A throat microphone, also called a laryngophone, is a type of contact microphone that absorbs vibrations directly from the wearer's throat by way of single or dual sensors worn against the neck. The sensors, called transducers, can pick up speech even in extremely noisy or windy environments, such as on a motorcycle or in a nightclub. Other types of microphones do not function well under these conditions because of high levels of background noise. Advanced laryngophones are able to pick up whispers, and therefore perform well in environments where communicating with others at a distance in silence is required, such as during covert military or law enforcement operations. Throat microphones are also very useful when helmets or respiratory protection is required. Many full-face SCBA, CABA, SAR Respirator, Elastomeric Respirator, N95 Respirator PAPR, or re-breather masks do not have a provision for a microphone inside the mask. The throat microphone can be used safely, as it is positioned outside the mask's face seal and as such does not compromise the respiratory protection provided by the mask, nor does it violate mask approvals and certification.
Charles Edmond Prince lead the development of throat microphones for the British during World War I for use in the noisy and windy environment of aircraft cockpits. Over a 3 year period from 1915-1918 they went through a series of prototype and production handheld "airplane telephones" before arriving at a hands free throat mic incorporated into a leather flying helmet
During World War II, German Luftwaffe pilots 176 and panzer crews used throat microphones. Soon after, they were adopted by the Allied air forces—the USAAF with the T-20 and T-30 and the RAF with the Mark II. Later, Soviet pilots relied on LA-3 and LA-5 models.:
Starting in the 1970s, researchers explored the use of throat microphones in speech therapy,
Throat microphones have maintained their presence in the military, law enforcement, and emergency services. Newer single-transducer designs are available that make the throat microphone much more comfortable to wear than earlier units and also better balance transmission quality. Additionally, this next generation of throat microphones provides varying outputs and frequency responses to accommodate a wide variety of professional communication devices such as digital and analog portable radios and Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) and P25 systems.
Several throat microphones including wireless throat mics now exist for mobile devices.Mobile device apps are starting to allow further customisation for end-user applications. Consumer uses such as for airsoft competitions and motorcycle riding are increasingly more popular. With the advent of COVID-19 and higher rate of face mask usage throat mics for general use is becoming more common to facilitate communications.
A gas mask is a mask used to protect the wearer from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases. The mask forms a sealed cover over the nose and mouth, but may also cover the eyes and other vulnerable soft tissues of the face. Most gas masks are also respirators, though the word gas mask is often used to refer to military equipment, the scope used in this article. The gas mask only protects the user from digesting, inhaling and contact through the eyes. Most combined gas mask filters will last around 8 hours in a nuclear biological chemical (NBC) situation. Chemical specific filters can last up to 20 hours in an NBC situation.
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. Protective clothing is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and protective gear applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others. PPE suits can be similar in appearance to a cleanroom suit.
A microphone, colloquially called a mic or mike, is a device – a transducer – that converts sound into an electrical signal. Microphones are used in many applications such as telephones, hearing aids, public address systems for concert halls and public events, motion picture production, live and recorded audio engineering, sound recording, two-way radios, megaphones, radio and television broadcasting. They are also used in computers for recording voice, speech recognition, VoIP, and for non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic sensors or knock sensors.
A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another. Usually a transducer converts a signal in one form of energy to a signal in another.
A hearing aid is a device designed to improve hearing by making sound audible to a person with hearing loss. Hearing aids are classified as medical devices in most countries, and regulated by the respective regulations. Small audio amplifiers such as PSAPs or other plain sound reinforcing systems cannot be sold as "hearing aids".
A respirator is a device designed to protect the wearer from inhaling hazardous atmospheres, including fumes, vapours, gases and particulate matter such as dusts and airborne microorganisms. There are two main categories: the air-purifying respirator, in which respirable air is obtained by filtering a contaminated atmosphere, and the air-supplied respirator, in which an alternate supply of breathable air is delivered. Within each category, different techniques are employed to reduce or eliminate noxious airborne contaminants.
For centuries, firefighters have worn helmets to protect them from heat, cinders and falling objects. Although the shape of most fire helmets has changed little over the years, their composition has evolved from traditional leather to metals, to composite helmets constructed of lightweight polymers and other plastics.
Ultrasonic transducers and ultrasonic sensors are devices that generate or sense ultrasound energy. They can be divided into three broad categories: transmitters, receivers and transceivers. Transmitters convert electrical signals into ultrasound, receivers convert ultrasound into electrical signals, and transceivers can both transmit and receive ultrasound.
A flight helmet, sometimes referred to as a "bone dome" or "foam dome", is a special type of helmet primarily worn by military aircrew.
Apple Inc. has produced and sold headphones since 2001, available for standalone purchase and bundled with iPhone and iPod products. Apple's current product line consists of EarPods, wired earbuds available with a 3.5mm headphone or Lightning connector, AirPods and AirPods Pro, wireless Bluetooth earbuds, and AirPods Max, wireless Bluetooth over-ear headphones.
An assistive listening device (ALD) is part of a system used to improve hearing ability for people in a variety of situations where they are unable to distinguish speech in noisy environments. Often, in a noisy or crowded room it is almost impossible for an individual who is hard of hearing to distinguish one voice among many. This is often exacerbated by the effect of room acoustics on the quality of perceived speech. Hearing aids are able to amplify and process these sounds, and improve the speech to noise ratio. However, if the sound is too distorted by the time it reaches the listener, even the best hearing aids will struggle to unscramble the signal. Assistive listening devices offer a more adaptive alternative to hearing aids, but can be more complex and cumbersome.
The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) is inherent in the theory of universal precaution, which requires specialized clothing or equipment for the protection of individuals from hazard. The term is defined by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), which is responsible for PPE regulation, as the "equipment that protects employees from serious injury or illness resulting from contact with chemical, radiological, physical, electrical, mechanical, or other hazards." While there are common forms of PPEs such as gloves, eye shields, and respirators, the standard set in the OSHA definition indicates a wide coverage. This means that PPE involves a sizable range of equipment. There are several ways to classify them such as how gears could be physiological or environmental. The following list, however, sorts personal protective equipment according to function and body area.
Setcom Corporation is an American manufacturer of communications equipment for police motorcycle officers, firefighters, rescue personnel and industrial users. Setcom supplies public safety professionals in all fifty states, most major US cities, and more than twenty countries with communications equipment.
Robotic sensing is a subarea of robotics science intended to give robots sensing capabilities, so that robots are more human-like. Robotic sensing mainly gives robots the ability to see, touch, hear and move and uses algorithms that require environmental feedback.
Soundhawk is an American corporation headquartered in Cupertino, California, that introduced a Smart Listening System in June 2014. The Smart Listening System is a set of products designed to help people hear, communicate and connect with greater clarity in noisy situations. It comes with three pieces of hardware: the Scoop, wireless microphone and charging case. The pieces are unified by a mobile application that includes over one million auditory profiles users can personalize to their environment.
During the first years of aviation pilots started wearing leather flying helmets as a form of protection from the cold and the noise of aircraft engines. Leather was becoming a popular choice for protective gear with the rise of motor sport and aviation at the start of the 1900s. It has many advantages that made it the ideal material for flying helmets. It is warm, durable, impermeable to liquids therefore waterproof, flexible and can be cut to curve around the head. It is wind-proof and has the great advantage of not accumulating dust. It was also found that leather helmets offered a level of protection against fire. British Engineers lead by Charles Edmond Prince added Throat microphones & earphones into these helmets during World War I for hands free communications in the noisy and windy environment of aircraft cockpits.
The respiratory protective devices (RPD) can protect workers only if their protective properties are adequate to the conditions in the workplace. Therefore, specialists have developed criteria for the selection of proper, adequate respirators, including the Assigned Protection Factors (APF) - the decrease of the concentration of harmful substances in the inhaled air, which to be provided with timely and proper use of a certified respirator of certain types (design) by taught and trained workers, when the employer performs an effective respiratory protective device programme.
Respirators, also known as respiratory protective equipment (RPE) or respiratory protective devices (RPD), are used in some workplaces to protect workers from air contaminants. Initially, respirator effectiveness was tested in laboratories, but in the late 1960s it was found that these tests gave misleading results regarding the level of protection provided. In the 1970s, workplace-based respirator testing became routine in industrialized countries, leading to a dramatic reduction in the claimed efficacy of many respirator types and new guidelines on how to select the appropriate respirator for a given environment.
The small box respirator was the initial compact version of the recent gas mask. In late 1916, the respirator was introduced by the British with the purpose to provide reliable protection against chlorine and phosgene gas. The respirator offered a first line of defense against the gas. A later and more toxic gas, Mustard Gas, was created by Germans and was a vesicant that burnt the skin of individuals that were exposed to it. Death rates were high with exposure to both the mixed phosgene chlorine and mustard gas, however with soldiers having readily available access to the small box respirator, death rates had lowered significantly. Light and reasonably fitting, the respirator was a key piece of equipment to readily protect the respiratory health of soldiers on the battlefield.
Elastomeric respirators, also called reusable air-purifying respirators, are a type of respirator that seals to the face using a mask made of an elastomeric material, which may be a natural or synthetic rubber. They are generally reusable. Full-face versions of elastomeric respirators seal better and protect the eyes.