Second inversion

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Second inversion
A G-major triad in second inversion
F major chord
Major triad on F in root position.png
Root position (F) Loudspeaker.svg Play  
Major triad on F in first inversion.png
First inversion (A6) Loudspeaker.svg Play
Major triad on F in second inversion.png
Second inversion (C6
4
) Loudspeaker.svg Play
Dominant seventh on F in third inversion.png
Third inversion of F7 chord (E4
2
) Loudspeaker.svg Play

The second inversion of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the fifth of the chord is the bass note. In this inversion, the bass note and the root of the chord are a fourth apart which traditionally qualifies as a dissonance. There is therefore a tendency for movement and resolution. In notation form, it is referred to with a c following the chord position (For e.g., Ic. Vc or IVc).[ citation needed ] In figured bass, a second-inversion triad is a 6
4
chord (as in I6
4
), while a second-inversion seventh chord is a 4
3
chord.

Contents

Inversions are not restricted to the same number of tones as the original chord, nor to any fixed order of tones except with regard to the interval between the root, or its octave, and the bass note, hence, great variety results. [1]

Note that any voicing above the bass is allowed. A second inversion chord must have the fifth chord factor in the bass, but it may have any arrangement of the root and third above that, including doubled notes, compound intervals, and omission (G-C-E, G-C-E-G', G-E-G-C'-E', etc.)

Examples

In the second inversion of a C-major triad, the bass is G — the fifth of the triad — with the root and third stacked above it, forming the intervals of a fourth and a sixth above the inverted bass of G, respectively.

Second inversion

In the second inversion of a G dominant seventh chord, the bass note is D, the fifth of the seventh chord.

Second inversion

Types

There are four types of second-inversion chords: cadential, passing, auxiliary, and bass arpeggiation.

Cadential

Cadential second-inversion chords are typically used in the authentic cadence I6
4
-V-I, or one of its variation, like I6
4
-V 7-I. In this form, the chord is sometimes referred to as a cadential 6
4
chord. The chord preceding I6
4
is most often a chord that would introduce V as a weak to strong progression, for example, making -II-V into II-I6
4
-V or making IV-V into IV-I6
4
-V.

Second inversion

The cadential 6
4
can be analyzed in two ways: the first labels it as a second-inversion chord, while the second treats it instead as part of a horizontal progression involving voice leading above a stationary bass.

  1. In the first designation, the cadential 6
    4
    chord features the progression: I6
    4
    -V-I. Most older harmony textbooks use this label, and it can be traced back to the early 19th century. [2]
  2. In the second designation, this chord is not considered an inversion of a tonic triad [3] but as a dissonance resolving to a consonant dominant harmony. [4] This is notated as V6–5
    4–3
    -I, in which the 6
    4
    is not the inversion of the V chord but a double appoggiatura on the V that resolves down by step to V5
    3
    (that is, V6
    4
    -V). This function is very similar to the resolution of a 4–3 suspension. Several modern textbooks prefer this conception of the cadential6
    4
    , which can also be traced back to the early 19th century. [5]

Passing

In a progression with a passing second-inversion chord, the bass passes between two tones a third apart (usually of the same harmonic function [6] ). When moving from I to I 6, the passing chord V6
4
is placed between them – though some prefer VII 6 to V6
4
– creating stepwise motion in the bass (scale degrees Scale deg 1.svg Scale deg 2.svg Scale deg 3.svg ). It can also be used in the reverse direction: I 6-V6
4
-I. The important point is that the V6
4
chord functions as a passing chord between the two more stable chords. It occurs on the weaker beat between these two chords. [6] The upper voices usually move in step (or remain stationary) in this progression.

Second inversion

Auxiliary (or pedal)

In a progression with an auxiliary (or pedal) second-inversion chord, the IV6
4
chord functions as the harmonization of a neighbor note in the progression, I-IV6
4
-I. In this progression, the third and fifth rise a step each and then fall back, creating a harmonization for the scale degrees Scale deg 5.svg Scale deg 6.svg Scale deg 5.svg in the top voice.

Second inversion

Bass arpeggiation

In this progression, the bass arpeggiates the root, third, and fifth of the chord. This is just a florid movement but since the fifth is present in the bass, it is referred to as a bass arpeggiation flavour of the second inversion.[ citation needed ]

Second inversion

See also

Related Research Articles

In music theory, a leading-tone is a note or pitch which resolves or "leads" to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. Typically, the leading tone refers to the seventh scale degree of a major scale, a major seventh above the tonic. In the movable do solfège system, the leading-tone is sung as ti.

Chord (music) Harmonic set of three or more notes

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches/frequencies consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords in the right musical context.

Root (chord)

In music theory, the concept of root is the idea that a chord can be represented and named by one of its notes. It is linked to harmonic thinking—the idea that vertical aggregates of notes can form a single unit, a chord. It is in this sense that one speaks of a "C chord" or a "chord on C"—a chord built from C and of which the note C is the root. When a chord is referred to in Classical music or popular music without a reference to what type of chord it is, it is assumed a major triad, which for C contains the notes C, E and G. The root need not be the bass note, the lowest note of the chord: the concept of root is linked to that of the inversion of chords, which is derived from the notion of invertible counterpoint. In this concept, chords can be inverted while still retaining their root.

Augmented sixth chord Chord that contains the interval of an augmented sixth

In music theory, an augmented sixth chord contains the interval of an augmented sixth, usually above its bass tone. This chord has its origins in the Renaissance, was further developed in the Baroque, and became a distinctive part of the musical style of the Classical and Romantic periods.

In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the diatonic scale, the lower mediant—halfway between the tonic and the subdominant. In the movable do solfège system, the submediant note is sung as la in major, as fa in minor. It is occasionally called superdominant, as the degree above the dominant. This is its normal name (sus-dominante) in French.

In music theory, a dominant seventh chord, or major minor seventh chord, is a seventh chord, usually built on the fifth degree of the major scale, and composed of a root, major third, perfect fifth, and minor seventh. Thus it is a major triad together with a minor seventh, denoted by the letter name of the chord root and a superscript "7". An example is the dominant seventh chord built on G, written as G7, having pitches G–B–D–F:

In Classical music theory, a Neapolitan chord is a major chord built on the lowered (flatted) second (supertonic) scale degree. In Schenkerian analysis, it is known as a Phrygian II, since in minor scales the chord is built on the notes of the corresponding Phrygian mode.

Root position

The root position of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the root of the chord is the bass note and the other chord factors are above it. In the root position, uninverted, of a C-major triad, the bass is C — the root of the triad — with the third and the fifth stacked above it, forming the intervals of a third and a fifth above the root of C, respectively.

Guitar chord

In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously, but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio. The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical guitar, namely E-A-D-G-B-E' ; in standard tuning, the intervals present among adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major triads.

In music, a sequence is the restatement of a motif or longer melodic passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice. It is one of the most common and simple methods of elaborating a melody in eighteenth and nineteenth century classical music. Characteristics of sequences:

First inversion

The first inversion of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the third of the chord is the bass note and the root a sixth above it. In the first inversion of a C-major triad, the bass is E — the third of the triad — with the fifth and the root stacked above it, forming the intervals of a third and a sixth above the inverted bass of E, respectively.

In music theory, an inversion is a type of change to intervals, chords, voices, and melodies. In each of these cases, "inversion" has a distinct but related meaning. The concept of inversion also plays an important role in musical set theory.

In music theory, Roman numeral analysis is a type of musical analysis in which chords are represented by Roman numerals. In some cases, Roman numerals denote scale degrees themselves. More commonly, however, they represent the chord whose root note is that scale degree. For instance, III denotes either the third scale degree or, more commonly, the chord built on it. Typically, uppercase Roman numerals are used to represent major chords, while lowercase Roman numerals are used to represent minor chords. However, some music theorists use upper-case Roman numerals for all chords, regardless of chord quality.

The augmented seventh chord, or seventh augmented fifth chord, or seventh sharp five chord is a seventh chord composed of a root, major third, augmented fifth, and minor seventh. It can be viewed as an augmented triad with a minor seventh. When using popular-music symbols, it is denoted by +7, aug7, or 75. For example, the augmented seventh chord built on C, written as C+7, has pitches C–E–G–B:

In music theory, the dominant seventh flat five chord is a seventh chord composed of a root note, together with a major third, a diminished fifth, and a minor seventh above the root. For example, the dominant seventh flat five chord built on C, commonly written as C75, is composed of the pitches C–E–G–B:

In music theory, a diminished major seventh chord is a seventh chord composed of a diminished triad and a major seventh. Thus, it is composed of a root note, together with a minor third, a diminished fifth, and a major seventh above the root:. For example, the diminished major seventh chord built on C, commonly written as CoM7, has pitches C–E–G–B:

This is a glossary of Schenkerian analysis, a method of musical analysis of tonal music based on the theories of Heinrich Schenker (1868–1935). The method is discussed in the concerned article and no attempt is made here to summarize it. Similarly, the entries below whenever possible link to other articles where the concepts are described with more details, and the definitions are kept here to a minimum.

In music, a common tone is a pitch class that is a member of, or common to two or more chords or sets. Typically, it refers to a note shared between two chords in a chord progression. According to H.E. Woodruff:

Any tone contained in two successive chords is a common tone. Chords written upon two consecutive degrees of the [diatonic] scale can have no tones in common. All other chords [in the diatonic scale] have common tones. Common tones are also called connecting tones, and in part-writing, are to be retained in the same voice. Chords which are four or five degrees apart have one common tone. Chords which are three or six degrees apart have two common tones. Chords which are one or seven degrees apart have no tone in common.

Third inversion

The third inversion of a seventh chord is the voicing in which the seventh of the chord is the bass note and the root a major second above it. In the third inversion of a G-dominant seventh chord, the bass is F — the seventh of the chord — with the root, third, and fifth stacked above it, forming the intervals of a second, a fourth, and a sixth above the inverted bass of F, respectively. In figured bass, it is referred to as a 4
2
chord.

Inversions higher than third

Inversions higher than the third require extended chords; the fourth inversion requires a ninth chord, the fifth an eleventh chord, etc.

If you're working with extended chords, there are more than two possible inversions. For example, the third inversion of a seventh chord puts the seventh in the bass; the fourth inversion of a ninth chord puts the ninth in the bass.

References

  1. Hubbard, William Lines (1908). The American History and Encyclopedia of Music, Vol. 10: Musical Dictionary , p.103. Irving Squire: London. [ISBN unspecified]. Also at the HathiTrust Digital Library
  2. Weber, Theory of musical composition, p. 350, quoted in Beach, D (1967) "The functions of the six-four chord in tonal music", Journal of Music Theory, 11(1), p. 8
  3. Aldwell, Edward; Schachter, Carl (1989), Harmony and Voice Leading (2nd ed.), San Diego, Toronto: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, p. 263, ISBN   0-15-531519-6, OCLC   19029983, The chord does not act as an inversion of I 5
    3
    ; it serves neither to extend it nor to substitute for it.
    LCC   MT50 A444 1989.
  4. Forte, Allen (1974), Tonal Harmony in Concept and Practice (2nd ed.), NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, p. 68, ISBN   0-03-077495-0 .
  5. Arnold, F.T. The art of accompaniment from a thorough-bass, Vol. 1, p. 314. ISBN   0-486-43188-6. quoted in Beach, David (1967). "The functions of the six-four chord in tonal music", p.7, Journal of Music Theory, 11(1).
  6. 1 2 Gauldin, Robert (1997). Harmonic Practice in Tonal Music New York: W.W. Norton & Company, pg 273. ISBN   0-393-97666-1

Further reading