Occult

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The occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden" or "knowledge of the paranormal", as opposed to facts and "knowledge of the measurable", usually referred to as science. [1] [2] The term is sometimes taken to mean knowledge that "is meant only for certain people" or that "must be kept hidden", but for most practicing occultists it is simply the study of a deeper spiritual reality that extends pure reason and the physical sciences. [3] The terms esoteric and arcane can also be used to describe the occult, [4] in addition to their meanings unrelated to the supernatural.

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

Paranormal events are purported phenomena described in popular culture, folk, and other non-scientific bodies of knowledge, whose existence within these contexts is described as beyond normal experience or scientific explanation.

A fact is a thing that is known to be consistent with objective reality and can be proven to be true with evidence. For example, "this sentence contains words" is a linguistic fact, and "the sun is a star" is a cosmological fact. Further, "Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States" and "Abraham Lincoln was assassinated" are also both facts, of the historical type. All of these statements have the epistemic quality of being "ontologically superior" to opinion or interpretation — they are either categorically necessary or supported by adequate historical documentation.

Contents

The term occult sciences was used in the 16th century to refer to astrology, alchemy, and natural magic. The term occultism emerged in 19th-century France, where it came to be associated with various French esoteric groups connected to Éliphas Lévi and Papus, and in 1875 was introduced into the English language by the esotericist Helena Blavatsky. Throughout the 20th century, the term was used idiosyncratically by a range of different authors, but by the 21st century was commonly employed – including by academic scholars of esotericism – to refer to a range of esoteric currents that developed in the mid-19th century and their descendants. Occultism is thus often used to categorise such esoteric traditions as Spiritualism, Theosophy, Anthroposophy, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and New Age.

Astrology Pseudoscience claiming celestial objects influence human affairs

Astrology is a pseudoscience that claims to divine information about human affairs and terrestrial events by studying the movements and relative positions of celestial objects. Astrology has been dated to at least the 2nd millennium BCE, and has its roots in calendrical systems used to predict seasonal shifts and to interpret celestial cycles as signs of divine communications. Many cultures have attached importance to astronomical events, and some—such as the Hindus, Chinese, and the Maya—developed elaborate systems for predicting terrestrial events from celestial observations. Western astrology, one of the oldest astrological systems still in use, can trace its roots to 19th–17th century BCE Mesopotamia, from which it spread to Ancient Greece, Rome, the Arab world and eventually Central and Western Europe. Contemporary Western astrology is often associated with systems of horoscopes that purport to explain aspects of a person's personality and predict significant events in their lives based on the positions of celestial objects; the majority of professional astrologers rely on such systems.

Alchemy ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition

Alchemy was an ancient branch of natural philosophy, a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practised throughout Europe, Africa, and Asia, originating in Greco-Roman Egypt in the first few centuries.

Magic (supernatural) Type of beliefs and practices

Magic is a category into which have been placed various beliefs and practices considered separate from both religion and science. Emerging within Western culture, the term has historically often had pejorative connotations, with things labelled magical perceived as being socially unacceptable, primitive, or foreign. The concept has been adopted by scholars in the humanities and social sciences, who have proposed various different—and often mutually exclusive—definitions of the term. Many contemporary scholars regard the concept to be so problematic that they reject it altogether.

Particularly since the late twentieth century, various authors have used the occult as a substantivized adjective. In this usage, "the occult" is a category into which varied beliefs and practices are placed if they are considered to fit into neither religion nor science. "The occult" in this sense is very broad, encompassing such phenomenon as beliefs in vampires or fairies and movements like ufology and parapsychology. In that same period, occult and culture were combined to form the neologism occulture. Initially used in the industrial music scene, it was later given scholarly applications.

Religion is a social-cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, morals, worldviews, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.

Science systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge

Science is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.

Ufology study of UFOs

Ufology is the study of reports, visual records, purported physical evidence, and other phenomena related to unidentified flying objects (UFO). UFO reports have been subject to various investigations over the years by governments, independent groups, and scientists. However, ufology as a field has not been embraced by academia and is considered a pseudoscience by the scientific community.

Occult sciences

The idea of "occult sciences" developed in the sixteenth century. [5] The term usually encompassed three practices—astrology, alchemy, and natural magic—although sometimes various forms of divination were also included rather than being subsumed under natural magic. [5] These were grouped together because, according to the historian of religion Wouter Hanegraaff, "each one of them engaged in a systematic investigation of nature and natural processes, in the context of theoretical frameworks that relied heavily on a belief in occult qualities, virtues or forces." [5] Although there are areas of overlap between these different occult sciences, they are separate and in some cases practitioners of one would reject the others as being illegitimate. [5]

Natural magic in the context of Renaissance magic is that part of the occult which deals with natural forces directly, as opposed to ceremonial magic, in particular goety and theurgy, which deals with the summoning of spirits. Heinrich Cornelius Agrippa so uses the term in his 1526 de vanitate. Natural magic so defined thus includes astrology, alchemy, and disciplines that we would today consider fields of natural science, such as astronomy and chemistry or botany. In a modern context, white magic may be referred to as "high magic".

Divination attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual

Divination, or "to be inspired by a god", is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual. Used in various forms throughout history, diviners ascertain their interpretations of how a querent should proceed by reading signs, events, or omens, or through alleged contact with a supernatural agency.

Wouter Hanegraaff Dutch philosopher

Wouter Jacobus Hanegraaff is full professor of History of Hermetic Philosophy and related currents at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. He served as the first President of the European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism (ESSWE) from 2005 to 2013.

During the Enlightenment, the term "occult" increasingly came to be seen as intrinsically incompatible with the concept of "science". [5] From that point on, use of the term "occult science(s)" implied a conscious polemic against mainstream science. [5]

In his 1871 book Primitive Culture, the anthropologist Edward Tylor used the term "occult science" as a synonym for "magic". [6]

Occult qualities

Occult qualities are properties that have no known rational explanation; in the Middle Ages, for example, magnetism was considered an occult quality. [7] [8] Aether (classical element) is another such element. [9] Newton's contemporaries severely criticized his theory that gravity was effected through "action at a distance", as occult. [10]

Occultism

The French esotericist Eliphas Levi popularised the term "occultism" in the 1850s. His reinterpretation of traditional esoteric ideas has led to him being called the origin of "the occultist current properly so-called". Eliphas Levi.png
The French esotericist Éliphas Lévi popularised the term "occultism" in the 1850s. His reinterpretation of traditional esoteric ideas has led to him being called the origin of "the occultist current properly so-called".

In the English-speaking world, prominent figures in the development of occultism included Helena Blavatsky and other figures associated with her Theosophical Society, senior figures in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn like William Wynn Westcott and Samuel Liddell Mathers, as well as other individuals such as Paschal Beverly Randolph, Emma Hardinge Britten, Arthur Edward Waite, and—in the early twentieth century—Aleister Crowley, Dion Fortune, and Israel Regardie. [12] By the end of the nineteenth century, occultist ideas had also spread into other parts of Europe, such as Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. [13]

Unlike older forms of esotericism, occultism does not reject "scientific progress or modernity". [14] Lévi had stressed the need to solve the conflict between science and religion, something that he believed could be achieved by turning to what he thought was the ancient wisdom found in magic. [15] The scholar of esotericism Antoine Faivre noted that rather than outright accepting "the triumph of scientism", occultists sought "an alternative solution", trying to integrate "scientific progress or modernity" with "a global vision that will serve to make the vacuousness of materialism more apparent". [11] Hanegraaff remarked that occultism was "essentially an attempt to adapt esotericism" to the "disenchanted world", a post-Enlightenment society in which growing scientific discovery had eradicated the "dimension of irreducible mystery" previously present. In doing so, he noted, occultism distanced itself from the "traditional esotericism" which accepted the premise of an "enchanted" world. [16] According to historian of esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, occultist groups typically seek "proofs and demonstrations by recourse to scientific tests or terminology". [17]

In his work about Lévi, the German historian Julian Strube has argued that the occultist wish for a "synthesis" of religion, science, and philosophy directly resulted from the context of contemporary socialism and progressive Catholicism. [18] Similar to spiritualism, but in declared opposition to it, the emergence of occultism should thus be seen within the context of radical social reform, which was often concerned with establishing new forms of "scientific religion" while at the same time propagating the revival of an ancient tradition of "true religion". [19] Indeed, the emergence of both modern esotericism and socialism in July Monarchy France have been inherently intertwined. [20]

Another feature of occultists is that—unlike earlier esotericists—they often openly distanced themselves from Christianity, in some cases (like that of Crowley) even adopting explicitly anti-Christian stances. [15] This reflected how pervasive the influence of secularisation had been on all areas of European society. [15] In rejecting Christianity, these occultists sometimes turned towards pre-Christian belief systems and embraced forms of Modern Paganism, while others instead took influence from the religions of Asia, such as Hinduism and Buddhism. In various cases, certain occultists did both. [15] Another characteristic of these occultists was the emphasis that they placed on "the spiritual realization of the individual", an idea that would strongly influence the twentieth-century New Age and Human Potential Movement. [15] This spiritual realization was encouraged both through traditional Western 'occult sciences' like alchemy and ceremonial magic, but by the start of the twentieth century had also begun to include practices drawn from non-Western contexts, such as yoga. [15]

Although occultism is distinguished from earlier forms of esotericism, many occultists have also been involved in older esoteric currents. For instance, occultists like François-Charles Barlet and Rudolf Steiner were also theosophers, [lower-alpha 1] adhering to the ideas of the early modern Christian thinker Jakob Bohme, and seeking to integrate ideas from Bohmian theosophy and occultism. [21] It has been noted, however, that this distancing from the Theosophical Society should be understood in the light of polemical identity formations amongst esotericists towards the end of the nineteenth century. [22]

Etymology

The earliest known usage of the term "occultism" is in the French language, as l'occultisme. In this form it appears in A. de Lestrange's article on that was published in Jean-Baptiste Richard de Randonvilliers' Dictionnaire des mots nouveaux ("Dictionary of new words") in 1842. However, it was not related, at this point, to the notion of "Ésotérisme chrétien", as has been claimed by Hanegraaff, [23] but to describe a political "system of occulticity" that was directed against priests and aristocrats. [24] The French esotericist Éliphas Lévi then used the term in his influential book on ritual magic, Dogme et rituel de la haute magie , first published in 1856. [5] In 1853, the Freemasonic author Jean-Marie Ragon had already used occultisme in his popular work Maçonnerie occulte, relating it to earlier practices that, since the Renaissance, had been termed "occult sciences" or "occult philosophy"—but also to the recent socialist teachings of Charles Fourier. [25] Lévi was familiar with that work and might have borrowed the term from there. In any case, Lévi also claimed to be a representative of an older tradition of occult science or occult philosopy. [12] It was from his usage of the term occultisme that it gained wider usage; [26] according to Faivre, Lévi was "the principal exponent of esotericism in Europe and the United States" at that time. [11]

The earliest use of the term "occultism" in the English language appears to be in "A Few Questions to 'Hiraf'", an 1875 article published in the American Spiritualist magazine, Spiritual Scientist . The article had been written by Helena Blavatsky, a Russian émigré living in the United States who founded the religion of Theosophy. [27]

Various twentieth-century writers on the subject used the term "occultism" in different ways. Some writers, such as the German philosopher Theodor W. Adorno in his "Theses Against Occultism", employed the term as a broad synonym for irrationality. [28] In his 1950 book L'occultisme, Robert Amadou used the term as a synonym for esotericism, [29] an approach that the later scholar of esotericism Marco Pasi suggested left the term "superfluous". [28] Unlike Amadou, other writers saw "occultism" and "esotericism" as different, albeit related, phenomena. In the 1970s, the sociologist Edward Tiryakian distinguished between occultism, which he used in reference to practices, techniques, and procedures, and esotericism, which he defined as the religious or philosophical belief systems on which such practices are based. [29] This division was initially adopted by the early academic scholar of esotericism, Antoine Faivre, although he later abandoned it; [5] it has been rejected by most scholars who study esotericism. [28]

A different division was used by the Traditionalist author René Guénon, who used esotericism to describe what he believed was the Traditionalist, inner teaching at the heart of most religions, while occultism was used pejoratively to describe new religions and movements that he disapproved of, such as Spiritualism, Theosophy, and various secret societies. [30] Guénon's use of this terminology was adopted by later writers like Serge Hutin and Luc Benoist. [31] As noted by Hanegraaff, Guénon's use of these terms are rooted in his Traditionalist beliefs and "cannot be accepted as scholarly valid". [31]

The term "occultism" derives from the older term "occult", much as the term "esotericism" derives from the older term "esoteric". [12] However, the historian of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff stated that it was important to distinguish between the meanings of the term "occult" and "occultism". [32] Occultism is not a homogenous movement and is widely diverse. [11]

Over the course of its history, the term "occultism" has been used in various different ways. [33] However, in contemporary uses, "occultism" commonly refers to forms of esotericism that developed in the nineteenth century and their twentieth-century derivations. [31] In a descriptive sense, it has been used to describe forms of esotericism which developed in nineteenth-century France, especially in the Neo-Martinist environment. [31] According to the historian of esotericism Antoine Faivre, it is with the esotericist Éliphas Lévi that "the occultist current properly so-called" first appears. [11] Other prominent French esotericists involved in developing occultism included Papus, Stanislas de Guaita, Joséphin Péladan, Georges-Albert Puyou de Pouvourville, and Jean Bricaud. [12]

Etic uses of the term

In the 1990s, the Dutch scholar Wouter Hanegraaff put forward a new definition of "occultism" for scholarly uses Wouter Hanegraaff 2006 Alchemy Conference.jpg
In the 1990s, the Dutch scholar Wouter Hanegraaff put forward a new definition of "occultism" for scholarly uses

In the mid-1990s, a new definition of "occultism" was put forth by Wouter Hanegraaff. [34] According to Hanegraaff, the term "occultism" can be used not only for the nineteenth-century groups which openly self-described using that term but can also be used in reference to "the type of esotericism that they represent". [31] Seeking to define "occultism" so that the term would be suitable "as an etic category" for scholars, Hanegraaff devised the following definition: "a category in the study of religions, which comprises all attempts by esotericists to come to terms with a disenchanted world or, alternatively, by people in general to make sense of esotericism from the perspective of a disenchanted secular world". [35] Hanegraaff noted that this etic usage of the term would be independent of emic usages of the term employed by occultists and other esotericists themselves. [35]

In this definition, "occultism" covers many esoteric currents that have developed from the mid-nineteenth century onward, including Spiritualism, Theosophy, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and the New Age. [31] Employing this etic understanding of "occultism", Hanegraaff argued that its development could begin to be seen in the work of the Swedish esotericist Emanuel Swedenborg and in the Mesmerist movement of the eighteenth century, although added that occultism only emerged in "fully-developed form" as Spiritualism, a movement that developed in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century. [16]

Marco Pasi suggested that the use of Hanegraaff's definition might cause confusion by presenting a group of nineteenth-century esotericists who called themselves "occultists" as just one part of a broader category of esotericists whom scholars would call "occultists". [36]

Following these discussions, Julian Strube argued that Lévi and other contemporary authors who would now be regarded as esotericists developed their ideas not against the background of an "esoteric tradition" in the first place. Rather, Lévi's notion of occultism emerged in the context of highly influential radical socialist movements and wide-spread progressive, so-called neo-Catholic ideas. [37] This further complicates Hanegraaff's characteristics of occultism, since, throughout the nineteenth century, they apply to these reformist movements rather than to a supposed group of esotericists. [38]

The Occult

The term "occult" has also been used as a substantivized adjective as "the occult", a term that has been particularly widely used among journalists and sociologists. [31] This term was popularised by the publication of Colin Wilson's 1971 book The Occult. [31] This term has been used as an "intellectual waste-basket" into which a wide array of beliefs and practices have been placed because they do not fit readily into the categories of religion or science. [31] According to Hanegraaff, "the occult" is a category into which gets placed a range of beliefs from "spirits or fairies to parapsychological experiments, from UFO-abductions to Oriental mysticism, from vampire legends to channelling, and so on". [31]

Occulture

The neologism "occulture" was used within the industrial music scene of the late twentieth century, and was probably coined by one of its central figures, the musician and occultist Genesis P-Orridge. [39] It was in this scene that the scholar of religion Christopher Partridge encountered the term. [39] Partridge used the term in an academic sense. They stated that occulture was "the new spiritual environment in the West; the reservoir feeding new spiritual springs; the soil in which new spiritualities are growing". [40]

See also

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According to some literary and religious studies scholars, modern Theosophy had a certain influence on contemporary literature, particularly in forms of genre fiction such as fantasy and science fiction. Researchers claim that Theosophy has significantly influenced the Irish literary renaissance of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, notably in such figures as W. B. Yeats and G. W. Russell.

References

Notes

  1. This theosophy, which is a Christian esoteric tradition adhered to by theosophers, is a distinct movement from Theosophy, the occultist religion adhered to by Theosophists, despite the shared name.

Footnotes

  1. Underhill, E. (1911). Mysticism, Meridian, New York.
  2. Crabb, G. (1927). English synonyms explained, in alphabetical order, copious illustrations and examples drawn from the best writers. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Co.
  3. Blavatsky, H. P. (1888). The Secret Doctrine. Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.
  4. The American Heritage College Thesaurus. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 2004. p. 530.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Hanegraaff 2006, p. 887.
  6. Hanegraaff, Wouter J. (2006). Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism. Leiden: Brill. p. 716. ISBN   9789004152311.
  7. Religion, Science, and Worldview: Essays in Honor of Richard S. Westfall, Margaret J. Osler, Paul Lawrence Farber, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN   0-521-52493-8
  8. Henry, John (1 December 1986). "Occult Qualities and the Experimental Philosophy: Active Principles in Pre-Newtonian Matter Theory". History of Science. 24 (4): 335–381. doi:10.1177/007327538602400401.
  9. Gibbons, B. J.; Gibbons, Brian (25 October 2018). Spirituality and the Occult: From the Renaissance to the Modern Age. Psychology Press. ISBN   9780415244480 via Google Books.
  10. Gerd Buchdahl, "History of Science and Criteria of Choice" p. 232. In Historical and Philosophical Perspectives of Science v. 5 (ed. Roger H. Stuewer)
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Faivre 1994, p. 88.
  12. 1 2 3 4 Pasi 2006, p. 1365.
  13. Pasi 2006, pp. 1365–1366.
  14. Faivre 1994, p. 88; Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 196.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Pasi 2006, p. 1366.
  16. 1 2 Hanegraaff 1996, p. 423.
  17. Goodrick-Clarke 2008, p. 196.
  18. Strube 2016a.
  19. Strube 2016b.
  20. Strube2017b.
  21. Faivre 1994, p. 89.
  22. Strube 2017a.
  23. Hanegraaff 2006, p. 887; Pasi 2006, p. 1364.
  24. Strube 2016b, p. 445-450.
  25. Strube 2016b, p. 13-14.
  26. Hanegraaff 2006, p. 887; Pasi 2006, pp. 1364–1365.
  27. Hanegraaff 2006, p. 887; Pasi 2006, p. 1365.
  28. 1 2 3 Pasi 2006, p. 1367.
  29. 1 2 Hanegraaff 2006, p. 887; Pasi 2006, p. 1367.
  30. Hanegraaff 2006, pp. 887–888.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Hanegraaff 2006, p. 888.
  32. Hanegraaff 2006, p. 884.
  33. Pasi 2006, p. 1364.
  34. Pasi 2006, pp. 1367–1368.
  35. 1 2 Hanegraaff 1996, p. 422.
  36. Pasi 2006, p. 1368.
  37. Strube 2016a, pp. 373–379.
  38. Strube 2017b, pp. 218–221.
  39. 1 2 Partridge 2013, p. 124.
  40. Partridge 2004, p. 4.

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Further reading