Inversions higher than third

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F major chord
Major triad on F in root position.png
Root position (F) Loudspeaker.svg Play  
Major triad on F in first inversion.png
First inversion (A6) Loudspeaker.svg Play
Major triad on F in second inversion.png
Second inversion (C6
4
) Loudspeaker.svg Play
Dominant seventh on F in third inversion.png
Third inversion of F7 chord (E4
2
) Loudspeaker.svg Play
F major chord
(higher inversions)
Dominant ninth on F in fourth inversion.png
Fourth inversion of dominant F9 chord (F9) Loudspeaker.svg Play V7
6

4
2
-I
. [lower-alpha 1]
Dominant eleventh on F in fifth inversion.png
Fifth inversion of dominant F11 chord (F11) Loudspeaker.svg Play V6
5

4
2
-I
.
Dominant thirteenth on F in sixth inversion.png
Sixth inversion of dominant F13 chord (F13) Loudspeaker.svg Play V5
4

3
2
-I6
.

Inversions higher than the third require extended chords; the fourth inversion requires a ninth chord, the fifth an eleventh chord, etc.

Contents

If you're working with extended chords, there are more than two possible inversions. For example, the third inversion of a seventh chord puts the seventh in the bass; the fourth inversion of a ninth chord puts the ninth in the bass. [2]

Fourth inversion

The fourth inversion of a ninth chord is the voicing in which the ninth of the chord is the bass note and the root a minor seventh above it. In the fourth inversion of a G-dominant ninth, the bass is A — the ninth of the chord — with the third, fifth, seventh, and root stacked above it, forming the intervals of a second, a fourth, a sixth, and a seventh above the inverted bass of A, respectively.

The chord of the ninth, having four intervals like the flat seventh, of course admits of four inversions in both major and minor... The...fourth inversion, ["marked"]: 642...is seldom used.

John Smith (1853) [3]

If...the Ninth is in the bass: 4th inversion of a Ninth-chord. [4]

Inversions higher than third

The ninth chord and its inversions exist today, or at least they can exist. The pupil will easily find examples in the literature [such as Schoenberg's Verklärte Nacht and Strauss's opera Salome ]. It is not necessary to set up special laws for its treatment. If one wants to be careful, one will be able to use the laws that pertain to the seventh chords: that is, dissonances resolve by step downward, the root leaps a fourth upward.

Arnold Schoenberg (1948) [5]
Examples of resolutions according to the rules for 7th chords given by Schoenberg: V9 chords in root position Play (help*info)
, 1st Play (help*info)
, 2nd Play (help*info)
, and 3rd inversion Play (help*info)
resolving to I, followed by a I
#7 resolving to IV Play (help*info) Ninth chord resolution examples given by Schoenberg.png
Examples of resolutions according to the rules for 7th chords given by Schoenberg: V9 chords in root position Loudspeaker.svg Play  , 1st Loudspeaker.svg Play  , 2nd Loudspeaker.svg Play  , and 3rd inversion Loudspeaker.svg Play   resolving to I, followed by a I
7
resolving to IV Loudspeaker.svg Play  

Fifth inversion

The fifth inversion of an eleventh chord is the voicing in which the eleventh of the chord is the bass note and the root a perfect fourth above it. In the fifth inversion of a G-dominant eleventh with eleventh, the bass is C — the eleventh of the chord — with the root, third, fifth, seventh, and ninth stacked above it, forming the intervals of a second, a fourth, a fifth, a sixth, and a seventh above the inverted bass of C, respectively.

Inversions higher than third

Sixth inversion

The sixth inversion of a thirteenth chord is the highest possible diatonic inversion, since the diatonic scale has seven notes. (The "seventh" inversion of the dominant thirteenth chord is root position.) Higher inversions would require chromaticism and either nonscale tones or scales with more than seven tones.

Arrangement of notes above the bass

Any voicing above the bass is allowed. For example, a fourth inversion must have the ninth chord factor in the bass, but it may have any arrangement of the root, third, fifth, and seventh above that, including doubled notes, compound intervals, and omission of the fifth (A-G-B-D-F, A-B-D-F-G-B, A-G-D-F, etc.)

Inversions are not restricted to the same number of tones as the original chord, nor to any fixed order of tones except with regard to the interval between the root, or its octave, and the bass note, hence, great variety results. [1]

See also

Notes

  1. The fundamental position of a ninth chord is specified by 9

    , the second inversion is 6
    5

    4
    3
    , the third is 6
    4

    3
    2
    , and the, "fourth inversion of a chord of the ninth," is 7
    6

    4
    2
    . [1]

Related Research Articles

In music theory, an interval is a difference in pitch between two sounds. An interval may be described as horizontal, linear, or melodic if it refers to successively sounding tones, such as two adjacent pitches in a melody, and vertical or harmonic if it pertains to simultaneously sounding tones, such as in a chord.

Chord (music) Harmonic set of three or more notes

A chord, in music, is any harmonic set of pitches/frequencies consisting of multiple notes that are heard as if sounding simultaneously. For many practical and theoretical purposes, arpeggios and broken chords, or sequences of chord tones, may also be considered as chords in the right musical context.

Root (chord)

In music theory, the concept of root is the idea that a chord can be represented and named by one of its notes. It is linked to harmonic thinking—the idea that vertical aggregates of notes can form a single unit, a chord. It is in this sense that one speaks of a "C chord" or a "chord on C"—a chord built from C and of which the note C is the root. When a chord is referred to in Classical music or popular music without a reference to what type of chord it is, it is assumed a major triad, which for C contains the notes C, E and G. The root need not be the bass note, the lowest note of the chord: the concept of root is linked to that of the inversion of chords, which is derived from the notion of invertible counterpoint. In this concept, chords can be inverted while still retaining their root.

Augmented sixth chord Chord that contains the interval of an augmented sixth

In music theory, an augmented sixth chord contains the interval of an augmented sixth, usually above its bass tone. This chord has its origins in the Renaissance, was further developed in the Baroque, and became a distinctive part of the musical style of the Classical and Romantic periods.

The term sixth chord refers to two different kinds of chord, the first in classical music and the second in modern popular music.

Thirteenth musical interval

In music or music theory, a thirteenth is the note thirteen scale degrees from the root of a chord and also the interval between the root and the thirteenth. The interval can be also described as a compound sixth, spanning an octave plus a sixth. The thirteenth is most commonly major Play  or minor Play .

Eleventh chord

In music theory, an eleventh chord is a chord that contains the tertian extension of the eleventh. Typically found in jazz, an eleventh chord also usually includes the seventh and ninth, and elements of the basic triad structure. Variants include the dominant eleventh, minor eleventh, and the major eleventh chord. Symbols include: Caug11, C9aug11, C9+11, C9alt11, Cm9(11), C−9(11). The eleventh in an eleventh chord is, "almost always sharpened, especially in jazz," at least in reference to the third, with CM11 (major eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F, Cm11 (minor eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F, and C11 (dominant eleventh): C–E–G–B–D–F.

In music theory, a ninth chord is a chord that encompasses the interval of a ninth when arranged in close position with the root in the bass.

The ninth chord and its inversions exist today, or at least they can exist. The pupil will easily find examples in the literature [such as Schoenberg's Verklärte Nacht and Strauss's opera Salome]. It is not necessary to set up special laws for its treatment. If one wants to be careful, one will be able to use the laws that pertain to the seventh chords: that is, dissonances resolve by step downward, the root leaps a fourth upward.

In music theory, a dominant seventh chord, or major minor seventh chord, is a seventh chord, usually built on the fifth degree of the major scale, and composed of a root, major third, perfect fifth, and minor seventh. Thus it is a major triad together with a minor seventh, denoted by the letter name of the chord root and a superscript "7". An example is the dominant seventh chord built on G, written as G7, having pitches G–B–D–F:

The diminished seventh chord is a four-note chord composed of a root note, together with a minor third, a diminished fifth, and a diminished seventh above the root:. For example, the diminished seventh chord built on C, commonly written as Co7, has pitches C–E–G–B:

Root position

The root position of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the root of the chord is the bass note and the other chord factors are above it. In the root position, uninverted, of a C-major triad, the bass is C — the root of the triad — with the third and the fifth stacked above it, forming the intervals of a third and a fifth above the root of C, respectively.

Guitar chord

In music, a guitar chord is a set of notes played on a guitar. A chord's notes are often played simultaneously, but they can be played sequentially in an arpeggio. The implementation of guitar chords depends on the guitar tuning. Most guitars used in popular music have six strings with the "standard" tuning of the Spanish classical guitar, namely E-A-D-G-B-E' ; in standard tuning, the intervals present among adjacent strings are perfect fourths except for the major third (G,B). Standard tuning requires four chord-shapes for the major triads.

Second inversion

The second inversion of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the fifth of the chord is the bass note. In this inversion, the bass note and the root of the chord are a fourth apart which traditionally qualifies as a dissonance. There is therefore a tendency for movement and resolution. In notation form, it is referred to with a c following the chord position. In figured bass, a second-inversion triad is a 6
4
chord, while a second-inversion seventh chord is a 4
3
chord.

Inversions are not restricted to the same number of tones as the original chord, nor to any fixed order of tones except with regard to the interval between the root, or its octave, and the bass note, hence, great variety results.

First inversion

The first inversion of a chord is the voicing of a triad, seventh chord, or ninth chord in which the third of the chord is the bass note and the root a sixth above it. In the first inversion of a C-major triad, the bass is E — the third of the triad — with the fifth and the root stacked above it, forming the intervals of a third and a sixth above the inverted bass of E, respectively.

In music theory, an inversion is a type of change to intervals, chords, voices, and melodies. In each of these cases, "inversion" has a distinct but related meaning. The concept of inversion also plays an important role in musical set theory.

In music theory, the dominant seventh flat five chord is a seventh chord composed of a root note, together with a major third, a diminished fifth, and a minor seventh above the root. For example, the dominant seventh flat five chord built on C, commonly written as C75, is composed of the pitches C–E–G–B:

Seventh (chord)

In music, the seventh factor of a chord is the note or pitch seven scale degrees above the root or tonal center. When the seventh is the bass note, or lowest note, of the expressed chord, the chord is in third inversion Play .

Factor (chord)

In music, a factor or chord factor is a member or component of a chord. These are named root, third, fifth, sixth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, thirteenth, and so on, for their generic interval above the root. In harmony, the consonance and dissonance of a chord factor and a nonchord tone are distinguished, respectively.

Musicians use various kinds of chord names and symbols in different contexts to represent musical chords. In most genres of popular music, including jazz, pop, and rock, a chord name and its corresponding symbol typically indicate one or more of the following:

  1. the root note,
  2. the chord quality,
  3. whether the chord is a triad, seventh chord, or an extended chord,
  4. any altered notes,
  5. any added tones, and
  6. the bass note if it is not the root.
Third inversion

The third inversion of a seventh chord is the voicing in which the seventh of the chord is the bass note and the root a major second above it. In the third inversion of a G-dominant seventh chord, the bass is F — the seventh of the chord — with the root, third, and fifth stacked above it, forming the intervals of a second, a fourth, and a sixth above the inverted bass of F, respectively. In figured bass, it is referred to as a 4
2
chord.

References

  1. Hubbard, William Lines (1908). The American History and Encyclopedia of Music: Musical Dictionary , p.103. Irving Squire: London. [ISBN unspecified]. Also at the HathiTrust Digital Library
  2. Miller, Michael (2002). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Music Theory, p.115. Penguin. ISBN   9780028643779.
  3. Smith, John (1853). A Treatise on the Theory and Practice of Music , p.27-8. J. McGlashan. [ISBN unspecified].
  4. Ziehn, Bernhard (1907). Manual of Harmony: Theoretical and Practical, Volume 1 , p.4. Wm. A Kaun Music Company. [ISBN unspecified].
  5. 1 2 Schoenberg, Arnold (1910). Theory of Harmony, p.346-7. University of California Press. First published in German as Harmonielehre in 1910. ISBN   9780520049444. Roman numeral analysis and arrows not included in the original.