Casio

Last updated

Casio Computer Co., Ltd.
Native name
カシオ計算機株式会社
Romanized name
Kashio Keisanki Kabushiki-gaisha
Type Public (K.K)
TYO: 6952
Industry Electronics
FoundedApril 1946 (1946-04) (as Kashio Seisakujo) [1]
June 1957 (1957-06) (as Casio Computer Co., Ltd.)
FounderTadao Kashio
Toshio Kashio
Headquarters Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan [2]
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Kazuhiro Kashio (President and CEO)
Products
RevenueDecrease2.svg ¥280.7 billion (2020) [3]
Decrease2.svg¥25.34 billion (2020) [3]
Decrease2.svg¥17.59 billion (2020) [3]
Total assets Decrease2.svg¥334.1 billion (2020) [3]
Total equity Decrease2.svg¥202.5 billion (2020) [3]
Number of employees
11,193 (2020) [3]
Website world.casio.com

Casio Computer Co., Ltd. (カシオ計算機株式会社, Kashio Keisanki Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese multinational electronics manufacturing company headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan. Its products include calculators, mobile phones, digital cameras, electronic musical instruments, and analogue and digital watches. It was founded in 1946, and in 1957 introduced the world's first entirely electric compact calculator. It was an early digital camera innovator, and during the 1980s and 1990s, the company developed numerous affordable home electronic keyboards for musicians along with introducing the world's first mass-produced digital watches.

Contents

History

Casio was established as Kashio Seisakujo in April 1946 by Tadao Kashio (樫尾忠雄 1917–1993), an engineer specializing in fabrication technology. [1] Kashio's first major product was the yubiwa pipe, a finger ring that would hold a cigarette, allowing the wearer to smoke the cigarette down to its nub while also leaving the wearer's hands-free. [4] Japan was impoverished immediately following World War II, so cigarettes were valuable, and the invention was a success.

After seeing the electric calculators at the first Business Show in Ginza, Tokyo in 1949, Kashio and his younger brothers (Toshio, Kazuo, and Yukio) used their profits from the yubiwa pipe to develop their calculators. Most of the calculators at that time worked using gears and could be operated by hand using a crank or using a motor (see adding machine).

Toshio possessed some knowledge of electronics and set out to make a calculator using solenoids. After dozens of prototypes were tested, the desk-sized calculator was finished in 1954 and was Japan's first electro-mechanical calculator. One of the central and more important innovations of the calculator was its adoption of the 10-key number pad; at that time other calculators were using a "full keypad", which meant that each place in the number (1s, 10s, 100s, etc ...) had nine keys. Another distinguishing innovation was the use of a single display window instead of the three display windows (one for each argument and one for the answer) used in other calculators. [1] [5]

Casio Computer Co., Ltd. was formed in June 1957. [1] That year, Casio released the Model 14-A, sold for 485,000 yen, [6] the world's first all-electric compact calculator, which was based on relay technology.

In the 1980s, Casio's budget electronic instruments and its line of affordable home electronic musical keyboard instruments became popular. The company also became well known for the wide variety and innovation of its wristwatches. It was one of the earliest manufacturers of quartz watches, both digital and analog. It also began selling calculator watches during this time. Casio also introduced one of the first watches that could display the time in many different time zones of the world and with features like recording temperature, atmospheric-pressure and altitude. In the later years, Casio's wristwatches were fitted with receivers to synchronise with radio towers around the world and Global Positioning System for timekeeping accuracy.

A number of notable digital camera innovations have also been made by Casio, including the QV-10, the first consumer digital camera with a liquid-crystal display (LCD) on the back [7] (developed by a team led by Hiroyuki Suetaka in 1995), the first consumer three-megapixel camera, the first true ultra-compact model, and the first digital camera to incorporate ceramic lens technology, using Lumicera. [8]

Price fixing

In July 2019, the company's UK arm, Casio Electronics Co. Ltd, was fined £3.7 million after admitting resale price maintenance (a form of price-fixing) between 2013 and 2018, in breach of the United Kingdom's Competition Act 1998. [9] [10]

Products

Casio's products include watches, calculators, electronic keyboards and other digital products such as digital cameras (Exilim series), film cameras, cash registers, laptops and sub-notebook computers, mobile phones, PDAs (E-Data Bank), electronic dictionaries, digital diaries (early PDAs), electronic games, computer printers, clocks, and portable televisions.

In the 1970s and 80s, Casio was best known for its electronic (including scientific) calculators, electronic musical instruments and affordable digital watches incorporating innovative technology. Today, Casio is most commonly known for making durable and reliable electronic products. [7] The G-Shock range of shock-resistant watches is also very popular, with the original 1983 G-Shock DW-5000C being highly sought-after by collectors. The scientific calculators made by Casio especially the CLASSWIZ series of calculators are known for being affordable while incorporating a host of functions as compared to their competitors. [11]

Casio also makes products for local markets, including "Prayer Compass" watch series designed to help Muslims pray on time and in the right direction. [12]

Calculators

Scientific calculators

Casio fx-991EX "CLASSWIZ" scientific calculator Fx-991EX.jpg
Casio fx-991EX "CLASSWIZ" scientific calculator

Casio calculators include:

  • Graphing
  • Programming
    • fx-5800P, 3950P, fx-3650P, 50F Plus (2000s)
    • fx-4500PA, 4500P
    • fx-5500LA, 5500L
    • fx-3900PV, 3900P (1990s)
    • fx-4800P
    • fx-3600P (1980s)
    • fx-4000P, 3500P, 3800P, fx-5000F, 50F (late 1980s)
    • FX-850P
    • FX-702P (ca. 1981)
    • FX-603P, FX-602P (1981)
    • fx-180P, 390PV (Program) (early 1980s), fx-180PV,
    • FX-502P, 501P (ca. 1979)
  • Professional
    • fx-FD10 Pro (2014) (Surveying calculator for civil engineering)
  • V.P.A.M. (See: Casio V.P.A.M. calculators )
    • CLASSWIZ (High-resolution Natural Textbook Display)
    • "Natural V.P.A.M."
    • "Natural Display"
    • S-V.P.A.M. / Two-line, Multi-replay
  • LCD (One-line)
    • fx-65 (True fraction) (mid 1990s)
    • fx-95 (equation) (mid 1990s)
    • fx-991D, 570D, 115D, 100D (early-mid 1990s)
    • fx-82D, 250D, 82LB, 82SUPER, 82SX, 82SOLAR (early 1990s)
    • fx-992V, 992VB, 991V, 115V, 85V; fx-991H, 911H (early 1990s)
    • fx-991N, 911N, 115N, 85N; fx-250C, fx-570C (late 1980s)
    • fx-991M, 115M, 85M; fx-451M,(mid-late 1980s)
    • fx-650M; fx-580; fx-100C, 82C (mid-late 1980s)
    • fx-570, 100, 350, 77 (early-mid 1980s)
    • fx-82, 82B, 82L, fx-58 (early 1980s)
    • fx-2000, 2200, 2500, fx-48(late 1970s)
  • VFD (Digitron) display
    • fx-1, 2, 3 (desk); fx-10 (handheld) (early-mid 1970s), used MSI (medium scale integration)
    • fx-11, 15, 20, 101, 17, 19, 102, 1000, PRO fx-1, PRO-101, (mid-1970s)
    • fx-21, 29, 31, 39, 120, 140 (mid-late 1970s)
    • fx-201P, 202P (Program) (mid 1970s)

Basic calculators

  • LCD display
    • Desk calculators
      • DS-3TS, DH-160, DV-220, DJ-240D, DJ-120D, MJ-120D, MW-8V (2000s)
    • Pocket calculators
      • JS-140TVS, NJ-120D, SL-1000TW, HL-122TV (2000s)
      • HL-810 (1985)
      • SL-800 (FILM CARD) (1983)
      • LC-78 (MINI-CARD) (1978)
    • Printing calculators
      • HR-100TM, DR-210TM (2000s)
  • VFD (Digitron) / LED display
    • Desktop calculators
      • AL-1000 (1967)
    • Pocket calculators (1970s)
      • CM-601 (MINI) (1973)
      • CM-606 (Personal MINI)
      • CP-801B (POCKET-MINI) (1975)
      • 101-MR
      • Y-811 (Memory-8R)
      • AL-8 (with fraction input)
      • H-813 (Personal M-1)
      • CQ-1 (with clock function)

Watches

Casio G-Shock Rangeman watch Casio G-Shock Master of G Rangeman GW-9400J-1JF.jpg
Casio G-Shock Rangeman watch

Casio watches include:

Musical instruments

Other

Digital cameras

  • QV-Series
  • WQV-Series
  • EX-Series (Exilim)
  • TRYX

PDA/DataBank

Electronic dictionary

  • EX-word-Series

Electronic games

  • CG-Series

Data and video projector

  • XJ-S (Super Slim-Projectors)

System products

  • POS systems
  • Portable data terminals

Printing systems

  • CD label printer
  • Label printer

Mobile Phones

  • G'zOne Type-L
  • G'zOne Commando
  • G'zOne CA-201L

Digital diaries (early PDA's: no longer produced)

Game Consoles

Computers

CP/M and Z80 Based:

DOS and x86 Based:

See also

Related Research Articles

Calculator Electronic device used for calculations

An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

Watch Personal timepiece

A watch is a portable timepiece intended to be carried or worn by a person. It is designed to keep a consistent movement despite the motions caused by the person's activities. A wristwatch is designed to be worn around the wrist, attached by a watch strap or other type of bracelet, including metal bands, leather straps or any other kind of bracelet. A pocket watch is designed for a person to carry in a pocket, often attached to a chain.

Graphing calculator

A graphing calculator is a handheld computer that is capable of plotting graphs, solving simultaneous equations, and performing other tasks with variables. Most popular graphing calculators are also programmable and therefore considered to be programmable calculators, allowing the user to create customized programs, typically for scientific, engineering and education applications. Because they have large displays in comparison to standard four-operation handheld calculators, graphing calculators also typically display several lines of text and calculations at the same time.

Scientific calculator

A digital calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics. They have completely replaced slide rules in traditional applications, and are widely used in both education and professional settings.

Casiotone Series of home electronic keyboards

Casiotone refers to a series of home electronic keyboards released by Casio Computer Co., Ltd. in the early 1980s. In 2019 the series was revived with the launch of three new keyboards. Casio claims that the Casiotone 201 (CT-201) was "the first electronic keyboard with full-size keys that anyone could afford".

Casio VL-1 Electronic instrument

The VL-1 was the first instrument of Casio's VL-Tone product line, and is sometimes referred to as the VL-Tone. It combined a calculator, a monophonic synthesizer, and sequencer. Released in June 1979, it was the first commercial digital synthesizer, selling for $69.95.

Calculator watch

A calculator watch is a digital watch with a built-in calculator, usually including buttons on the watch face. Calculator watches were first introduced in the 1970s and continue to be produced, despite falling from their peak popularity during the 1980s. The most dominant brands in the end was the Casio Databank series and Timex.

Casio fx-7000G Graphing calculator by Casio

The Casio FX-7000G is a calculator which is widely known as being the world's first graphing calculator available to the public. It was introduced to the public and later manufactured between 1985 and c. 1988. Notable features are its ability to graph functions, and that it is programmable. The calculator offers 82 scientific functions and is capable of manual computation for basic arithmetic problems.

Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer. The first programmable calculators such as the IBM CPC used punched cards or other media for program storage. Hand-held electronic calculators store programs on magnetic strips, removable read-only memory cartridges, flash memory, or in battery-backed read/write memory.

Casio ClassPad 300 Family of graphing calculators by Casio

The Casio ClassPad 300, ClassPad 330 and fx-CP400 are stylus based touch-screen graphing calculators. The ClassPad comes with a collection of applications that support self-study, like 3D Graph, Geometry, eActivity, Spreadsheet, etc. A large 160x240 pixel LCD touch screen enables stylus-based operation. The ClassPad resembles Casio's earlier Pocket Viewer line. HP and Texas Instruments attempted to release similar pen based calculators (the HP Xpander and PET Project, but both were cancelled before release to the market.

HP-16C Programmable calculator produce by Hewlett-Packard

The HP-16C Computer Scientist is a programmable pocket calculator that was produced by Hewlett-Packard between 1982 and 1989. It was specifically designed for use by computer programmers, to assist in debugging. It is a member of the HP Voyager series of programmable calculators. It was the only programmer's calculator ever produced by HP, though many later HP calculators have incorporated most of the 16C's functions.

Casio 9850 series Series of graphing calculators by Casio

The Casio CFX-9850G series is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio Computer Co., Ltd. from 1996 to 2008.

Casio Databank

Casio Databank is a series of digital watches manufactured by Casio. They allow data storage for names and telephone numbers, memos, and in late editions, email addresses; in addition to usually providing a calculator as well as the standard features of a digital watch.

ROM cartridge Digital data storage device used for the distribution and storage of video games

A ROM cartridge, usually referred to in context simply as a cartridge, cart, or card, is a removable memory card containing ROM designed to be connected to a consumer electronics device such as a home computer, video game console or, to a lesser extent, electronic musical instruments. ROM cartridges can be used to load software such as video games or other application programs.

The Casio fx-9860G is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio Computer Co., Ltd, successor of the fx-9750G PLUS/CFX-9850 PLUS/CFX-9950 PLUS/CFX-9970 family of calculators. All of them are capable of being programmed by means of sophisticated languages and tools including assembly language, Basic variants, and ports of programming languages such as C, as well as hosting add-ins which are compiled on a computer and then downloaded to the calculator.

Casio graphic calculators Overview of the graphic calculators made by Casio

Graphic calculators made by Casio include the touchscreen ClassPad 300 as well as the models with traditional buttons which can be divided into two main generations listed below. Casio produced the world's first graphing calculator, the fx-7000G.

Casio FX-602P series Series of programmable calculators produced by Casio

The FX-601P and FX-602P were programmable calculators, manufactured by CASIO from 1981. It was the successor model to the Casio FX-502P series and was itself succeeded in 1990 by the Casio FX-603P.

Casio V.P.A.M. calculators are scientific calculators made by Casio which use Casio's Visually Perfect Algebraic Method (V.P.A.M.), Natural Display or Natural V.P.A.M. input methods.

This is the history of science and technology in Modern Japan.

Casio Algebra FX Series Series of Casio graphing calculators

The Casio Algebra FX series was a line of graphing calculators manufactured by Casio Computer Co., Ltd from 1999 to 2003. They were the successor models to the CFX-9970G, the first Casio calculator with computer algebra system, or CAS, a program for symbolic manipulation of mathematical expressions. The calculators were discontinued and succeeded by the Casio ClassPad 300 in 2003.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "History". Casio Computer Co., Ltd. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  2. "Company Data". Casio. Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Casio Computer Co Corporation Financial Statements" (PDF). Casio Computer Co. Retrieved 6 May 2020.
  4. "CASIO Corporate History 1954". CASIO-Europe. CASIO Europe GmbH. Archived from the original on 19 February 2016. Retrieved 13 February 2016.
  5. "Tadao Kashio Biography: History of Casio Computer Company".
  6. Casio desktop calculator Archived 12 January 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Dentaku Museum.
  7. 1 2 Review: Casio:History
  8. "Casio's ceramic lens". DPReview.
  9. Kollewe, Julia (22 January 2020). "Guitar maker Fender fined £4.5m for price fixing in UK". The Guardian . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  10. "Piano supplier fined £3.7m for illegally preventing price discounts". Competition and Markets Authority . Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  11. "Casio CLASSWIZ FX-991EX Full Review" . Retrieved 25 February 2019.
  12. "PRAYER COMPASS". Casio. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
  13. "YOUTH DIGITAL | YOUTH SERIES | Timepieces | CASIO". CASIO Official Website.
  14. "Casio PT-80". Synthmuseum. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  15. "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". www.old-computers.com. Archived from the original on 6 June 2010. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  16. "The Museum". old-computers.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  17. "The Museum". old-computers.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2016.
  18. "The Museum". old-computers.com. Archived from the original on 21 November 2010. Retrieved 27 September 2016.