Discharge (band)

Last updated

Discharge live in Rome in 2006
Background information
Origin Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire, UK
Years active
  • 1977–1987
  • 1991–1999
  • 2001–present
Associated acts
  • Royston "Rainy" Wainwright
  • Anthony "Bones" Roberts
  • Terence "Tezz" Roberts
  • David "Proper" Caution
  • Jeff "JJ" Janiak
Past members

Discharge are an English hardcore punk band formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tezz" Roberts and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright. [5] While the band has undergone several line-up changes throughout its history, the classic line-up from the early 1980s featured bassist Wainwright, drummer Gary Maloney, Anthony "Bones" Roberts playing guitar, and vocalist Kelvin "Cal" Morris. [6]


The band is characterized by a minimalistic approach to music and lyrics, using a heavy, distorted, and grinding guitar-driven sound and raw, shouted vocals similar to a political speech, with lyrics on anarchist and pacifist themes, over intense drone-like rhythms. The band's sound has been called a "grave-black aural acid assault." [3] Discharge "paved the way for an astounding array of politically motivated, musically intense and deeply confrontational bands". Discharge was "explicitly political" and used a "revolutionary/activist" attitude that moved hardcore away from its pub rock origins and towards a "dangerous and provocative" territory. [7]

AllMusic calls the band's sound a "high-speed noise overload" characterized by "ferocious noise blasts". [8] The band's 1982 debut album, Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing , went to number two on the UK Indie Charts and number 40 in the UK Album Chart. Treble magazine calls HNSNSN one of the ten essential hardcore albums, in a list that includes Black Flag's Damaged and the Dead Kennedys' Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables . In the early 1980s, numerous singles and EPs placed in the top 10 of the UK Indie Charts, including the 1981 EP Why? (#1) and the 1982 single State Violence State Control.

HNSNSN paved the way for various extreme metal styles such as thrash metal, black metal, crust punk, and grindcore. The band's "brutal, extremist approach" and "extreme thrash noise" style of playing eventually led to the thrash genre. [9] "Discharge's influence on heavy metal is incalculable and metal superstars such as Metallica, Anthrax and Sepultura have covered Discharge's songs in tribute." [10] Discharge was a major influence on at least two generations of metal. [3] Along with Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, Discharge have been credited for laying the groundwork for grindcore. [11] The musical genre of D-beat is named after Discharge and the band's distinctive drumbeat.


Formation; classic line-up (1977–1979)

Discharge was formed in 1977 in Stoke-on-Trent by Terence "Tez" Roberts (vocals) and Royston "Rainy" Wainwright (guitar). [6] They soon recruited Roberts's younger brother Anthony "Bones" Roberts on lead guitar, Nigel Bamford on bass and Anthony "Akko" Axon (Allmusic gives the alternate nickname "Hacko" [12] ) on drums. [6] The musical style of the band was initially influenced by 1977-era punk bands such as the Sex Pistols, The Damned and The Clash. Engaging Tanya Rich as their manager, the band recorded their first demo, supported bands such as The Ruts, The Clash and The Damned at the Victoria Hall, Hanley, and began touring.

Axon left later that year, followed by Bamford, and the band recruited their roadie Kelvin "Cal" Morris as vocalist, moving Terry Roberts to drums and Wainwright to bass. [6] With Morris's addition, the group abandoned their previous Sex Pistols-influenced material and developed a new set of songs with a retooled sound. Anthony Roberts played guitar with a heavy, distorted, and grinding style and Morris shouted or screamed vocals without melody. The bassist played with a "immense gurgling over-driven" bass tone. [13] The tempo of the band's songs also steadily increased over the next year or so. [6] The stylistic transition made by the band was part of a broader trend in the early 1980s in the UK, which is known as "UK 82" or second generation UK punk.

The new, harder-edged style also tended to use much darker, more nihilistic and violent lyrics, focusing on anarchist and pacifist themes while emphasizing the grisly effects of nuclear warfare and the social ills caused by capitalism. Like Crass, Discharge supported anarchism and displayed the anarchist symbol. [14] The band also expressed its political and social themes in its albums' artwork, which depicted the horrors of war using an iconic black-and-white photography style. One of the notable images is the "Impaled Dove" artwork from a 1930s John Heartfield anti-war poster, which depicts a dove impaled on a bayonet. [15] The first gig with this new line-up and new sound was at Northwood Parish Hall. Among the audience was local record shop owner Mike Stone, who ran the Clay Records punk record label. [6]

Early EPs; Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing (1980–1982)

In 1980, Discharge signed with Clay Records, and recorded their first single Realities of War in February 1980, which made the UK Indie Chart when it was released in April, after being played on BBC1 DJ John Peel's show, peaking at number 5 and spending 44 weeks in the chart. [6] The band also performed their first shows outside of Stoke-on-Trent in 1980, playing in Leicester, Preston and Glasgow. After two further EP releases in that same year, founding member Terry Roberts departed, later joining UK Subs, to be replaced by Dave "Bambi" Ellesmere (formerly of The Insane) before the Why? EP was recorded. [6] Ellesmere did not stay long, and the band replaced him with Garry Maloney of The Varukers on drums. Why? gave the band their first UK indie number one. [6] Why? had cover photos showing the corpses of dead civilians. The song "Visions of War" had an "unrepentantly angry and punishing attack" and it became a signature song for the group. The songs "Maimed and Slaughtered," "Does This System Work?" and "Mania for Conquest" set out the song and sound template for crust bands. At the same time, the record showed that it was possible for a hardcore band to incorporate the sonic power of "heavy metal without sacrificing ideology or anger". [7]

Discharge "...developed a brutal, extremist approach to punk that would give rise to thrash." [10] A reviewer from Punknews.org calls the music from this period "ugly and jagged without the artistic convolution of their no-wave contemporaries overseas", composed of "catchy, repetitive, stomping chords[,]...drumming that seems to emphasize creating a hellacious racket rather than keep a steady beat" and "very serious and socially conscious" song lyrics. The reviewer notes that "instead of creating a melody, vocalist Cal’s grunting shout...blends in with the rhythm", in effect becoming "a fourth [rhythm] instrument". Cal's lyrics and singing were "...short bursts of brutal sloganeering that made no concessions to melody or meter." [16] Cal's deep "growl anticipated...[the] vocals that death metal and grindcore later" used. [16] "Cal’s hoarse barking" sounded angry, and his anarchist lyrics "against government oppression and nuclear war, were like nihilist haikus, delivered without metaphor, nuance, or humour." [17] The band's songs were "played at warp speed, accompanied by a rumbling bass and a merciless, galloping drumbeat", with songs usually under two minutes and done at a fast tempo. [17]

The Punknews.org reviewer argues that the early 1981 EP Why? "...revolutionized everything...[paving the] way for the atonal shredding of hardcore punk, thrash, death metal, and grind, but also the dead-serious political ideals and brutal backing of crust hardcore". Ian Glasper described the EP as "one of the most potent anti-war records ever made". [18] Tom G. Warrior of Celtic Frost credited Discharge as "a revolution, much like Venom", saying, "When I heard the first two Discharge records, I was blown away. I was just starting to play an instrument and I had no idea you could go so far. And to me, they were unlike other punk bands--they sounded more like metal." [19]

Discharge recorded their first album, 1982's Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing (HNSNSN), which was the number one punk album of all time in a poll by Terrorizer magazine. [20] In David Konow's history of heavy metal, he calls the album the band's "...crowning achievement, a mercilessly brutal masterpiece." [21] The album reached number two on the indie album chart and number 40 in the UK Album Chart. [6] In the early 1980s, "[i]conic punk fanzines like Flipside , which could make or break [band] reputations, pronounced them [Discharge] "fucking great." [17] Treble zine called it one of the top ten essential hardcore albums, along with Black Flag's Damaged and the Dead Kennedys Fresh Fruit for Rotting Vegetables . Treble zine states that the music on HNSNSN was "much, much heavier" than previous punk and states that it influenced "punk rock, [and]... metal circles" with its "raw and intense" sound. [22] Anthrax guitarist Scott Ian stated in 2015 that "You put on... Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing album now, and it’s still as heavy and brutal as anything out there." [23]

The group played regularly throughout the UK, often appearing with bands such as GBH and The Exploited, and the success of the debut album also saw them touring Canada, the United States, Italy, Yugoslavia, Holland, Finland, and Sweden. [6] The band had trouble getting into Canada at the border crossing at Buffalo, New York, as border guards thought the band looked like "animals". The lyrics on the album tended to be short political statements that were repeated. The album's title track, for example, consists of only three lines: "Lied to, threatened, cheated and deceived/ Hear nothing, see nothing, say nothing/ Led up garden paths and into blind alleys." The song "Free Speech for the Dumb" is even more lyrically stripped down; it consists solely of the words from the title repeated emphatically.

1982's "State Violence State Control"/"Dooms'day" single garnered further critical praise, described in the fanzine Love and Molotov Cocktails as "...just about the most perfect realisation of a combination of the musical power of Motörhead and the lyrical mastery of Dead Kennedys at their best. Discharge are out there on their own, at the top of their game and it's hard to see how they can improve on this."[ citation needed ]

Heavy metal crossover period; first breakup (1982–1987)

In 1982, Anthony Roberts left the group, later to form Broken Bones with his brother Tezz joining him. He was replaced by Peter "Pooch" Purtill (Allmusic and Glasper give the alternate spelling "Pyrtle" for his last name) [12] who brought significant heavy metal influences. Purtill used a rock and metal style of guitar playing, including rock-oriented guitar solos. [24] The Warning... EP shows drastic stylistic differences, with Morris changing his angry shouts to a mix of regular singing and football chants. Morris began to use a heavy metal, Ozzy Osbourne-influenced vocal style. [24] As well, the band used significantly slower tempos and their D-beat punk style was replaced with metal-oriented beats.

With the release of Ignorance, Purtill and Maloney left the band to form the punk/metal crossover band HellsBelles, to be replaced by guitarists Les "The Mole" Hunt and drummer Michael "Micky" Gibson. Following the later addition of second guitarist Stephen "Fish" Brooks, they released 1986's Grave New World , a mainstream metal album with a glam sound from Morris's high-pitched singing style. The album reached the indie top 10, but the band struggled with personnel problems as Morris departed and was briefly replaced by ex-Wrathchild frontman Rob "Rocky Shades" Berkeley the following year. The group disbanded shortly thereafter.

Reformation with new line-up (1990–1999)

Morris formed a new version of the band in 1990 with Andrew "Andy" Green on guitar, Anthony Morgan on bass, and Mika Karppinen initially playing drums, only to be replaced by the returning Maloney. The Live At The City Garden, New Jersey album on Clay Records followed. [6] In 1991 they released Massacre Divine , which retained the metal sound, though with a noticeably harder edge than on Grave New World. Morris again changed his vocal style, this time to rougher growling, similar to Brian Johnson of AC/DC. They toured widely in support of the record, including their only visit to Japan, but the tour was negatively received.[ citation needed ] In 1993 they released Shootin' Up the World , which continued Cal's new vocal style, but the songs were significantly heavier than on Massacre Divine. The album retains the metal direction, although experiments with strange lyrics and song structures, coming close to thrash metal at times. Morris assembled further versions of the group, but they again disbanded in 1999.

Reunion of classic line-up and End of Days (2001–present)

Discharge performing in Rome in 2006. The distinctive lettering of the band's name can be seen in the banner at the back of the stage. Discharge2.jpg
Discharge performing in Rome in 2006. The distinctive lettering of the band's name can be seen in the banner at the back of the stage.

In 2001, the classic line-up of Morris, Roberts, and Wainright reunited after meeting at a party held by original bassist Bamford, and in 2002 they released their self-titled album Discharge , a return to their early 1980s style featuring political commentary and aggressive playing. [6] As well, they brought back their intense D-beat drumming style, although combined with the remaining metal influence, it gave the album a speed metal influence with its thrashy riffs.

Morris would not commit to touring to promote the album and left the band, to be replaced by Anthony "Rat" Martin of The Varukers. The single "The Beginning of the End" was released in 2006, which marked a further step towards a return to the punk sound. Dave "Proper" Caution replaced Terence Roberts after his second departure this same year, and the group released the Disensitise album in 2008. In 2011 the band released an EP titled "Propaganda Feeds". In 2012 they released a split single with American band Off with Their Heads, released on Drunken Sailor Records. [25] In 2014, they played the Black and Blue Bowl in Brooklyn, New York. Rat was replaced by Jeff "JJ" Janiak, while Tezz Roberts returned to the band, except this time on rhythm guitar rather than drums making Discharge a five-piece.

On 3 June 2015, the group premiered a new song called "New World Order". An EP containing the song and a live recording of "Ain't No Feeble Bastard" was released on 16 January 2016, entitled New World Order. On 10 February 2016, the band announced their 7th studio album, entitled End of Days, was to be released sometime in April. It will be Discharge's first album with singer JJ and the first album as a five-piece band. On 3 March 2016, the Nuclear Blast YouTube channel uploaded a new song on and later on through streaming services, entitled "Hatebomb." The same day, they released the track listing for End Of Days.

Discharge's seventh studio album, End of Days, was released on 29 April through Nuclear Blast Records and entered the Official UK rock charts at #10 and #23 on the indie charts. The success of the album saw the band touring Europe and the USA. MetalBlast gave the album a positive review, stating that it "...showcases everything about the band that has earned them their legendary status. The guitar work is fast and brutal, that famous D-beat drumming pattern is in full effect, and the vocals are a gruff, angry bark." The review states that the "songs are short, violent bursts of punk rock fury, brimming with an energy" with "a real sense of menace and sincerity in the tone" and it is "[r]elentless from start to finish". [26] The production was praised as clear and "live"-sounding; the only negative comment was the lack of melody on the record. [26]



The intense Motörhead- and Buzzcocks-influenced drum beat used by Discharge early in their career is referred to as D-beat (sometimes referred to as "discrust"). [3] It became a subgenre of hardcore punk, especially in Japanese, Brazilian and Scandinavian hardcore punk scenes. D-beat music is known for its "grinding, distorted, [and] brutally political" style. Many bands that followed Discharge's stylistic approach, primarily in Sweden, began using the "Dis-" prefix and "-charge" suffix in their names, and even began using "Des-" words with "Dis-" in its place as a parody. Examples include Disaccord, Disfear, Disclose, Discard, Dischug, Recharge, Kegcharge, Disarm and Distraught.

The bands who followed this naming trend also imitated Discharge's logo. This resulted in UK anarchist punk band Active Minds issuing an EP in 1995 entitled Dis Is Getting Pathetic, which parodied the cover of Fight Back . [27]

Influence on other genres

As well as bringing the D-beat subgenre into existence, Discharge influenced bands operating within other types of extreme music. Decibel magazine states that there are "...few bands who have had more influence over so many different scenes than Discharge", including the first generation of thrash bands, grind and hardcore groups. [28]

"Discharge's influence on heavy metal is incalculable and metal superstars such as Metallica, Anthrax and Sepultura have covered Discharge's songs in tribute." [10] Some photos of Metallica, Anthrax and Exodus band members from the early 1980s show them wearing Discharge, Broken Bones and GBH shirts. [24] Thrash metal groups like Metallica and Slayer were inspired by their speed and brutality. Anthrax was already playing Discharge cover songs by 1983. [23]

Oakland metal band Neurosis named Discharge's "Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing" (the title track of the album of the same name) as one of the top five UK anarcho-punk tracks. The band's singer/guitarist Steve Von Till stated that Discharge "...bridged the gap between Motörhead, Venom and punk rock" with their "huge fucking wall-of-sound guitar that was just ridiculously punishing, taking on heavy metal’s gain and volume but creating something totally unique and new." [29]

They were one of the few British hardcore bands to be respected by the American hardcore scene; D-beats feature in the music of Siege, an American hardcore band who would influence powerviolence and grindcore. Along with Napalm Death and Extreme Noise Terror, Discharge have been credited for laying the groundwork for grindcore. [11] Early grindcore acts such as Napalm Death and Repulsion were influenced by Discharge, as were early death metal acts such as Celtic Frost and Nihilist. [30] Discharge were also crucial to the development of crust punk, influencing many of the first crust bands, such as Doom, Hellbastard, and Antisect.


James Hetfield of Metallica nominated Cal Morris for Rolling Stone's 100 Greatest Singers poll. Cal was No. 17 on a list of 20 singers that James nominated. [31]

Cover songs

Discharge's wide influence can also be seen in the range of cover versions recorded by hardcore punk and metal groups. The Scottish anarcho-punk band Oi Polloi covered the song "State Violence, State Control". During the same period, the Swedish hardcore punk band Mob 47 covered "Never Again" on their Ultimate Attack recording. New York City anarchist crust band Nausea, active from 1985–1992, recorded "Ain't No Feeble Bastard" along with "Hear Nothing, See Nothing, Say Nothing", on The Punk Terrorist Anthology, Vol. 1. Swedish grindcore band Nasum covered "Visions of War" for a tribute compilation. The Southern band the Cooters covered "A Hell on Earth/Cries of Help" on their 2005 album Chaos or Bust. D-beat/hardcore punk band From Ashes Rise recorded the nuclear war-themed "Hell on Earth". In 2003, US hardcore band Ensign covered "Protest and Survive" on their album of covers Love the Music, Hate the Kids .

Metal groups from several metal subgenres have recorded Discharge songs. Thrash metal bands covering Discharge material include Metallica ("Free Speech For The Dumb" and "The More I See", on their studio covers album Garage Inc. ); Anthrax ("Protest and Survive" on their studio album Attack of the Killer B's ); and Brazilian Sepultura ("A Look At Tomorrow", "Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing" and "Protest and Survive"). The groove metal band Machine Head covered "The Possibility of Life's Destruction" as a bonus track to their album The More Things Change....

Discharge songs also attracted interest from other metal subgenres, such as doom metal and grindcore. UK doom metal band Solstice covered "Protest & Survive", and Norwegian black metal band Carpathian Forest covered "The Possibilities of Life's Destruction" on their compilation album We're Going to Hell for This - Over a Decade of Perversions , while the grindcore/death metal band Napalm Death covered "War's No Fairytale" on their Leaders Not Followers: Part 2 album. As well, the Swedish melodic death metal pioneers At the Gates covered "The Nightmare Continues" as a hidden track on their With Fear I Kiss the Burning Darkness album. French doom/sludge band Monarch! also covered "A Look at Tomorrow" on their A Look At Tomorrow/Mass Destruction EP. UK drone / sludge monsters Moss covered 'Maimed And Slaughtered' on their 'Tombs Of The Blind Drugged' EP. The UK black metal band The Meads of Asphodel adopted a medley style cover of "Hell on Earth" and "Blood Runs Red" on their 2006 EP In the Name of God, Welcome to Planet Genocide .

The Canadian industrial metal band Monster Voodoo Machine named their second album release State Voodoo/State Control after Discharge's "State Violence/State Control", and they included a cover version of "Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing", on their "Bastard Is As Bastard Does" single. Other metal bands covering Discharge songs include Soulfly ("Ain't No Feeble Bastard" and "The Possibility of Life's Destruction") and Machine Head ("The Possibility of Life's Destruction" on The More Things Change... digipack).


Current members



Related Research Articles

Grindcore is an extreme fusion genre of heavy metal and hardcore punk that originated in the mid-1980s, drawing inspiration from abrasive-sounding musical styles, such as: thrashcore, crust punk, hardcore punk, extreme metal, and industrial. Grindcore is characterized by a noise-filled sound that uses heavily distorted, down-tuned guitars, grinding overdriven bass, high speed tempo, blast beats, and vocals which consist of growls and high-pitched shrieks. Early groups like Napalm Death are credited with laying the groundwork for the style. It is most prevalent today in North America and Europe, with popular contributors such as Brutal Truth and Nasum. Lyrical themes range from a primary focus on social and political concerns, to gory subject matter and black humor.

Hardcore punk Subgenre of punk rock

Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."

Thrash metal is an extreme subgenre of heavy metal music characterized by its overall aggression and often fast tempo. The songs usually use fast percussive beats and low-register guitar riffs, overlaid with shredding-style lead guitar work. The lyrical subject matter often deals with criticisms of The Establishment and concern over the destruction of the environment, and at times shares a disdain for Christian dogma resembling that of their black metal counterparts. The language is typically quite direct and denunciatory, an approach borrowed from hardcore punk.

Napalm Death British grindcore band

Napalm Death are a British grindcore band formed in Meriden, West Midlands, England, in 1981. While none of its original members remain in the group since December 1986, the lineup of vocalist Mark "Barney" Greenway, bassist Shane Embury, guitarist Mitch Harris and drummer Danny Herrera has remained consistent of the band's career since 1992's Utopia Banished, although, from 1989 to 2004, Napalm Death were a five-piece band after they added Jesse Pintado as the replacement of one-time guitarist Bill Steer; following Pintado's departure, the band reverted to a four-piece rather than replace him.

<i>Scum</i> (Napalm Death album) 1987 studio album by Napalm Death

Scum is the debut studio album by English grindcore band Napalm Death. It was released on 1 July 1987 through Earache Records. It is widely considered a formative influence on the grindcore genre.

A number of heavy metal genres have developed since the emergence of heavy metal during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At times heavy metal genres may overlap or are difficult to distinguish, but they can be identified by a number of traits. They may differ in terms of: instrumentation, tempo, song structure, vocal style, lyrics, guitar playing style, drumming style, and so on.

Crust punk is a form of music influenced by English punk rock and extreme metal. The style, which evolved in the early-1980s in England, often has songs with dark and pessimistic lyrics that linger on political and social ills. The term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo.

Extreme metal is a loosely defined umbrella term for a number of related heavy metal music subgenres that have developed since the early 1980s. It has been defined as a "cluster of metal subgenres characterized by sonic, verbal, and visual transgression".

Metalcore is a fusion music genre that combines elements of extreme metal and hardcore punk. As with other styles blending metal and hardcore, such as crust punk and grindcore, metalcore is noted for its use of breakdowns, slow, intense passages conducive to moshing. Other defining instrumentation includes heavy guitar riffs, occasional blast beats, and double bass drumming. Vocalists in the genre typically yell or scream. Some later metalcore bands combine this with clean singing, often during the chorus. Death growls and gang vocals are common. 1990s metalcore bands were inspired by hardcore while later metalcore bands were inspired by melodic death metal. Melodic death metal bands like At the Gates and In Flames influenced later metalcore bands.

The Varukers band that plays hardcore punk

The Varukers are a British punk rock band formed in 1979 by vocalist Anthony "Rat" Martin. They produced their most influential recordings in the early 1980s. The band play in D-beat, the musical style of Discharge. Also like Discharge, the Varukers' lyrics carry an anarchist political ideology.

Thrashcore Fast tempo subgenre of hardcore punk

Thrashcore is a fast tempo subgenre of hardcore punk that emerged in the early 1980s. Thrashcore is essentially sped-up hardcore, often using blast beats. Songs can be very brief, and thrashcore is in many ways a less dissonant, less metallic forerunner of grindcore. The genre is sometimes associated with skateboarder subculture.

Holocaust is a Scottish heavy metal band founded in 1977 and based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

D-beat Genre of hardcore punk

D-beat is a style of hardcore punk, developed in the early 1980s by imitators of Discharge, after whom the genre is named, as well as a drum beat characteristic of this subgenre. D-beat is known for its "grinding, distorted and brutally political" sound. Discharge may have themselves inherited the beat from Motörhead and the Buzzcocks. D-beat is closely associated with crust punk, which is a heavier, more complex variation. The style was particularly popular in Sweden, and developed there by groups such as Crude SS, Anti Cimex, Mob 47, and Driller Killer. Other D-beat groups include Doom and the Varukers from the UK; Disclose from Japan; Crucifix and Final Conflict from the U.S.; Ratos de Porão from Brazil; and MG15 from Spain. While the style initially developed in the early 1980s, a number of new groups working within the subgenre emerged in the mid-1990s. These include the Swedish groups Wolfbrigade, Totalitär, Avskum, Skitsystem, and Disfear.

Repulsion (band) American band

Repulsion is an American grindcore band from Flint, Michigan, founded in 1984.

Broken Bones are a hardcore punk band founded in 1983 and led by Anthony 'Bones' Roberts. They evolved from the band Discharge, and later moved into a style known as crossover. They have released eight albums, three EPs and a number of singles. The band has gone through a number of line-up changes over the years and have toured internationally.

HellsBelles is a heavy metal band from England active from 1984 to 1987 and 1998 to present, considered part of the latter stages of the new wave of British heavy metal (NWOBHM).

<i>Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing</i> 1982 studio album by Discharge

Hear Nothing See Nothing Say Nothing is the debut studio album by English hardcore punk band Discharge, released on 21 May 1982 by Clay Records. While some critics at the time dismissed this album as "unmusical", in retrospect, it is viewed both a classic of the era and the peak of Discharge's career.

Crossover thrash is a fusion genre of thrash metal and hardcore punk. The genre lies on a continuum between heavy metal and hardcore punk. Other genres on the same continuum, such as metalcore and grindcore, may overlap with crossover thrash.

Australian thrash metal is a regional scene of thrash metal music that originated during the late 1980s.

Straight Ahead (band)

Straight Ahead was an American straight edge hardcore punk band formed in Queens, New York in 1984, by drummer and vocalist Tommy Carroll, guitarist Gordon Ancis and bassist Tony Marc Shimkin.


  1. Hayes, Craig (29 May 2012). "Love, and Other Indelible Stains". PopMatters . Retrieved 7 March 2020.
  2. Diehl, Matt (2013). My So-Called Punk: Green Day, Fall Out Boy, The Distillers, Bad Religion---How Neo-Punk Stage-Dived into the Mainstream. St. Martin's Publishing Group. Nadsat Rebel forged a hybrid of the 'leather, bristles, studs, and acne' style of metallic street punk favored by British bands like GBH and Discharge with the more 'American' leanings of Minor Threat, topped off with a soupçon of proto-industrial favorites Killing Joke.
  3. 1 2 3 4 McPadden, Mike. If You Like Metallica...: Here Are Over 200 Bands, CDs, Movies, and Other Oddities That You Will Love. Backbeat Books, 2012. Section on "Discharge".
  4. Penny, Jordan. "Wolfbrigade: Run With the Hunted". PopMatters . Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  5. "Discharge | Biography, Albums, Streaming Links". AllMusic. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Glasper, Ian (2004). Burning Britain: The History of Punk 1980–1984. Cherry Red Books. ISBN   978-1-901447-24-8.
  7. 1 2 Ferguson, Jason (28 March 2016). "35 Years Later: Discharge - 'Why' EP". www.orlandoweekly.com. Orlando Weekly. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  8. Dean McFarlane (9 July 2002). "Discharge - Discharge | Songs, Reviews, Credits, Awards". AllMusic. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  9. Knowles, Christopher. The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010. p. 240.
  10. 1 2 3 Knowles,Christopher.The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010
  11. 1 2 Brown, Andy R.; Spracklen, Karl; Kahn-Harris, Keith; and Scott, Niall. Global Metal Music and Culture: Current Directions in Metal Studies. Routledge, 2016
  12. 1 2 "Discharge - Biography & History - AllMusic".
  13. Glasper, Ian. Burning Britain: The History of UK Punk 1980–1984. PM Press, 2014. p. 189
  14. Pellegrino, Anthony Michael and Lee, Cristopher Dean. Let the Music Play!: Harnessing the Power of Music for History and Social Studies Classrooms. IAP, 2012. p. 103
  15. "Discharge Biography". Sing365.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  16. 1 2 Knowles, Christopher. The Secret History of Rock 'n' Roll. Cleis Press, 2010
  17. 1 2 3 Smith, Chris A. (5 September 2013). "Rules of the Tribe: Hardcore Punks and Hair Metal in the 1980s". theappendix.net. The Appendix. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  18. Glasper 2004, p. 171.
  19. J. Bennett, "Procreation of the Wicked", Precious Metal: Decibel Presents the Stories Behind 25 Extreme Metal Masterpieces, Albert Mudrian, ed., Da Capo Press, p. 34-35.
  20. "News - Sanctuary Records Group". Archive.is. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  21. Konow, David. Bang Your Head: The Rise and Fall of Heavy Metal. Three Rivers Press, 2002. p. 239
  22. Terich, Jeff. "10 Essential Hardcore Punk Albums". www.treblezine.com. Treblezine. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  23. 1 2 Konow, David (9 October 2015). "Exploring the Roots of the Mid-80s Metal/Punk Crossover With Kerry King, Scott Ian, and Gary Holt". noisey.vice.com. Noisey. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  24. 1 2 3 Sompank, Otto. "From Crass to Thrash, to Squeakers: The Suspicious Turn to Metal in UK Punk and Hardcore Post '85" (PDF). www.dora.dmu.ac.uk. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  25. "Discharge / Off With Their Heads — Split [7-inch]". Punknews.org. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  26. 1 2 Bradley (6 May 2016). "Discharge – End Of Days". www.metalblast.net. MetalBlast. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  27. "Active Minds (2) - Dis Is Getting Pathetic... (Vinyl) at Discogs". Discogs.com. Retrieved 9 May 2012.
  28. "Growing old dis-gracefully: Discharge frontman Rat on why punk's most explosive survivors can never die". decibelmagazine.com. Decibel Magazine. 5 September 2011. Archived from the original on 23 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  29. Deller, Alex (3 November 2016). "Neurosis: 'Crass were the mother of all bands':nThe Oakland metal band know their British anarcho punk – so singer/guitarist Steve Von Till picked five crucial tracks". The Guardian. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
  30. Mundrian, Albert. Choosing Death: The Improbably History of Death Metal and Grindcore. Decibel Books.
  31. "The 100 Greatest Singers: Inside the Ballots Pictures - 100 Singers Ballots: James Hetfield". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 9 May 2012.