Eponym

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An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named. The adjectives derived from eponym include eponymous and eponymic. For example, Elizabeth I of England is the eponym of the Elizabethan era, and "the eponymous founder of the Ford Motor Company" refers to Henry Ford. Recent usage, especially in the recorded-music industry, also allows eponymous to mean "named after its central character or creator". [1] [2] [3] [4]

Contents

The mythological Greek hero Orion is the eponym of the constellation Orion, shown here, and thus indirectly of the Orion spacecraft. Orion Head to Toe.jpg
The mythological Greek hero Orion is the eponym of the constellation Orion, shown here, and thus indirectly of the Orion spacecraft.

History

Periods have often been named after a ruler or other influential figure:

Trends

Other eponyms

Orthographic conventions

Capitalized versus lowercase

For examples, see the comparison table below.

Genitive versus attributive

National varieties of English

Comparison table of eponym orthographic styling

Prevalent dictionary styling todayStylings that defy prevalent dictionary stylingComments
Addison disease [24] *Addison Disease
*addison disease
 
Allemann syndrome [24] *Allemann Syndrome
*allemann syndrome
 
cesarean [only] [24]
cesarean also cesarian [but no cap variant] [12]
cesarean, "often capitalized" or caesarean also cesarian or caesarian [25]
 More information on this word's orthographic variants is at Wiktionary: caesarean section.
darwinian [only] [24]
darwinism [only] [24]
Darwinian [only] [12] [13]
Darwinism [only] [12] [13]
Darwinist [only] [12] [13]
  
diesel (n/adj/vi) [no cap variant] [12] [13]
and also
diesel-electric [12]
diesel engine [12] [13]
dieseling [12] [13]
dieselize, dieselization [12]
*Diesel engine
*Dieseling
*Dieselize, Dieselization
 
draconian [13]
draconian often Draconian [12]
  
eustachian [only] [24]
eustachian often Eustachian [12]
eustachian tube [only] [24]
eustachian tube often Eustachian tube [12]
eustachian tube or Eustachian tube [13]
*Eustachian Tube 
fallopian [only] [24]
fallopian often Fallopian [12]
fallopian tube [only] [24]
fallopian tube often Fallopian tube [12]
fallopian tube also Fallopian tube [13]
*Fallopian Tube 
Marxism [only] [12] [13]
Marxist [only] [12] [13]
*marxism
*marxist
 
mendelian [only] [24]  or Mendelian [only] [12]
mendelian inheritance [only] [24]  or Mendelian inheritance [only] [12]  
 but
Mendel's laws [12] [24]
*Mendelian Inheritance 
Newtonian [only] [12] [13] *newtonian 
parkinsonism [only] [12] [24]
parkinsonian [only] [12] [24]
parkinsonian tremor [24]
Parkinson disease [only] [24]
Parkinson's disease [only] [12]
*Parkinsonism
*Parkinsonian
*Parkinsonian tremor
*Parkinsonian Tremor
*Parkinson Disease
*Parkinson's Disease
 
quixotic [only] [12] [13] *Quixotic 
Roman numerals [13]
roman numerals [12]
 AMA Manual of Style lowercases the terms roman numerals and arabic numerals. MWCD enters the numeral sense under the headword Roman but with the note "not cap" on the numeral sense. [12]

Lists of eponyms

By person's name

By category

See also

References

  1. "eponym". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  2. "eponym". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  3. "eponymous". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com LLC. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  4. "eponymous". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  5. "Orion Spacecraft - Nasa Orion Spacecraft". aerospaceguide.net.
  6. Bayer Co. v. United Drug Co., 272 F. 505 (S.D.N.Y. 1921), Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University, accessed March 25th, 2011
  7. "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com.
  8. King-Seeley Thermos Co. v. Aladdin Indus., Inc., 321 F.2d 577 (2d Cir. 1963); see also this PDF Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine
  9. Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2014). The Eponym Dictionary of Birds. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN   1472905741.
  10. 1 2 3 Waddingham, Anne (28 August 2014). New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide. OUP Oxford. p. 105. ISBN   978-0199570027.
  11. Marthus-Adden Zimboiant. No Grammar Tears 1. pp. 256–257. ISBN   9781491800751.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Merriam-Webster (1993), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN   978-0-87779-707-4
  13. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Houghton Mifflin (2000), The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (4th ed.), Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, ISBN   978-0-395-82517-4
  14. University of Chicago (1993). The Chicago Manual of Style (14th ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. § 7.49, pp. 253–254. ISBN   0-226-10389-7.
  15. Lorraine Villemaire, Doreen Oberg (29 December 2005). Grammar and Writing Skills for the Health Professional (2nd Revised ed.). Delmar Cengage Learning. p. 167. ISBN   978-1401873745.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal Style Guide. Preferred Usage
  17. Lisa Brown, Julie M. Wolf, Rafael Prados-Rosales & Arturo Casadevall (2015). "Through the wall: extracellular vesicles in Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 13: 620–630. doi:10.1038/nrmicro3480. PMC   4860279 . PMID   26324094.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  18. Kristen L. Mueller (12 June 2015). "Detecting Gram-negative bacteria". Science. 348 (6240): 1218. doi:10.1126/science.348.6240.1218-o.
  19. "Gram-positive". Dictionary.com.
  20. "Newtonian". Merriam-Wester.
  21. "New·ton". The American Heritage Dictionary.
  22. Iverson, Cheryl (editor) (2007), AMA Manual of Style (10 ed.), Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-517633-9 CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link), chapter 16: Eponyms.
  23. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM) uses "cesarean section", while the also US-published Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary uses "caesarean". The online versions of the Merriam-Webster Dictionary and American Heritage Dictionary list "cesarean" first and other spellings as "variants", an etymologically anhistorical position.
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Elsevier (2007), Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary (31st ed.), Philadelphia: Elsevier, ISBN   978-1-4160-2364-7
  25. Merriam-Webster (2003), Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.), Springfield, Massachusetts, USA: Merriam-Webster, ISBN   978-0-87779-809-5