Corrosion of Conformity

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Corrosion of Conformity
Corrosion of Conformity performing in 2005
Background information
Also known asC.O.C.
Origin Raleigh, North Carolina, U.S.
Years active
  • 1982–2006
  • 2010–present
Members Woody Weatherman
Mike Dean
Reed Mullin
Pepper Keenan
Past members Karl Agell
Phil Swisher
Simon Bob Sinister
Eric Eycke
Robert Stewart
Benji Shelton
Jimmy Bower
Jason Patterson

Corrosion of Conformity (also known as C.O.C.) is an American heavy metal band from Raleigh, North Carolina, formed in 1982. This band has undergone multiple line-up changes throughout its existence with guitarist Woody Weatherman as the sole constant member. Weatherman, founding bassist Mike Dean, founding drummer Reed Mullin, and vocalist and rhythm guitarist Pepper Keenan (who joined the band in 1989) are widely regarded as its classic line-up. [5] After a hiatus in 2006, Corrosion of Conformity returned in 2010 without Keenan, who had been busy touring and recording with Down, but announced their reunion with him in December 2014. [6]

Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom. With roots in blues rock, psychedelic rock, and acid rock, the bands that created heavy metal developed a thick, massive sound, characterized by highly amplified distortion, extended guitar solos, emphatic beats, and overall loudness. The genre's lyrics and performance styles are sometimes associated with aggression and machismo.

Raleigh, North Carolina Capital of North Carolina

Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States. Raleigh is the second-largest city in the state, after Charlotte. Raleigh is known as the "City of Oaks" for its many oak trees, which line the streets in the heart of the city. The city covers a land area of 142.8 square miles (370 km2). The U.S. Census Bureau estimated the city's population as 479,332 as of July 1, 2018. It is one of the fastest-growing cities in the country. The city of Raleigh is named after Sir Walter Raleigh, who established the lost Roanoke Colony in present-day Dare County.

Woody Weatherman American guitarist

Woodroe "Woody" Weatherman is lead guitarist for the heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity.


The band started as a hardcore punk band but later moved towards a slower and blues-tinged heavy metal sound. To date, the band has released ten studio albums, four EPs, one compilation, and one live album. Their first three studio albums― Eye for an Eye (1984), Animosity (1985) and Blind (1991)―attracted the attention of Columbia Records, who signed the band in 1993. Corrosion of Conformity found success with the release of their 1994 fourth studio album, Deliverance , which peaked at number 155 on the Billboard 200 and spawned the hits "Albatross" and "Clean My Wounds". [7] Their 1996 follow-up Wiseblood was also successful, and at the time, it was Corrosion of Conformity's highest-charting album in the United States, peaking at number 104 on the Billboard 200. [7] Their latest album, No Cross No Crown , was released on January 12, 2018 on Nuclear Blast Records, and became the band's first album to enter the Top 100 on the Billboard 200, where it peaked at number 67. [7]

Hardcore punk Subgenre of punk rock

Hardcore punk is a punk rock music genre and subculture that originated in the late 1970s. It is generally faster, harder, and more aggressive than other forms of punk rock. Its roots can be traced to earlier punk scenes in San Francisco and Southern California which arose as a reaction against the still predominant hippie cultural climate of the time. It was also inspired by New York punk rock and early proto-punk. New York punk had a harder-edged sound than its San Francisco counterpart, featuring anti-art expressions of masculine anger, energy, and subversive humor. Hardcore punk generally disavows commercialism, the established music industry and "anything similar to the characteristics of mainstream rock" and often addresses social and political topics with "confrontational, politically-charged lyrics."

Blues is a music genre and musical form which was originated in the Deep South of the United States around the 1870s by African Americans from roots in African musical traditions, African-American work songs, and spirituals. Blues incorporated spirituals, work songs, field hollers, shouts, chants, and rhymed simple narrative ballads. The blues form, ubiquitous in jazz, rhythm and blues and rock and roll, is characterized by the call-and-response pattern, the blues scale and specific chord progressions, of which the twelve-bar blues is the most common. Blue notes, usually thirds, fifths or sevenths flattened in pitch are also an essential part of the sound. Blues shuffles or walking bass reinforce the trance-like rhythm and form a repetitive effect known as the groove.

<i>Eye for an Eye</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 1984 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Eye for an Eye is the first studio album by American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity released in 1984. In 2012, it was re-released by Candlelight Records with the entire "Six Songs With Mike Singing EP" included as bonus tracks.


Early years (1982–1987)

Corrosion of Conformity (C.O.C.) was formed in Raleigh, North Carolina by bassist and vocalist Mike Dean, guitarist Woody Weatherman, drummer Reed Mullin and singer Benji Shelton in 1982. [8] They were influenced by heavy metal bands like Black Sabbath, Iron Maiden, Scorpions and Judas Priest, as well as by hardcore groups like Black Flag, Bad Brains, Circle Jerks, Minor Threat, Discharge, and Germs. [9] [10]

North Carolina State of the United States of America

North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. North Carolina is the 28th largest and 9th-most populous of the 50 United States. North Carolina is bordered by Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Georgia and South Carolina to the south, and Tennessee to the west. Raleigh is the state's capital and Charlotte is its largest city. The Charlotte metropolitan area, with an estimated population of 2,569,213 in 2018, is the most populous metropolitan area in North Carolina and the 23rd-most populous in the United States and the largest banking center in the nation after New York City. North Carolina's second largest metropolitan area is the Research Triangle, with an estimated population of 2,238,312 in 2018, is home to the largest research park in the United States.

Mike Dean (musician) American heavy metal bass guitarist

Thomas Michael Dean is the bassist for American metal band Corrosion of Conformity. He sang on the band's early recordings from their crossover thrash era before leaving the band in 1987. In 1989 Dean, along with C.O.C. guitarist Woody Weatherman and artist Brian Walsby on drums, released the Snake Nation album on Caroline Records. Dean rejoined C.O.C. as the bass player and occasional vocalist in 1993 and has remained with the band since. Along with several production and engineering credits he also collaborated with Dave Grohl on the Probot song "Access Babylon", a return to the punk/metal fusion of old.

William Reed Mullin is the American drummer for metal band Corrosion of Conformity (COC). He was the founding member with Mike Dean and Woody Weatherman. Mullin, along with Weatherman, also played in the Raleigh NC hardcore band, No Labels. No Labels disbanded in 1984, while Corrosion of Conformity continued to evolve and gain popularity. He left COC on February 1, 2001 due to back injury.

They released tracks on the No Core cassette tape compilation on the label of the same name along with other North Carolina punk bands in 1982 as well as on the "Why are we here?" 7" compilation in 1983, also on the No Core label. Benji quit the band in 1983 and C.O.C. first recruited Robert Stewart to sing but he stayed only for about a month, so they recruited Eric Eycke from fellow Raleigh band Colcor to be the new singer. They recorded their first album, "Eye for an Eye", with Eric.

Their hardcore punk-oriented 20-track debut Eye for an Eye —the only album featuring the vocalist Eric Eycke—was released in 1984 (later re-released by Caroline Records during 1989). [11] Soon after, Eycke left the band and C.O.C. continued as a three-piece with Dean and Mullin sharing the vocal duties on the 1985's follow-up Animosity . [8] In 1987, COC recruited Simon Bob Sinister after the breakup of their fellow Carolina band and Death Records labelmates Ugly Americans. The band's 1987 release, Technocracy, featured the hectic crossover thrash musicianship of COC with a cleaner vocal style than they had in the past.

Caroline Records American record label

Caroline Records is a record label. Caroline has or had a number of subsidiary labels including Astralwerks, Gyroscope, Caroline Blue Plate, Rocks the World, Scamp, and Passenger.

<i>Animosity</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 1985 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Animosity is the second studio album by American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity. Album cover art was done by the artist Pushead.

Simon Bob Sinister is an American musician known as the vocalist for the punk group Ugly Americans and the metal group Corrosion of Conformity.

Departure of Mike Dean, hiatus and Blind (1987–1992)

Corrosion of Conformity performing in New York City on the Blind tour. Loz blind.png
Corrosion of Conformity performing in New York City on the Blind tour.

Mike Dean departed in 1987 and Simon Bob soon followed, leaving COC in a state of flux for a couple of years. The remaining members re-tuned the lineup and searched for a new vocalist, even posting a classified in Flipside Fanzine for a singer similar in sound to "James Hetfield or Ozzy Osbourne" to go with their new metal sound. Caroline Records released some old tracks with Mike singing during this time with the aptly named Six Songs with Mike Singing EP.

James Hetfield American musician

James Alan Hetfield is an American musician, singer, and songwriter known for being the co-founder, lead vocalist, rhythm guitarist, and main songwriter for the American heavy metal band Metallica. Hetfield is mainly known for his intricate rhythm playing, but occasionally performs lead guitar duties and solos, both live and in the studio. Hetfield co-founded Metallica in October 1981 after answering a classified advertisement by drummer Lars Ulrich in the Los Angeles newspaper The Recycler. Metallica has won nine Grammy Awards and released ten studio albums, three live albums, four extended plays and 24 singles.

Ozzy Osbourne English heavy metal vocalist and songwriter

John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne is an English singer, songwriter, actor and reality television star who rose to prominence during the 1970s as the lead vocalist of the heavy metal band Black Sabbath, during which he adopted the nickname "The Prince of Darkness". Osbourne was fired from the band in 1979 due to alcohol and drug problems, but went on to have a successful solo career, releasing eleven studio albums, the first seven of which were all awarded multi-platinum certifications in the United States. Osbourne has since reunited with Black Sabbath on several occasions. He rejoined the band in 1997 and helped record the group’s final studio album 13 (2013) before they embarked on a farewell tour which culminated in a final performance in their home city, Birmingham, England, in February 2017. His longevity and success have earned him the informal title of "Godfather of Heavy Metal".

Mike Dean also participated in Snake Nation.

After much searching, Karl Agell was recruited on vocals, Phil Swisher on bass and Pepper Keenan as a second guitarist. The new line-up released 1991's Blind , gravitating towards a sludge/groove metal sound. Blind was the first COC album to receive mainstream attention. The video for "Vote with a Bullet" (the only song with Keenan on vocals on the album) received airplay on MTV and the album cracked the Billboard Heatseekers chart in early 1992. The album has sold around 250,000 copies in the US to date.

Deliverance and Wiseblood (1993–1998)

In 1993, Agell and Swisher left the band and formed the band Leadfoot, Dean returned and Keenan took over lead vocals. The following year COC signed to Columbia Records, and the release of Deliverance saw the band also incorporating stoner and southern rock influences, which they also carried onto the following albums. In 1994, their song Big Problems was featured on the Clerks soundtrack. The song "Clean My Wounds" was featured in the anime movie Tekken: The Motion Picture .[ citation needed ]

Deliverance was the band's biggest selling album. This was mainly due to the singles "Albatross" and "Clean My Wounds" becoming Top 20 hits on rock radio and the album managed to spend almost four months on the Billboard 200, peaking at No. 155. [7] On the Heatseekers chart, it peaked at No. 5 and lasted almost a year on that particular chart. US sales for the album were just over 440,000 by the end of 2005 and this album should be eligible for Gold status within the next few years.[ citation needed ]

Wiseblood was released in October 1996. Despite producing a Top 30 radio hit with "Drowning in a Daydream" and a worldwide tour with Metallica, the album failed to match the sales set by the previous album. Total US sales to date are just over 150,000. "Drowning in a Daydream" was nominated at the Grammy Awards in 1998 for "Best Metal Performance". [12]

America's Volume Dealer and In the Arms of God (1999–2006)

Pepper Keenan live on stage Corrosion-of-conformity-pepper.jpg
Pepper Keenan live on stage

Soon after the release of Wiseblood, Columbia dropped COC, who then moved to Sanctuary Records. The band released its first album for its new label, America's Volume Dealer , in November 2000. The album was even more of a commercial failure than Wiseblood not even managing to make the Billboard 200. However, the single, "Congratulations Song", did give the band another Top 30 hit. No videos were made from the album. Mullin left the band in 2001. Over the next few years, the band worked with a series of drummers: Jimmy Bower of Eyehategod, local Raleigh percussion professor Merritt Partridge, Stanton Moore of Galactic and Reed's former drum technician Jason Patterson, who previously played drums in the Raleigh-based rock band Cry of Love.

In April 2005, COC released In the Arms of God to much critical acclaim. The album performed much better than their previous effort, debuting at No. 108 on the Billboard 200 and even topping the Heatseekers chart. [7] [13] This was achieved without even one radio hit from the album. A video was made for the song "Stonebreaker" which saw airplay on MTV2's recently revived Headbanger's Ball. The band spent the rest of the year touring the US and Canada. They were the opening acts for Motörhead and Disturbed and also went on headlining tours with Crowbar, Fu Manchu, Alabama Thunderpussy and Danko Jones all providing support. A European tour was scheduled for September/October 2005 but was later cancelled, after Hurricane Katrina ravaged Keenan's hometown of New Orleans. A co-headlining UK tour with Clutch commenced in January 2006.

Second hiatus (2006–2010)

Corrosion of Conformity was on hiatus from 2006 to June 2010, while Pepper recorded and toured with Down. From March 2009 to June 2010, Karl Agell and Reed Mullin occasionally performed with Jerry Barrett, Scott Little, and Jason Browning (Browning eventually replaced by TR Gwynne) as "COC-Blind", playing the Blind album. Reed Mullin and Mike Dean along with Jason Browning also toured in a new band called "Righteous Fool", and have released a self-titled EP on Southern Lord Records.

Animosity lineup reunion (2010–2014)

Animosity lineup 2010 secret house show, Raleigh, NC Corrosion of Conformity - Animosity Lineup 12-11-2010 - Secret House Show at Dreg's Grotto, Raleigh, NC - by Will Butler.jpg
Animosity lineup 2010 secret house show, Raleigh, NC

On May 12, 2010, reported that the Animosity lineup of Corrosion of Conformity was reuniting and working on a new album. They are planning some early-August shows lined up for the West Coast, although they have not yet been officially announced. [14] The band is still open to recording again as a four-piece with Pepper when the time is right, according to a message on the official C.O.C. website on May 15, 2010. [15] Pepper currently, has not officially left the band. [16]

Pepper joined his band mates on stage on June 17, 2011 at the Hellfest (Clisson, France) to play "Vote with a Bullet" as well as on June 19, 2011 in Bilbao (Spain) where they additionally performed together on "Señor Limpio". Pepper stated that he looks forward to working on some Deliverance type material in the near future with the band. The band released their eighth studio album, titled Corrosion of Conformity , on February 28, 2012 via Candlelight Records.

In September 2012, Corrosion of Conformity posted three pictures from the studio on Facebook, stating that they were working on a five-song EP called Megalodon with Mike Schaefer and John Custer. The entire EP was released for digital download via Scion A/V on November 14, 2012.

By January 2013, Corrosion of Conformity had begun writing new material for their ninth studio album, [17] IX, which was released on July 1, 2014.

Reunion with Pepper Keenan (2014–present)

In a September 2014 interview with Heavy Blog Is Heavy, drummer Reed Mullin confirmed that Corrosion of Conformity would reunite with guitarist/vocalist Pepper Keenan in 2015 to record a new album, followed by a tour. [18] They planned to begin work on their new album in January 2015. [6]

On January 14, 2015, Corrosion of Conformity announced a six-date UK tour, which took place in March and was their first tour with the Deliverance lineup in 14 years as well their first one with Keenan in nine years. [19] Corrosion of Conformity performed their first show with the re-united Deliverance era line-up of Pepper Keenan, Woody Weatherman, Mike Dean, and Reed Mullin on March 7, 2015 in Manchester, England. [20] Their first U.S. tour with the reunited line-up, supporting Clutch, was announced on July 28, 2015. [21] On June 6, 2016, Corrosion of Conformity announced the letting go of drummer Reed Mullin after a prolonged battle with alcohol addiction, resulting in a seizure before their concert in Edmonton, AB, Canada on the Lamb of God \ Clutch Tour. Mullin returned to the drum stool on the tour on June 8. [22]

On November 10, 2017, Corrosion of Conformity announced that their tenth studio album, titled No Cross No Crown, would be released on January 12, 2018. The album's lead single "Cast the First Stone" was premiered on the same day. [23]

Collaborations and side projects

They have also collaborated with a number of other artists: James Hetfield of Metallica contributed vocals to the song "Man or Ash" on Wiseblood; Warren Haynes of the Allman Brothers' Band and Gov't Mule played slide guitar on "Stare Too Long" on America's Volume Dealer; and Stanton Moore of Galactic played drums on In the Arms of God.

Members of COC have also participated in collaborations: Keenan plays guitar with the metal supergroup Down, and Dean contributed vocals to a track titled "Access Babylon" on Dave Grohl's Probot project. Pepper also appears on Metallica's Garage Inc. cover record, playing guitar and singing the second verse of the Lynyrd Skynyrd song "Tuesday's Gone". He appears in the documentary Some Kind of Monster, auditioning to be Metallica's replacement for Jason Newsted.






Corrosion of Conformity


Corrosion of Conformity discography
Studio albums10
Live albums1
Compilation albums1
Music videos9

Studio albums

YearAlbum detailsPeak chart positionsSales
US Heat.
1984 Eye for an Eye
  • Label: No Core/Toxic Shock/Caroline
  • Released: 1984
1985 Animosity
1991 Blind 24US: 223,000+ [29]
1994 Deliverance
  • Label: Columbia
  • Released: September 27, 1994
1555US: 379,017+ [29]
1996 Wiseblood
  • Label: Columbia
  • Released: October 12, 1996
10423943US: 130,853+ [29]
2000 America's Volume Dealer 18US: 31,800+ [30]
2005 In the Arms of God
  • Label: Sanctuary
  • Released: April 5, 2005
108119641147US: 8,967 [31]
2012 Corrosion of Conformity
  • Label: Candlelight
  • Released: February 28, 2012
2014 IX
  • Label: Candlelight
  • Released: June 24, 2014
2018 No Cross No Crown 679587
"—" denotes a release that did not chart.

Live albums

YearAlbum details
2001 Live Volume
  • Label: Sanctuary
  • Released: August 7, 2001
  • Format: CD, DVD, DVDA

Extended plays

YearAlbum details
1987 Technocracy
  • Label: Metal Blade
  • Released: 1987
1989 Six Songs with Mike Singing 1985
  • Label: Metal Blade
  • Released: 1989
2010 Your Tomorrow Parts 1 & 2

Compilation albums

YearAlbum details
2010Playlist: The Very Best of Corrosion of Conformity
  • Released: 2010
  • Label: Columbia


YearSongPeak chart positionsAlbum
US Main.
1992"Vote with a Bullet"Blind
"Dance of the Dead"
"Broken Man"
1995"Clean My Wounds"19
"Seven Days"
1996"Drowning in a Daydream"27Wiseblood
"King of the Rotten"
2000"Congratulations Song"24America's Volume Dealer
2005"Stonebreaker"In the Arms of God
2012"The Doom"Corrosion of Conformity
"—" denotes a release that did not chart.

Music videos

Compilation appearances

Related Research Articles

Pepper Keenan American vocalist and heavy metal guitarist

Pepper J. Keenan, is an American guitarist and vocalist, best known for his work with heavy metal bands Corrosion of Conformity and Down. He joined Corrosion of Conformity in 1989, but did not become the lead singer until the recording of Deliverance in 1994. In 1991 he formed Down with Phil Anselmo of Pantera, Jimmy Bower of Eyehategod, and Kirk Windstein and Todd Strange of Crowbar.

<i>Deliverance</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 1994 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Deliverance is the fourth album by Corrosion of Conformity, and the first on which Pepper Keenan was lead singer. It was also their first recording on Columbia Records. Kerrang! described Deliverance as a "true 90s classic". The song "Mano de Mono" is heard in the movie The Fan. The song "Albatross" is playable in the video game Guitar Hero: Metallica.

<i>Blind</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 1991 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Blind is the third studio album by American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity, released on November 5, 1991 by Relativity Records. This was Corrosion of Conformity's first album in six years since the release of Animosity, and their first release with rhythm guitarist Pepper Keenan as well as their only recording with Karl Agell on vocals, and the only one on which original bassist Mike Dean does not appear; Phil Swisher instead takes his place, his sole appearance on a COC album. The album saw Corrosion of Conformity change their crossover thrash sound of the 1980s to a more straightforward metal sound.

<i>Technocracy</i> (EP) 1987 EP by Corrosion of Conformity

Technocracy is an EP by Corrosion of Conformity. It was released in 1987 on Metal Blade Records, and re-released in 1992 on Relativity Records with four additional songs, including three demo versions of songs from the EP with bassist Mike Dean singing.

<i>Wiseblood</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 1996 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Wiseblood is the fifth album by Corrosion of Conformity. Its name comes from the novel Wise Blood, written by Southern Gothic author Flannery O'Connor. Metallica's lead vocalist, James Hetfield, provides his voice as backup on the album's ninth track, "Man or Ash". The song "Drowning in a Daydream" was nominated for Best Metal Performance at the 40th Grammy Awards ceremony.

John Custer American record producer

John Custer is an American, Grammy Award-nominated record producer and musician. In 2014, John Custer received the Lifetime Achievement Award at the Carolina Music Awards.

<i>Americas Volume Dealer</i> 2000 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

America's Volume Dealer is the sixth album by Corrosion of Conformity and was released September 26, 2000. This was the last album to feature longtime drummer Reed Mullin for 9 years until his return in 2010.

<i>Live Volume</i> 2001 live album by Corrosion of Conformity

Live Volume is a live album released by heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity on August 7, 2001. It was recorded on April 20, 2001, at Harpos Concert Theatre in Detroit.

<i>In the Arms of God</i> 2005 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

In the Arms of God is the seventh studio album by Corrosion of Conformity and was released April 5, 2005. To date, it is the only Corrosion of Conformity album to not feature drummer Reed Mullin and the last to feature Pepper Keenan on vocals and guitar until 2018's No Cross No Crown, although he rejoined the band in 2014. Stanton Moore of the band Galactic played drums on this album.

Karl Agell American rock musician and singer

Karl Agell is a Swedish-Canadian heavy metal singer, known for being the fifth recording lead vocalist with the band Corrosion of Conformity from 1989 until his departure in 1993, as well as being a founding member of Leadfoot. He has also formed a project called Blind.

<i>Corrosion of Conformity</i> (album) 2012 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

Corrosion of Conformity is the eponymous titled eighth studio album by the American metal band Corrosion of Conformity, which was released on February 28, 2012, by Candlelight Records. It is Corrosion of Conformity's first album since In the Arms of God (2005), their longest gap to date between studio albums. It is also the band's first album with Reed Mullin on drums since 2000's America's Volume Dealer and the first to not feature Pepper Keenan on vocals or guitar since 1987's Technocracy.

<i>IX</i> (Corrosion of Conformity album) 2014 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

IX is the ninth studio album by the American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity, which was released on July 1, 2014, by Candlelight Records.

<i>No Cross No Crown</i> (album) 2018 studio album by Corrosion of Conformity

No Cross No Crown is the tenth studio album by the American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity, released on January 12, 2018, by Nuclear Blast.

Albatross (Corrosion of Conformity song) 1994 single by Corrosion of Conformity

"Albatross" is a song by American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity. The song was released as the lead single from the band's fourth studio album Deliverance. Written by vocalist/guitarist Pepper Keenan and drummer Reed Mullin, "Albatross" was a hit on rock radio, peaking at #19 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart. The song is the band's highest charting single along with "Clean My Wounds", which also peaked at #19.

Clean My Wounds 1995 single by Corrosion of Conformity

"Clean My Wounds" is a song by American heavy metal band Corrosion of Conformity. The song was released as the third single from the band's fourth studio album Deliverance. Written by lead vocalist/guitarist Pepper Keenan, "Clean My Wounds" was a hit on rock radio, peaking at #19 on the Billboard Mainstream Rock chart, the band's highest charting single along with "Albatross".


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