro banknotes and coins were issued, until 2003. [17] Banknotes printed after March 2012 bear the signature of the third, and incumbent ECB President, Mario Draghi. [17]

As at 2017, only the signature of the third, incumbent ECB President, Mario Draghi, features on the Europa series notes. [17]

From 2020, Christine Lagarde's signature will gradually begin to appear on banknotes entering circulation, becoming the fourth signature to appear on Euro banknotes. [75]

Security features

Microprinting on a 100 euro note (ES1) Mikroschrift 100EUR.jpg
Microprinting on a 100 euro note (ES1)

The European Central Bank has described some of the basic security features of the euro notes that allow the general public to recognise the authenticity of their currency at a glance:

However, in the interest of advanced security of the euro notes, the full list of these features is a closely guarded secret of the European Central Bank and the National Central Banks of the Eurosystem.

EUR5 (ES1) holographic band EUR 5 holographic band.jpg
€5 (ES1) holographic band

Still, between the official descriptions and independent discoveries made by observant users, it is thought that the euro notes have at least eleven different security features, which are:

A 50 euro note (ES1) under ultraviolet light 050euro-uv.jpg
A 50 euro note (ES1) under ultraviolet light
A 5 euro note (ES1) under infrared light 5 euro bill under infrared.jpg
A 5 euro note (ES1) under infrared light
Magnetic serial number on Euro banknote (recorded using CMOS-MagView) Magnetic Serial number and security label on a Euro banknote (recorded using CMOS-MagView).jpg
Magnetic serial number on Euro banknote (recorded using CMOS-MagView)
Manchester code [82]
NoteBarcodeManchester
€50110 10100
€100101 10110
€201010 10100000
€500110 10101000
€1000101 10101100
€2000101 01101110
€5000101 01011111

(looked at from the reverse, a dark bar is 1, a bright bar 0)

Europa series

The portrait of Europa is also contemplated amongst the security features, but the theme of the banknotes is still the same. Imago Europae euronis.jpg
The portrait of Europa is also contemplated amongst the security features, but the theme of the banknotes is still the same.
5 euro note from the new Europa series written in Latin (EURO) and Greek (EURO
) alphabets, but also in the Cyrillic (EVRO
) alphabet, as a result of Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007 EUR 5 obverse (2013 issue).png
5 euro note from the new Europa series written in Latin (EURO) and Greek (ΕΥΡΩ) alphabets, but also in the Cyrillic (ЕВРО) alphabet, as a result of Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007

The European Central Bank intends to redesign the notes every seven or eight years. A new series, called the "Europa series", has been released from 2013; the first notes entered circulation on 2 May 2013. [83] The new series includes slight changes, notably the inclusion of the face of the mythological princess Europa in the watermark and in the hologram stripe. [84]

New production and anti-counterfeiting techniques are employed on the new notes, but the design shares the colours of the first series and the theme of bridges and arches. [83] The new notes are nonetheless recognisable as a new series. [85]

The new notes also reflect the expansion of the European Union: every member of the EU is depicted on it. The initial series did not include the recent members Cyprus and Malta (Cyprus was off the map to the east and Malta was too small to be depicted.) [17]

The Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet features on the Europa series banknotes, as a result of Bulgaria joining the European Union in 2007. Thus this series includes "ЕВРО", which is the Bulgarian spelling for EURO, as well as the abbreviation "ЕЦБ" (short for Европейска централна банка in Bulgarian). [86] The new banknotes also feature the Maltese abbreviation BĊE (Bank Ċentrali Ewropew)[ inconsistent with the above ], the Hungarian abbreviation EKB (Európai Központi Bank) and the Polish abbreviation EBC (Europejski Bank Centralny). The modified 5 euro note features the initials of the European Central Bank in each of the contemporary EU member languages in a column on the left-hand side of the obverse. [86] The word "euro" in Latin, Greek, and Cyrillic lettering has also been moved to a more central position. [86]

The full design of the Europa series 5 euro banknote was revealed on 10 January 2013. [87] The new note entered circulation on 2 May 2013. [88] The full design of the Europa series 10 euro note was revealed on 13 January 2014 and it entered circulation on 23 September 2014. [89] The full design of the Europa series 20 euro banknote was revealed on 24 February 2015, [90] [91] and it was launched on 25 November 2015. [90] The full design of the Europa series 50 euro note was revealed on 5 July 2016 [92] and the new 50 note was released on 4 April 2017. [93] [94] The full design of the Europa series 100 euro banknote and 200 euro banknote was revealed on 17 September 2018 and the new notes entered circulation on 28 May 2019 [95] therefore "will complete the issuance of the Europa series." [96]

On 4 May 2016, the European Central Bank announced that the Europa series 500 euro banknote would not be released, due to fears of "facilitating the criminal activity". [55] [97] [98] "The ECB has decided to stop producing the €500 banknote, although the first series €500 remains legal tender." [96]

The old series will gradually be withdrawn. [96] The ECB will announce "well in advance" when the old notes will lose their legal tender status. [96] However, they will not lose their value and it will be possible to exchange them for new notes at Eurosystem central banks indefinitely. [83] [96]

Security features

Microprinting on the Europa series 5 euro note EUR 5 2S micro.jpg
Microprinting on the Europa series 5 euro note
  • Watermark: When the note is held under a normal light source, a portrait of Europa and an electrotype denomination appear on either side. [83] [99]
  • Portrait hologram: When the note is tilted, the silver-coloured holographic stripe reveals the portrait of Europa – the same one as in the watermark. The stripe also reveals a window and the value of the banknote. [83] [99]
  • Colour changing ink: When the note is tilted, the number on the note displays an effect of light that moves up and down. The number also changes colour from emerald green to deep blue. [83] [99]
  • Raised printing: On the front of the note, there is a series of short raised lines on the left and right edges. The main edge, the lettering and the large value numeral also feel thicker. [83] [99]
  • Security thread: When the note is held against the light, the security thread appears as a dark line. The Euro symbol (€) and the value of the banknote can be seen in tiny white lettering in the thread. [83] [99]
  • Microprinting: Tiny letters which can be read with a magnifying glass. The letters should be sharp, not blurred. [99]
  • Ultraviolet ink: Some parts of the banknote shine when under UV or UV-C light. These are the stars in the flag, the small circles, the large stars and several other areas on the front. On the back, a quarter of a circle in the centre as well as several other areas glow green. The horizontal serial number and a stripe appear in red. [99]
  • Infrared light: Under infrared light, the emerald number, the right side of the main image and the silvery stripe are visible on the obverse of the banknote, while on the reverse, only the denomination and the horizontal serial number are visible. [99]

Features for people with impaired sight

"A good design for the blind and partially sighted is a good design for everybody" was the principle behind the cooperation of the European Central Bank and the European Blind Union during the design phase of the first series banknotes in the 1990s. [100] As a result, the design of the first euro banknotes include several characteristics which aid both the blind and partially sighted to confidently use the notes. [100]

Features for the blind and visually impaired include:

As in the design process of the first series of euro notes, visually impaired users were consulted during the design phase of the Europa series, and their requirements were included in the final designs. [78]

Circulation

The European Central Bank closely monitors the circulation and stock of the euro coins and banknotes. It is a task of the Eurosystem to ensure an efficient and smooth supply of euro notes and to maintain their integrity throughout the Eurozone. [3]

Statistics

Every month, the European Central Bank publishes the number of banknotes in circulation around the Eurozone. Euroscheine 01.jpg
Every month, the European Central Bank publishes the number of banknotes in circulation around the Eurozone.

As of January 2020, there were about 23,353 million banknotes in circulation around the Eurozone. [3] That is about €1.274 trillion worth of banknotes. [3] As of January 2020, there were:

NoteApprox. no. of notes in circulation
(billions) [3]
Value
(€ billions) [3]
Share of total quantity
(%) [101]
Share of total value (%) [102]
€51.9239.68.20.8
€102.58825.911.12.0
€203.95179.016.96.2
€5010.981549.047.043.1
€1003.037303.713.023.8
€2000.43286.41.86.8
€5000.441220.31.917.3

Figures since 2012

DateBanknotes
(millions)
Value
(€ billions)
December 201215,687 912.6
December 201316,512 956.2
December 201417,528 1,016.5
December 201518,895 1,083.4
December 201620,220 1,126.2
December 201721,407 1,170.7
December 201822,615 1,231.1
December 201924,057 1,292.7

Counterfeiting

The European Central Bank publishes information on the amount of counterfeit banknotes removed from circulation every 6 months. [103] It reported that 531,000 banknotes were removed from circulation in all of 2012, [104] compared to 606,000 in the previous year. [104] The ECB also said that, when compared to the amount of genuine banknotes, the proportion of fake euro notes remains low. [104] The amount of counterfeits taken out of circulation in 2012 is 3.18 times that of 2002 (167,118). [105] [106]

In July 2013, the European Central Bank said that it removed 317,000 counterfeit euro banknotes from circulation in the first half of 2013, which is an increase of 26.3% from the first half of 2012. [107] However, the Bundesbank, in July 2013, stated that the amount of counterfeit euro notes fell by 13.6% in Germany in the first half of the year. [108] On the other hand, De Nederlandsche Bank said it withdrew around 19,400 counterfeit banknotes in the same period, which is an increase of 49% in comparison to the first half of 2012. [109] The Central Banks also stated that most were fake €20 and €50 notes. [107] [108] [109]

According to the central bank, the ratio of counterfeited bank notes is about 10 in one million of real bank notes for the Swiss franc, of 50 in one million for the Euro, of 100 in one million for United States dollar and of 300 in one million for pound sterling. [110]

Legally, both the European Central Bank and the national central banks (NCBs) of the Eurozone countries have the right to issue the 7 different euro banknotes. [2] In practice, only the NCBs of the zone physically issue and withdraw euro notes. [2] The European Central Bank does not have a cash office and is not involved in any cash operations. [2] However, the European Central Bank is responsible for overseeing the activities of national central banks in order to harmonise cash services in the Eurozone. [2]

Issuance and printing

The ECB has the exclusive right to authorise the issue of notes within the Eurozone, but most notes are actually issued by the National Central Banks (NCBs) of the Eurozone. [1] As of 2004, 8% of banknotes issues were allocated to the European Central Bank and 92% were allocated to Eurozone NCBs (in practice, the ECB issues no notes and the NCBs' issues may deviate from the statutory allocation). [1] The issuing central bank can be seen from the serial number. Each NCB is now responsible for the production of certain denominations, as assigned by the ECB. [1]

1st series

Since 2002, euro notes have been printed by the National Central Banks of the Eurozone, with each Central Bank being responsible for and bearing the cost of producing a proportion of the notes. [111] The production of notes needs to be sufficient to meet expected and unexpected surges in demand and to replace unfit notes. [111] Production volumes are forecast jointly by the National Central Banks and the European Central Bank, and it needs to be approved by the Governing Council of the ECB. [111]

Printing works

The printing code on a 10 euro note Druckplattennummer 010EUR R001A1.jpg
The printing code on a 10 euro note

There is a six-character printing code on every banknote which states the printer of the banknote. These printing codes have an initial letter, followed by three digits, then by a single letter, and ending in a digit, for example, "R001A1". [112]

The initial letter identifies the printing facility. [112] (the facilities are described below) "R" for example would be Bundesdruckerei, a printer in Berlin, Germany. [112] The three digits state sequential printing plates. "001", for example, would be the first printing plate created by the printer. [112] The fifth character, a letter and sixth character, a number, represent the row and column, respectively, of the particular banknote on the particular plate. So "A" would be the first row and "1" would indicate the first column. [112] [113]

Banknotes are printed in sheets. Different printers use different sheet sizes and sheets of higher denominations, which are larger in size, would have fewer notes printed per sheet. For example, two German printers print €5 banknotes in sheets of 60 (10 rows, designated "A" to "J" and six columns), the sheets of €10 notes have 54 banknotes (nine rows, six columns), and €20 banknotes are printed in sheets of 45 banknotes (nine rows, five columns). [112]

The printer code does not need to be the same as the country code, i.e. notes issued by a particular country may have been printed in another country. [112] The printers used to print euro banknotes include commercial printers as well as national printers, some of which have been privatised, some previously produced national notes before the adoption of the euro. [112] There is one former or current national printer in each of the countries which issue euro notes, with the exception of Germany, where the former East German and West German printers now produce euro notes. [112] France also has two printers, [112] F. C. Oberthur (a private printer) and the printing works of the Bank of France, and two more in the United Kingdom: Thomas De La Rue (another private printer) and the Bank of England printing house, although the latter does not produce euro banknotes. [112]

Printer identification codes [112]
CodePrinterLocationCountryNCB(s) produced for
(A)
(Bank of England Printing Works)(Loughton)(Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom)
(B)
Unassigned
(C)
(Tumba Bruk)(Tumba)(Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden)
D
Setec Oy Vantaa Flag of Finland.svg FinlandL ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland)
E
F. C. Oberthur Chantepie Flag of France.svg FranceE ( Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia), F ( Flag of Malta.svg Malta), G ( Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus), H ( Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia), L ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), U ( Flag of France.svg France), X ( Flag of Germany.svg Germany)
F
Österreichische Banknoten‐ und Sicherheitsdruck GmbH Vienna Flag of Austria.svg AustriaN ( Flag of Austria.svg Austria), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), S ( Flag of Italy.svg Italy), T ( Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland), Y ( Flag of Greece.svg Greece)
G
Koninklijke Joh. Enschedé Haarlem Flag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsE ( Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia), F ( Flag of Malta.svg Malta), G ( Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus), H ( Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia), L ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland), N ( Flag of Austria.svg Austria), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), V ( Flag of Spain.svg Spain), X ( Flag of Germany.svg Germany), Y ( Flag of Greece.svg Greece)
H
De La Rue Gateshead Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United KingdomL ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland), M ( Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), T ( Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland)
(I)
Unassigned
J
Banca d'Italia RomeFlag of Italy.svg ItalyS ( Flag of Italy.svg Italy)
K
Banc Ceannais na hÉireann / Central Bank of Ireland Dublin Flag of Ireland.svg IrelandT ( Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland)
L
Banque de France Chamalières Flag of France.svg FranceU ( Flag of France.svg France)
M
Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre Madrid Flag of Spain.svg SpainV ( Flag of Spain.svg Spain)
N
Bank of Greece Athens Flag of Greece.svg GreeceY ( Flag of Greece.svg Greece)
(O)
Unassigned
P
Giesecke & Devrient Munich & Leipzig Flag of Germany.svg GermanyL ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland), M ( Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), U ( Flag of France.svg France), V ( Flag of Spain.svg Spain), X ( Flag of Germany.svg Germany), Y ( Flag of Greece.svg Greece)
(Q)
Unassigned
R
Bundesdruckerei Berlin Flag of Germany.svg GermanyD ( Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia), E ( Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia), F ( Flag of Malta.svg Malta), G ( Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus), H ( Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia), L ( Flag of Finland.svg Finland), P ( Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands), X ( Flag of Germany.svg Germany), Y ( Flag of Greece.svg Greece)
(S)
(Danmarks Nationalbank)(Copenhagen)(Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark)
T
National Bank of Belgium Brussels Flag of Belgium (civil).svg BelgiumU ( Flag of France.svg France), V ( Flag of Spain.svg Spain), Z ( Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium)
U
ValoraBanco de Portugal Carregado Flag of Portugal.svg PortugalM ( Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal)
(V)
Unassigned
(W)
Unassigned
(X)
Unassigned
(Y)
Unassigned
(Z)
Unassigned
  • The A, C and S codes have been reserved for the British, Swedish and Danish printers not printing euro banknotes. [112]
  • Where a printer is listed as producing banknotes for a particular country, this may apply to a single denomination, or as many as all seven denominations. [112] Some NCBs source different denominations from different printers, [112] and some source even a single denomination from multiple printers. [112] NCBs that issue banknotes are free to source from any authorized printers, and do so in varying quantities. [112]

Serial number

The serial number on a 50 euro note. This banknote was issued for Banca d'Italia, the Italian central bank. 50 euro reverse serial number.jpg
The serial number on a 50 euro note. This banknote was issued for Banca d'Italia, the Italian central bank.

Unlike euro coins, euro notes do not have a national side indicating which country issued them. The country that issued them is not necessarily where they were printed. The information about the issuing country is encoded within the first character of each note's serial number instead. [16]

The first character of the serial number is a letter which uniquely identifies the country that issues the note. [16] The remaining 11 characters are numbers which, when their digital root is calculated, give a checksum also particular to that country. [114]

The W, K and J codes have been reserved for the three EU member states that did not adopt the euro in 1999, while the R prefix is reserved for Luxembourg, which, at present, does not issue euro banknotes. [16] The first series of uncirculated notes from Luxembourg use the prefix belonging to the country where they were printed. [16]

National identification codes [115] [79]
CodeCountry Checksum (1)
in Englishin official language(s)
ZFlag of Belgium (civil).svg BelgiumBelgië/Belgique/Belgien9
YFlag of Greece.svg GreeceΕλλάδα [Ellada]1
XFlag of Germany.svg GermanyDeutschland2
(W)(2)(Flag of Denmark.svg Denmark)Danmark(3)
VFlag of Spain.svg SpainEspaña4
UFlag of France.svg FranceFrance5
TFlag of Ireland.svg IrelandÉire/Ireland6
SFlag of Italy.svg ItalyItalia7
(R)(Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg)Luxembourg/Luxemburg/Lëtzebuerg(8)
(Q)Unassigned
PFlag of the Netherlands.svg NetherlandsNederland1
(O)Unassigned
NFlag of Austria.svg AustriaÖsterreich3
MFlag of Portugal.svg PortugalPortugal4
LFlag of Finland.svg FinlandSuomi/Finland5
(K)(2)(Flag of Sweden.svg Sweden)Sverige(6)
(J)(2)(Flag of the United Kingdom.svg United Kingdom)United Kingdom(7)
(I)Unassigned
HFlag of Slovenia.svg SloveniaSlovenija9
GFlag of Cyprus.svg CyprusΚύπρος [Kypros]/Kıbrıs1
FFlag of Malta.svg MaltaMalta2
EFlag of Slovakia.svg SlovakiaSlovensko3
DFlag of Estonia.svg EstoniaEesti4
(C)Flag of Latvia.svg LatviaLatvija [116]
(B)Flag of Lithuania.svg LithuaniaLietuva [116]
(A)Unassigned


(1) checksum of the 11 digits without the letter
(2) Denmark, the United Kingdom and Sweden presently do not use the Euro, but had these serial number prefixes reserved for the first series of notes. [16]

Although the Slovenian letter had been reserved since the eurozone enlargement in January 2007, the country initially used previously issued banknotes issued from other member states. The first banknotes bearing the "H" letter, produced in France specifically on behalf of Slovenia, were witnessed no sooner than April 2008. [117] The 'Cypriot banknotes' (G) appeared in circulation in November 2009, whereas, those from Malta (F) appeared 3 months later (February 2010). [118] Slovak notes (E) first appeared in October 2010.

2nd series

The serial number on a 5 euro note. This banknote was printed in Fabrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre in Spain. 5 euro note Europa series serial numbers.jpg
The serial number on a 5 euro note. This banknote was printed in Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre in Spain.

In the new series, there are two codes, like in the first series. They are the printer code in the top right hand corner and the serial number. [119] Part of the serial number is horizontal and part of it is vertical. [120] The serial number begins with a letter indicating the printer, which is broadly similar to the first series (Z for Belgium, Y for Greece, etc.). [121] The second letter of the new serial numbers is part of the serial number itself, and has no further significance. [121]

However, as the code indicates the printer, rather than the issuing NCB, certain letters have been reassigned from NCBs which do not maintain their own printing facilities. In the first series, H denoted Slovenia. As there is no Slovene printer of euro banknotes, H represents De La Rue (Loughton) in the second series. [121] Several of the printers which replaced what were NCB codes maintain their printing code from the first series (De La Rue, mentioned, and Bundesdruckerei, which replaced Luxembourg as R, its previous printing code). [121]

Identification codes [121]
CodePrinterCountry
Z Nationale Bank van België/Banque Nationale de BelgiqueFlag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium
Y Bank of Greece Flag of Greece.svg Greece
X Giesecke+Devrient (Munich)Flag of Germany.svg Germany
W Giesecke+Devrient (Leipzig)Flag of Germany.svg Germany
V IMBISA (owned by Banco de España)Flag of Spain.svg Spain
U Banque de France Flag of France.svg France
T Central Bank of Ireland Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland
S Banca d'Italia Flag of Italy.svg Italy
R Bundesdruckerei Flag of Germany.svg Germany
(Q)Omitted [121]
P Joh. Enschedé Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands
(O)Omitted [121]
N Oesterreichische Banknoten‐ und Sicherheitsdruck GmbH Flag of Austria.svg Austria
M Valora Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal
(L)Unassigned
(K)Unassigned
J De La Rue (Gateshead)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK
(I)Omitted [121]
HDe La Rue (Loughton)Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK
(G)Unassigned
FOberthur Fiduciaire AD BulgariaFlag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria
E Oberthur Flag of France.svg France
D Polska Wytwórnia Papierów Wartościowych Flag of Poland.svg Poland
(C)Unassigned
(B)Unassigned
(A)Unassigned

Production statistics

The European Central Bank publishes details about euro notes produced every year. [111]

Banknotes produced in 2019 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€5613.33,066Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€10424.64,245Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€20970.919,417Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€501729.286,457Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania.
€100
€200
€500
TOTAL3,738113,187.50Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2018 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€5448.42,241Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€10
€20526.510,530Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€50
€1002,300230,000Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
€200715143,000Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
€500
TOTAL3,989.90385,771.90Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2017 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€53901,948Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Greece.svg Greece.
€10
€2090018,000Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€503,300164,998Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg the Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€10085085,002Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
€20028456,752Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€500
TOTAL5,723326,700Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2016 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€5
€101,00010,000Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France.
€2050010,000Flag of France.svg France.
€504,541227,050Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg the Netherlands, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€10017617,640Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
€200
€500
TOTAL6,217264,690Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Lithuania.svg Lithuania, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2015 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€56003,000Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€101,20012,000Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg the Netherlands, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€201,70034,000Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy.
€502,500125,000Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of the Netherlands.svg the Netherlands, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€100
€200
€500
TOTAL6,000171,300Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Latvia.svg Latvia, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2014 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€58254,125Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland.
€1094940Flag of Greece.svg Greece.
€203,99479,880Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€502,800140,000Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg the Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€10050050,000Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€200479,400Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€5008542,500Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
TOTAL8,345326,845Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2013 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€5
€104,50045,000Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€202,50050,000Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€501,00050,000Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain.
€100
€200
€500
TOTAL8,000145,000Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2012 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€52,915.3014,576.52Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
€101,959.0419,590.45Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€201,703.9534,079.03Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€501,530.4376,521.70Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Italy.svg Italy.
€100298.1329,813.20Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€20050.0010,000.04Flag of Germany.svg Germany.
€500
TOTAL8,456.87184,580.95Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
Banknotes produced in 2011 [111]
DenominationQuantity (millions)Value (€ millions)NCBs commissioning production
€51,714.808,574.00Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Malta.svg MaltaFlag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€101,541.2015,412.00Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal.
€20536.6010,732.00Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.
€502,169.10108,455.00Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of Italy.svg Italy.
€100
€200
€50056.2028,100.00Flag of Austria.svg Austria.
TOTAL6,017.90171,273.00Flag of Belgium (civil).svg Belgium, Flag of Spain.svg Spain, Flag of France.svg France, Flag of Italy.svg Italy, Flag of Austria.svg Austria, Flag of Germany.svg Germany, Flag of Greece.svg Greece, Flag of Ireland.svg Ireland, Flag of Portugal.svg Portugal, Flag of Cyprus.svg Cyprus, Flag of Estonia.svg Estonia, Flag of Malta.svg Malta, Flag of Luxembourg.svg Luxembourg, Flag of the Netherlands.svg Netherlands, Flag of Slovenia.svg Slovenia, Flag of Slovakia.svg Slovakia, Flag of Finland.svg Finland.

Tracking

There are several communities of people at European level, an example of which is EuroBillTracker, [122] that as a hobby keep track of the euro notes that pass through their hands to keep track and know where they travel or have travelled. [122] The aim is to record as many notes as possible in order to know details about their spread, from where and to where they travel in general and follow it up, like where a specific note has been seen in particular and generate statistics and rankings, for example, in which countries there are more notes. [122] EuroBillTracker has registered over 174.96 million notes as of 3 March 2018, worth more than €3.23 billion. [123]

€1 and €2 notes

The ECB has stated that "printing a €1 note is more expensive (and less durable) than minting a €1 coin". On 18 November 2004 the ECB decided definitively that there was insufficient demand across the Eurozone for very-low-denomination banknotes. On 25 October 2005, however, more than half of MEPs supported a motion calling on the European Commission and the European Central Bank to recognise the definite need for the introduction of €1 and €2 banknotes. [124] However, the European Central Bank is not directly answerable to the Parliament or the Commission, and has ignored the motion.

€0 notes

In 2015, Richard Faille developed the idea of souvenir Euro notes made to the same standards as the currency, but without value. These can then be sold at a profit to commemorate places or events. [125] Since then these have become increasingly popular, and the European Central Bank has approved their printing. [126] A popular addition to this series was issued in 2018 by the city of Trier, and shows Karl Marx, commemorating the bicentennial of his birth there. [127] In addition, a design commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing in 2019 has been unveiled.


Zero Euro souvenir bank note - Chambord.jpg
Example of the 0€ bank note depicting Château de Chambord
0-Euro Ruckseite 2017.jpg
The back side of the Zero euro banknote.
The front of the Zero Euro banknote would feature images of well-known sights throughout Europe, and the back is the common side.

See also

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The 10 euro cent coin (€0.10) has a value of one tenth of a euro and is composed of an alloy called Nordic gold. All coins have a common reverse side and country-specific national sides. The coin has been used since 2002, with the present common side design dating from 2007.

1 euro coin euro coin

The 1-euro coin (€1) is a euro coin with a value of one euro. It is made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. All coins have a common reverse side and country-specific national sides. The coin has been used since 2002, with the present common side design dating from 2007.

This article concerns the banknotes of the New Zealand dollar.

5 euro note type of banknote worth 5 euros

The five euro note (€5) is the lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used in the 25 countries which have it as their sole currency ; with a population of about 343 million. In June 2020, there were approximately 1,959,000,000 five euro banknotes in circulation around the eurozone. It is the fifth most widely circulated denomination, accounting for 7.8% of the total banknotes. Estimates suggest that the average life of a five euro banknote is less than a year before it is replaced due to wear.

10 euro note euro banknote

The ten euro note (€10) is the second-lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used in the 23 countries which have it as their sole currency ; with a population of about 343 million. In June 2020, there were approximately 2,733,000,000 ten euro banknotes in circulation around the eurozone. It is the fourth most widely circulated denomination, accounting for 10.9% of the total banknotes. Estimates suggest that the average life of a ten euro banknote is about 1.5 years before it is replaced due to wear.

20 euro note

The twenty euro note (€20) is the third-lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used by the 23 countries and a population of 343 million as their sole currency, with 22 legally adopting it. In June 2020, there were approximately 4,286,000,000 twenty euro banknotes in circulation around the eurozone. It is the second most widely circulated denomination, accounting for 17.1% of the total banknotes. Estimates suggest that the average life of a twenty euro banknote is about two years before it is replaced due to wear.

50 euro note Banknote of the European Union

The fifty euro note (€50) is one of the middle value euro banknotes and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used by some 343 million Europeans and in the 23 countries which have the euro as their sole currency. In June 2020, there were about 11,901,000,000 fifty euro banknotes in circulation in the eurozone. It is by far the most widely circulated denomination, accounting for 47.4% of the total banknotes. Estimates suggest that the average life of a fifty euro banknote is about four years before it is replaced due to wear.

100 euro note banknote

The one hundred euro note (€100) is one of the higher value euro banknotes and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used daily by some 343 million Europeans and in the 23 countries which have it as their sole currency. In June 2020, there were approximately 3,216,000,000 hundred euro banknotes in circulation in the eurozone. It is the third most widely circulated denomination, accounting for 12.8% of the total banknotes.

200 euro note Euro banknote

The two hundred euro note (€200) is the second-highest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro in 2002. The note is used in the 23 countries which have the euro as their sole currency ; with a population of about 343 million. In June 2020, there were about 562,000,000 €200 banknotes in circulation around the eurozone. It is the second least widely circulated denomination, accounting for 2.2% of the total banknotes.

500 euro note Banknote of the European Union

The five hundred euro note (€500) is the highest-value euro banknote and was produced between the introduction of the euro in 2002 until 2014. Since 27 April 2019, the banknote has no longer been issued by central banks in the euro area, but continues to be legal tender and can be used as a means of payment. It is one of the highest-value circulating banknotes in the world, worth around 550 USD, 3,943 CNY, 59,347 JPY, 533 CHF or 449 GBP as of May 2020. The note is used in the 23 countries which have the euro as their sole currency, with a population of about 343 million.

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