Tonus peregrinus, the wandering tone,or the ninth tone, is a reciting tone in Gregorian chant.
The chant example here is not identified as the tonus peregrinus in the Liber usualis (see LU, pp. 760–761), although it is in Aeolian mode. For the tonus peregrinus in its customary usage for Psalm 113, see LU p. 160.
As a reciting tone the tonus peregrinus does not fit in any of the original eight church modes, because a verse recited in this tone has a different tenor note in the first half of the verse from the second half of the verse.It is this diversion from a single recitation note which gives the name peregrinus, literally "wanders".
Traditionally, the tenor note in the first half of a verse sung according to the tonus peregrinus is a tone higher than the tenor note in the second half of the verse. Also usually the last note of a tonus peregrinus melodic formula is a perfect fifth below the first tenor note.
In Gregorian chant the tonus peregrinus existed before the modal system was expanded beyond the eighth mode. Later the ninth tone became associated with the ninth mode, or Aeolian mode, which, in a more modern understanding of harmony, can be equalled with a standard minor mode.
The tonus peregrinus is an exceptional reciting tone in Gregorian chant: there it was most clearly associated with Psalm 113 (in the Vulgate numbering), traditionally sung in vespers. In Lutheranism, the tonus peregrinus is associated with the Magnificat (also usually sung in vespers): the traditional setting of Luther's German translation of the Magnificat (" Meine Seele erhebt den Herren ") is a German variant of the tonus peregrinus.
Tonus peregrinus variants appear in:
Gregorian chant is the central tradition of Western plainchant, a form of monophonic, unaccompanied sacred song in Latin of the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant developed mainly in western and central Europe during the 9th and 10th centuries, with later additions and redactions. Although popular legend credits Pope Gregory I with inventing Gregorian chant, scholars believe that it arose from a later Carolingian synthesis of Roman chant and Gallican chant.
Vespers is a sunset evening prayer service in the Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Eastern Catholic, Lutheran, and Anglican liturgies of the canonical hours. The word for this fixed prayer time comes from the Greek ἑσπέρα ("hespera") and the Latin vesper, meaning "evening". It is also referred to in the Anglican tradition as evening prayer or evensong. The term is also used in some other Protestant denominations to describe evening services.
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Anglican chant, also known as English chant, is a way to sing unmetrical texts, including psalms and canticles from the Bible, by matching the natural speech-rhythm of the words to the notes of a simple harmonized melody. This distinctive type of chant is a significant element of Anglican church music.
In chant, a reciting tone can refer to either a repeated musical pitch or to the entire melodic formula for which that pitch is a structural note. In Gregorian chant, the first is also called tenor, dominant or tuba, while the second includes psalm tones as well as simpler formulae for other readings and for prayers.
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Ambrosian chant is the liturgical plainchant repertory of the Ambrosian rite of the Roman Catholic Church, related to but distinct from Gregorian chant. It is primarily associated with the Archdiocese of Milan, and named after St. Ambrose much as Gregorian chant is named after Gregory the Great. It is the only surviving plainchant tradition besides the Gregorian to maintain the official sanction of the Roman Catholic Church.
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Johann Sebastian Bach's Magnificat, BWV 243, is a musical setting of the biblical canticle Magnificat. It is scored for five vocal parts, and a Baroque orchestra including trumpets and timpani. It is the first major liturgical composition on a Latin text by Bach.
A Gregorian mode is one of the eight systems of pitch organization used in Gregorian chant.
Psalm 147 is the 147th psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "Praise ye the LORD: for it is good to sing praises". The Book of Psalms is the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. In the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in its Latin translation in the Vulgate/Vulgata Clementina, this psalm is divided into Psalm 146 and Psalm 147 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, Psalm 146 is known as "Laudate Dominum quoniam bonum psalmus", and Psalm 147 as "Lauda Jerusalem Dominum".
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Ginés de Boluda was a Spanish church musician and composer.
Lobe den Herrn, meine Seele, BWV 143, is an early cantata by Johann Sebastian Bach. He appears to have composed the cantata for New Year's Day, probably when he was in his 20s, but whether it was first performed in Mühlhausen or Weimar is not known: the date of composition is unclear. Bach's authorship has been doubted because the cantata has several ununusual features; one of these is the scoring, it is the only Bach cantata to combine three corni da caccia with timpani.
Heinrich Schütz composed four extant settings of the Magnificat or Song of Mary, one of the three New Testament canticles. He set one in Latin and three in German. In the Schütz-Werke-Verzeichnis (SWV), the compositions have the numbers 344, 426, 468 and 494. The settings on the German text are all part of larger groups of works. They are settings of Martin Luther's German Magnificat, Meine Seele erhebt den Herren. Schütz wrote the compositions for different forces and occasions.
The Magnificat in E-flat major, BWV 243a, also BWV 243.1, by Johann Sebastian Bach is a musical setting of the Latin text of the Magnificat, Mary's canticle from the Gospel of Luke. It was composed in 1723 and is in twelve movements, scored for five vocal parts and a Baroque orchestra of trumpets, timpani, oboes, strings and basso continuo including bassoon. Bach revised the work some ten years later, transposing it from E-flat major to D major, and creating the version mostly performed today, BWV 243.
Meine Seele erhebt den Herren is Martin Luther's translation of the Magnificat canticle. It is traditionally sung to a German variant of the tonus peregrinus, a rather exceptional psalm tone in Gregorian chant. The tonus peregrinus is associated with the ninth mode or Aeolian mode. For the traditional setting of Luther's German Magnificat that is the minor mode for which the last note of the melodic formula is the tonic, a fifth below its opening note.
The Magnificat in A minor, BWV Anh. 21, TWV 1:1748, is Melchior Hoffmann's musical setting of a German version of the Song of Mary from the Gospel of Luke. The composition originated around 1707, when the composer was director musices and organist of the Neue Kirche in Leipzig. Composed in A minor, the Magnificat is scored for soprano and small orchestra. The work was first published in the 1950s, and it was recorded by Magda László, by Joshua Rifkin, by Wolfgang Helbich, and by Deborah York, among others.
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