Eponym

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The mythological Greek hero Orion is the eponym of the constellation Orion, shown here, and thus indirectly of the Orion spacecraft. Orion Head to Toe.jpg
The mythological Greek hero Orion is the eponym of the constellation Orion, shown here, and thus indirectly of the Orion spacecraft.

An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or which someone or something is, or is believed to be, named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic.

Contents

Word usage

The word is used in different ways. In the most frequently cited meaning, an eponym [2] [3] is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. In this way, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era. If Henry Ford is referred to as "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company", either Henry Ford himself, or his name "Ford" could be called the eponym. Conversely, the name of the new thing can be called the eponym, and, especially in the recorded-music industry, eponymous is used to mean "named after its central character or creator". [4] [5] [6] [7]

History

Periods have often been named after a ruler or other influential figure:

Trends

Other eponyms

Orthographic conventions

Capitalized versus lowercase

For examples, see the comparison table below.

Genitive versus attributive

National varieties of English

Comparison table of eponym orthographic styling

Prevalent dictionary styling todayStylings that defy prevalent dictionary stylingComments
Addison disease [26] *Addison Disease
*addison disease
 
Allemann syndrome [26] *Allemann Syndrome
*allemann syndrome
 
cesarean [only] [26]
cesarean also cesarian [but no cap variant] [14]
cesarean, "often capitalized" or caesarean also cesarian or caesarian [27]
 More information on this word's orthographic variants is at Wiktionary: caesarean section.
darwinian [only] [26]
darwinism [only] [26]
Darwinian [only] [14] [15]
Darwinism [only] [14] [15]
Darwinist [only] [14] [15]
  
diesel (n/adj/vi) [no cap variant] [14] [15]
and also
diesel-electric [14]
diesel engine [14] [15]
dieseling [14] [15]
dieselize, dieselization [14]
*Diesel engine
*Dieseling
*Dieselize, Dieselization
 
draconian [15]
draconian often Draconian [14]
  
eustachian [only] [26]
eustachian often Eustachian [14]
eustachian tube [only] [26]
eustachian tube often Eustachian tube [14]
eustachian tube or Eustachian tube [15]
*Eustachian Tube 
fallopian [only] [26]
fallopian often Fallopian [14]
fallopian tube [only] [26]
fallopian tube often Fallopian tube [14]
fallopian tube also Fallopian tube [15]
*Fallopian Tube 
Marxism [only] [14] [15]
Marxist [only] [14] [15]
*marxism
*marxist
 
mendelian [only] [26]  or Mendelian [only] [14]
mendelian inheritance [only] [26]  or Mendelian inheritance [only] [14]  
 but
Mendel's laws [14] [26]
*Mendelian Inheritance 
Newtonian [only] [14] [15] *newtonian 
parkinsonism [only] [14] [26]
parkinsonian [only] [14] [26]
parkinsonian tremor [26]
Parkinson disease [only] [26]
Parkinson's disease [only] [14]
*Parkinsonism
*Parkinsonian
*Parkinsonian tremor
*Parkinsonian Tremor
*Parkinson Disease
*Parkinson's Disease
 
quixotic [only] [14] [15] *Quixotic 
Roman numerals [15]
roman numerals [14]
 AMA Manual of Style lowercases the terms roman numerals and arabic numerals. MWCD enters the numeral sense under the headword Roman but with the note "not cap" on the numeral sense. [14]

Lists of eponyms

By person's name

By category

See also

Related Research Articles

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Noun Part of speech

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Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver babies. A caesarean section is often necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. Reasons for this may include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, or problems with the placenta or umbilical cord. A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother's pelvis or history of a previous C-section. A trial of vaginal birth after C-section may be possible. The World Health Organization recommends that caesarean section be performed only when medically necessary. Some C-sections are performed without a medical reason, upon request by someone, usually the mother.

English plurals How English plurals are formed; typically -(e)s

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The hyphen is a punctuation mark used to join words, and to separate syllables of a single word. The use of hyphens is called hyphenation. Non-hyphenated is an example of a hyphenated word. The hyphen should not be confused with dashes, which are longer and have different uses, or with the minus sign , which is also longer in some contexts.

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Capitalization or capitalisation is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction. The term also may refer to the choice of the casing applied to text.

A capitonym is a word that changes its meaning when it is capitalized; the capitalization usually applies due to one form being a proper noun or eponym. It is a portmanteau of the word capital with the suffix -onym. A capitonym is a form of homograph and – when the two forms are pronounced differently – is also a form of heteronym. In situations where both words should be capitalized, there will be nothing to distinguish between them except the context in which they are used.

American and British English spelling differences Comparison between US and UK English spelling

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<i>Websters Third New International Dictionary</i> Unabridged American English dictionary

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Adverbial genitive noun declined in the genitive case that functions as an adverb; found in Old and Middle English and German; modern English remnants include "always", "afterwards", "twice"

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A false, coined, fake, bogus or pseudo-title, also called a Time-style adjective and an anarthrous nominal premodifier, is a kind of appositive phrase before a noun. It is said to formally resemble a title, in that it does not start with an article, but is a common noun phrase, not a title. An example is the phrase convicted bomber in "convicted bomber Timothy McVeigh".

Capitalization or capitalisation in English grammar is the use of a capital letter at the head of a word. English usage varies from capitalization in other languages.

English possessive overview about the English possessive

In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases. These can play the roles of determiners or of nouns.

Drug nomenclature

Drug nomenclature is the systematic naming of drugs, especially pharmaceutical drugs. In the majority of circumstances, drugs have 3 types of names: chemical names, the most important of which is the IUPAC name; generic or nonproprietary names, the most important of which are the International Nonproprietary Names (INNs); and trade names, which are brand names. Generic names for drugs are nowadays constructed out of affixes and stems that classify the drugs into different categories and also separate drugs within categories. A marketed drug might also have a company code or compound code.

In etymology, back-formation is the process of creating a new lexeme by removing actual or supposed affixes. The resulting neologism is called a back-formation, a term coined by James Murray in 1889.

References

  1. "Orion Spacecraft - Nasa Orion Spacecraft". aerospaceguide.net.
  2. (ancient Greek ἐπώνυμος (a.) given as a name, (b.) giving one's name to a thing or person, ἐπί upon + ὄνομα, Aeolic ὄνυμα name)
  3. "eponym, n. : Oxford English Dictionary". OED Online. 2019-10-26. Archived from the original on 2019-10-27. Retrieved 2019-10-27.
  4. "eponym". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  5. "eponym". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  6. "eponymous". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  7. "eponymous". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  8. Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921), Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, accessed March 25th, 2011
  9. Harper, Douglas. "heroin". Online Etymology Dictionary .
  10. King-Seeley Thermos Co. v. Aladdin Indus., Inc., 321 F.2d 577 (2d Cir. 1963); see also this PDF Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine
  11. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2014). The Eponym Dictionary of Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN   978-1472905741.
  12. 1 2 3 Waddingham, Anne (28 August 2014). New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide. OUP Oxford. p. 105. ISBN   978-0199570027.
  13. Marthus-Adden Zimboiant (2013-08-05). No Grammar Tears 1. pp. 256–257. ISBN   9781491800751.
  14. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Merriam-Webster (1993), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN   978-0-87779-707-4
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Houghton Mifflin (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.), Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN   978-0-395-82517-4
  16. University of Chicago (1993). The Chicago Manual of Style (14th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. § 7.49, pp. 253–254. ISBN   0-226-10389-7.
  17. Lorraine Villemaire, Doreen Oberg (29 December 2005). Grammar and Writing Skills for the Health Professional (2nd Revised ed.). Delmar Cengage Learning. p. 167. ISBN   978-1401873745.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Style Guide. Preferred Usage
  19. Lisa Brown, Julie M. Wolf, Rafael Prados-Rosales & Arturo Casadevall (2015). "Through the wall: extracellular vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 13 (10): 620–630. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3480. PMC   4860279 . PMID   26324094.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  20. Kristen L. Mueller (12 June 2015). "Detecting Gram-negative bacteria". Science. 348 (6240): 1218. doi:10.1126/science.348.6240.1218-o.
  21. "Gram-positive". Dictionary.com.
  22. "Newtonian". Merriam-Wester.
  23. "New·ton". The American Heritage Dictionary.
  24. Iverson, Cheryl (editor) (2007), AMA Manual of Style (10 ed.), Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-517633-9 CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link), chapter 16: Eponyms.
  25. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) uses "cesarean section", while the also US-published Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary uses "caesarean". The online versions of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary and American Heritage Dictionary list "cesarean" first and other spellings as "variants", an etymologically anhistorical position.
  26. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Elsevier (2007), Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (31st ed.), Philadelphia: Elsevier, ISBN   978-1-4160-2364-7
  27. Merriam-Webster (2003), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN   978-0-87779-809-5