Aura (paranormal)

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Representation of a human aura, after a diagram by Walter John Kilner (1847-1920). Kilnerfig.jpg
Representation of a human aura, after a diagram by Walter John Kilner (1847–1920).

According to spiritual beliefs, an aura or human energy field is a colored emanation said to enclose a human body or any animal or object. [1] In some esoteric positions, the aura is described as a subtle body. [2] Psychics and holistic medicine practitioners often claim to have the ability to see the size, color and type of vibration of an aura. [3]

Contents

In spiritual alternative medicine, the human being aura is seen as part of a hidden anatomy that reflects the state of being and health of a client, often understood to even comprise centers of vital force called chakras. [1] Such claims are not supported by ordinary scientific evidence and are thus labeled as pseudoscience. [4] When tested under scientific controlled experiments, the ability to see auras has not been proven to exist. [5]

Etymology

In Latin and Ancient Greek, aura means wind, breeze or breath. It was used in Middle English to mean "gentle breeze". By the end of the 19th century, the word was used in some spiritualist circles to describe a speculated subtle emanation around the body. [6] [7]

History

Charles Webster Leadbeater is credited with developing and popularizing the concept of auras. Charles Webster Leadbeater.019.jpg
Charles Webster Leadbeater is credited with developing and popularizing the concept of auras.

The concept of auras was first popularized by Charles Webster Leadbeater, a former priest of the Church of England and a member of the mystic Theosophical Society. [8] Leadbeater had studied theosophy in India, and believed he had the capacity to use his clairvoyant powers to make scientific investigations. [9] He claimed that he had discovered that most men come from Mars but the more advanced men come from the Moon, and that hydrogen atoms are made of six bodies contained in an egg-like form. [10] In his book Man Visible and Invisible published in 1903, Leadbeater illustrated the aura of man at various stages of his moral evolution, from the "savage" to the saint. [11] [12] In 1910, Leadbeater introduced the modern conception of auras by incorporating the Tantric notion of chakras in his book The Inner Life. [13] But Leadbeater didn't simply present the Tantric beliefs to the West, he reconstructed and reinterpreted them by mixing them with his own ideas, without acknowledging the sources of these innovations. Some of Leadbeater's innovations are describing chakras as energy vortices, and associating each of them with a gland, an organ and other body parts. [14]

In the following years, Leadbeater's ideas on the aura and chakras were adopted and reinterpreted by other Theosophists such as Rudolf Steiner [15] and Edgar Cayce, but his occult anatomy remained of minor interest within the esoteric counterculture until the 1980s, when it was picked up by the New Age movement. [16]

In 1977, American esotericist Christopher Hills published the book Nuclear Evolution: The Rainbow Body, which presented a modified version of Leadbeater's occult anatomy. [17] Whereas Leadbeater had drawn each chakras with intricately detailed shapes and multiple colors, Hills presented them as a sequence of centers, each one being associated with a color of the rainbow. Most of the subsequent New Age writers will base their representations of the aura on Hill's interpretation of Leadbeater's ideas. [18] Chakras became a part of mainstream esoteric speculations in the 1980s and 1990s. Many New Age techniques that aim to clear blockages of the chakras were developed during those years, such as crystal healing and aura-soma. [19] Chakras were, by the late 1990s, less connected with their theosophical and Hinduist root, and more infused with New Age ideas. A variety of New Age books proposed different links between each chakras and colors, personality traits, illnesses, Christian sacraments, [20] etc. [21] Various type of holistic healing within the New Age movement claim to use aura reading techniques, such as bioenergetic analysis, spiritual energy and energy medicine. [22]

Aura photography

A Kirlian photo showing an artistic representation of a man in the Lotus position, surrounded by a blue glow Lotus Kirlian.jpg
A Kirlian photo showing an artistic representation of a man in the Lotus position, surrounded by a blue glow

There have been numerous attempts to capture an energy field around the human body, going as far back as photographs by French physician Hippolyte Baraduc in the 1890s. [23] Supernatural interpretations of these images have often been the result of a lack of understanding of the simple natural phenomena behind them, such as heat emanating from a human body producing aura-like images under infrared photography. [24]

Picture by Hippolyte Baraduc published in 1896, purported to show a "vital force" around a child. Baraducforcevital.tif
Picture by Hippolyte Baraduc published in 1896, purported to show a "vital force" around a child.

In 1939, Semyon Davidovich Kirlian discovered that by placing an object or body part directly on photographic paper, and then passing a high voltage across the object, he would obtain the image of a glowing contour surrounding the object. This process came to be known as Kirlian photography. [25] Some parapsychologists, such as Thelma Moss of UCLA, have proposed that these images show levels of psychic powers and bioenergies. However, studies have found that the Kirlian effect is caused by the presence of moisture on the object being photographed. Electricity produces an area of gas ionization around the object if it is moist, which is the case for living things. This causes an alternation of the electric charge pattern on the film. [26] After rigorous experimentations, no mysterious process has been discovered in relation to the Kirlian photography. [27] [28]

More recent attempts at capturing auras include the Aura Imaging cameras and software introduced by Guy Coggins in 1992. Coggins claims that his software uses biofeedback data to color the picture of the subject. The technique has failed to yield reproducible results. [24]

Tests

An aura reader tested in a controlled experiment at the Observatoire Zetetique, May 2004 Aura testing.jpg
An aura reader tested in a controlled experiment at the Observatoire Zététique, May 2004

Tests of psychic abilities to observe alleged aura emanations have repeatedly been met with failure. [24]

One test involved placing people in a dark room and asking the psychic to state how many auras she could observe. Only chance results were obtained. [29]

Recognition of auras has occasionally been tested on television. One test involved an aura reader standing on one side of a room with an opaque partition separating her from a number of slots which might contain either actual people or mannequins. The aura reader failed to identify the slots containing people, incorrectly stating that all contained people. [30]

In another televised test another aura reader was placed before a partition where five people were standing. He claimed that he could see their auras from behind the partition. As each person moved out, the reader was asked to identify where that person was standing behind the slot. He identified 2 out of 5 correctly. [31]

Attempts to prove the existence of auras scientifically have repeatedly met with failure; for example people are unable to see auras in complete darkness, and auras have never been successfully used to identify people when their identifying features are otherwise obscured in controlled tests. [24] [29] [30] [31] A 1999 study concluded that conventional sensory cues such as radiated body heat might be mistaken for evidence of a metaphysical phenomenon. [32]

Scientific explanation

Psychologist Andrew Neher has written that "there is no good evidence to support the notion that auras are, in any way, psychic in origin." [33] Studies in laboratory conditions have demonstrated that the aura is instead best explained as a visual illusion known as an afterimage. [34] [35] Neurologists contend that people may perceive auras because of effects within the brain: epilepsy, migraines, or the influence of psychedelic drugs such as LSD. [36] [37]

It has been suggested that auras may be the result of synaesthesia. [38] However, a 2012 study discovered no link between auras and synaesthesia, concluding "the discrepancies found suggest that both phenomena are phenomenological and behaviourally dissimilar." [39] Clinical neurologist Steven Novella has written "Given the weight of the evidence it seems that the connection between auras and synaesthesia is speculative and based on superficial similarities that are likely coincidental." [40]

Other causes may include disorders within the visual system provoking optical effects.[ citation needed ]

Bridgette Perez in a review for the Skeptical Inquirer has written "perceptual distortions, illusions, and hallucinations might promote belief in auras... Psychological factors, including absorption, fantasy proneness, vividness of visual imagery, and after-images, might also be responsible for the phenomena of the aura." [41]

Scientists have repeatedly concluded that the ability to see auras does not actually exist. [24] [29] [30] [31]

See also

Related Research Articles

Chakra Subtle body psychic-energy centers in the esoteric traditions of Indian religions

Chakras are various focal points used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Hinduism.

Kirlian photography

Kirlian photography is a collection of photographic techniques used to capture the phenomenon of electrical coronal discharges. It is named after Semyon Kirlian, who, in 1939, accidentally discovered that if an object on a photographic plate is connected to a high-voltage source, an image is produced on the photographic plate. The technique has been variously known as "electrography", "electrophotography", "corona discharge photography" (CDP), "bioelectrography", "gas discharge visualization (GDV)", "electrophotonic imaging (EPI)", and, in Russian literature, "Kirlianography".

New Age Spiritual or religious beliefs and practices that developed in Western nations during the 1970s

New Age is a range of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices which rapidly grew in the Western world during the 1970s. Precise scholarly definitions of the New Age differ in their emphasis, largely as a result of its highly eclectic structure. Although analytically often considered to be religious, those involved in it typically prefer the designation of spiritual or Mind, Body, Spirit and rarely use the term New Age themselves. Many scholars of the subject refer to it as the New Age movement, although others contest this term and suggest that it is better seen as a milieu or zeitgeist.

Charles Webster Leadbeater British theosophist and author on the occult (1854-1934)

Charles Webster Leadbeater was a member of the Theosophical Society, author on occult subjects and co-initiator with J. I. Wedgwood of the Liberal Catholic Church.

Subtle body Psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings

A subtle body is one of a series of psycho-spiritual constituents of living beings, according to various esoteric, occult, and mystical teachings. According to such beliefs each subtle body corresponds to a subtle plane of existence, in a hierarchy or great chain of being that culminates in the physical form.

Alice Bailey British- American esoteric, theosophist and writer (1880-1949)

Alice Ann Bailey was a writer of more than twenty-four books on theosophical subjects, and was one of the first writers to use the term New Age. Bailey was born as Alice La Trobe-Bateman, in Manchester, England. She moved to the United States in 1907, where she spent most of her life as a writer and teacher.

Western esotericism Range of related philosophical ideas and movements that have developed in the Western world

Western esotericism, also known as esotericism, esoterism, and sometimes the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society. These ideas and currents are united by the fact that they are largely distinct both from orthodox Judeo-Christian religion and from Enlightenment rationalism. Esotericism has pervaded various forms of Western philosophy, religion, pseudoscience, art, literature, and music, continuing to affect intellectual ideas and popular culture.

Etheric body

The etheric body, ether-body, æther body, a name given by neo-Theosophy to a vital body or subtle body propounded in esoteric philosophies as the first or lowest layer in the "human energy field" or aura. It is said to be in immediate contact with the physical body, to sustain it and connect it with "higher" bodies.

Thelma Moss was an American actress, and later a psychologist and parapsychologist, best known for her work on Kirlian photography and the human aura.

Walter John Kilner

Walter John Kilner, M.D. B.A., M.B. (Cantab.) M.R.C.P., etc. (1847–1920) was a medical electrician at St. Thomas Hospital, London. There, from 1879 to 1893, he was in charge of electrotherapy. He was also in private medical practice, in Ladbroke Grove, London.

Colorpuncture

Colorpuncture, cromopuncture, or color light acupuncture, is a pseudoscientific alternative medicine practice based on "mystical or supernatural" beliefs which asserts that colored lights can be used to stimulate acupuncture points to promote healing and better health. It is a form of chromotherapy or color therapy. There is no known anatomical or histological basis for the existence of acupuncture points or meridians, and there is no scientific support for the efficacy of colorpuncture.

Semyon Davidovich Kirlian was a Soviet inventor and researcher of Armenian descent, who along with his wife Valentina Khrisanfovna Kirlian, a teacher and journalist, discovered and developed Kirlian photography.

Dora Kunz née Theodora Sophia van Gelder was a Dutch-American writer, psychic, alternative healer, occultist and leader in the Theosophical Society in America. Kunz has published around the world in Dutch, English, French, German, Polish, Portuguese, and Spanish.

Wawel Chakra

The Wawel Chakra - a place on Wawel hill in Kraków in Poland which is believed to emanate powerful spiritual energy. Adherents believe it to be one of the world's main centers of spiritual energy . The Wawel Chakra is said to be one of a few select places of immense power on Earth, which, like a chakra point in the human body, allegedly functions as part of an (esoteric) energetic system within Earth.

<i>Man: Whence, How and Whither, a Record of Clairvoyant Investigation</i>

Man: Whence, How and Whither, A Record of Clairvoyant Investigation, published in 1913, is a theosophical book compiled by the second president of the Theosophical Society (TS) - Adyar, Annie Besant, and by a TS member, Charles W. Leadbeater. The book is a study on early times on planetary chains, beginnings of early root races, early civilizations and empires, and past lives of men.

Theosophy Religion established in the U. S. by Helena Blavatsky

Theosophy is a religion established in the United States during the late 19th century. It was founded primarily by the Russian immigrant Helena Blavatsky and draws its teachings predominantly from Blavatsky's writings. Categorized by scholars of religion as both a new religious movement and as part of the occultist stream of Western esotericism, it draws upon both older European philosophies such as Neoplatonism and Asian religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism.

<i>Thought-Forms</i> (book)

Thought-Forms: A Record of Clairvoyant Investigation is a theosophical book compiled by the members of the Theosophical Society A. Besant and C. W. Leadbeater. It was originally published in 1901 in London. From the standpoint of Theosophy, it tells regarding visualization of thoughts, experiences, emotions and music. Drawings of the "thought-forms" were performed by John Varley Jr., Prince, and McFarlane.

Christianity and Theosophy

Christianity and Theosophy, for more than a hundred years, have had a "complex and sometimes troubled" relationship. The Christian faith was the native religion of the great majority of Western Theosophists, but many came to Theosophy through a process of opposition to Christianity. According to professor Robert S. Ellwood, "the whole matter has been a divisive issue within Theosophy."

Hinduism and Theosophy

Hinduism is regarded by modern Theosophy as one of the main sources of "esoteric wisdom" of the East. The Theosophical Society was created in a hope that Asian philosophical-religious ideas "could be integrated into a grand religious synthesis." Prof. Antoine Faivre wrote that "by its content and its inspiration" the Theosophical Society is greatly dependent on Eastern traditions, "especially Hindu; in this, it well reflects the cultural climate in which it was born." A Russian Indologist Alexander Senkevich noted that the concept of Helena Blavatsky's Theosophy was based on Hinduism. According to Encyclopedia of Hinduism, "Theosophy is basically a Western esoteric teaching, but it resonated with Hinduism at a variety of points."

Theosophy and visual arts

According to many art history and religious studies scholars, modern Theosophy had important influence for the contemporary visual arts, in particularly, for painting and drawing. They note that after the foundation of the Theosophical Society (1875), many professional artists had a fancy for Theosophy, at the same time, some Theosophists worked in the visual arts. However, such artists like Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, and Luigi Russolo chose Theosophy as the main ideological and philosophical basis of their work.

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