Vietnamese people

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Vietnamese people (người Việt)
Kinh people (người Kinh)
Aodai-nonla.jpg
Kinh girls in traditional áo dài dress and nón lá hat
Total population
c. 89 million
Regions with significant populations
Flag of Vietnam.svg  Vietnam 82,085,826 (2019) [1]
Flag of the United States.svg  United States 2,067,527 (2016) [2]
Flag of Cambodia.svg  Cambodia 400,000-1,000,000 [3] [4] [5]
Flag of Japan.svg  Japan 420,415 (2020) [6]
Flag of France.svg  France ~400,000 [7] [8]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg  Taiwan 320,000 (2019) [9]
Flag of Australia (converted).svg  Australia >300,000 (2018) [10] [11]
Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg  Canada 240,514 [12]
Flag of South Korea.svg  South Korea 224,518 (2020) [13]
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 188,000 (2019) [14]
Flag of Russia.svg  Russia 150,000 [15]
Flag of Laos.svg  Laos 122,000 [16]
Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand 100,000 [17]
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg  Czech Republic 90,000 [18]
Flag of Malaysia.svg  Malaysia 80,000 [19]
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 60,000-80,000 [20]
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom 50,000-100,000 [21]
Flag of Angola.svg  Angola 45,000 [22]
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 10,000-50,000 [23] [24]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  Mainland China 36,205 [lower-alpha 1] [25]
Flag of the Philippines.svg  Philippines 27,600[ citation needed ]
Flag of Norway.svg  Norway 27,366 (2020) [26]
Flag of the Netherlands.svg  Netherlands 23,488 (2019) [27]
Flag of Sweden.svg  Sweden 20,676 (2020) [28]
Flag of Macau.svg  Macau ~20,000 (2018) [29]
Flag of the United Arab Emirates.svg  United Arab Emirates 20,000 [30]
Flag of Saudi Arabia.svg  Saudi Arabia 20,000 [31] [32] [33]
Flag of Denmark.svg  Denmark 15,953 (2020) [34]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg  Belgium 14,000 (2012) [35]
Flag of Finland.svg  Finland 12,051 [36]
Flag of Singapore.svg  Singapore 12,000 (2012) [37]
Flag of Cyprus.svg  Cyprus >12,000 [38] [39]
Flag of Slovakia.svg  Slovakia 5,565-20,000 [40] [41]
Flag of New Zealand.svg  New Zealand 10,086 (2018) [42]
Flag of Switzerland.svg   Switzerland ~8,000 [43]
Flag of Hungary.svg  Hungary 7,304 (2016) [44]
Flag of Italy.svg  Italy 5,000 [45]
Flag of Austria.svg  Austria 5,000 [46]
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 3,000 [47]
Flag of Bulgaria.svg  Bulgaria 2,500 [48]
Languages
Vietnamese
Religion
Predominantly Vietnamese folk religion syncretized with Mahayana Buddhism. Minorities of Christians (mostly Roman Catholics) and other groups. [49]
Related ethnic groups
Other Vietic groups
(Gin, Muong, Chứt, Thổ peoples)

Kinh people or Vietnamese people (Vietnamese: người Kinh, Chữ Nôm: 𠊛京) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to the region of Northern Vietnam. They speak the Vietnamese language, the most widely spoken Austroasiatic language. Although Vietnamese language origins are Austroasiatic (with many shared similarities with Muong), its vocabulary was also influenced by Chinese and French.

Contents

Vietnamese Kinh people account for over 85.32% of the population of Vietnam in the 2019 census, and are officially known as Kinh (người Kinh) to distinguish them from the myriad other ethnic groups within the country, such as the Hmong or Muong. The earliest recorded name for the ancient Vietnamese people in Vietnamese history books is Lạc or Lạc Việt .

The Viet are one of the 4 main groups of Vietic speakers in Vietnam, the others being the Muong, Thổ and Chứt.

Terminology

The term "Việt" (Yue) (Chinese : ; pinyin : Yuè; Cantonese Yale : Yuht; Wade–Giles : Yüeh4; Vietnamese : Việt ) in Early Middle Chinese was first written using the logograph "戉" for an axe (a homophone), in oracle bone and bronze inscriptions of the late Shang dynasty (c.1200 BC), and later as "越". [50] At that time it referred to a people or chieftain to the northwest of the Shang. [51] In the early 8th century BC, a tribe on the middle Yangtze were called the Yangyue, a term later used for peoples further south. [51] Between the 7th and 4th centuries BC Yue/Việt referred to the State of Yue in the lower Yangtze basin and its people. [50] [51] From the 3rd century BC the term was used for the non-Chinese populations of south and southwest China and northern Vietnam, with particular ethnic groups called Minyue, Ouyue, Luoyue (Vietnamese: Lạc Việt), etc., collectively called the Baiyue (Bách Việt, Chinese : 百越 ; pinyin : Bǎiyuè; Cantonese Yale : Baak Yuet; Vietnamese : Bách Việt;"Hundred Yue/Viet"; ). [50] [51] The term Baiyue/Bách Việt first appeared in the book Lüshi Chunqiu compiled around 239 BC. [52] By the 17th and 18th centuries AD, educated Vietnamese apparently referred to themselves as nguoi Viet (Viet people) or nguoi nam (southern people). [53]

Beginning in the 10th and 11th centuries, a strand of Proto-Viet-Muong with influence from Annamese Middle Chinese started to become what is now the Vietnamese language. Its speakers called themselves the "Kinh" people, meaning people of the "capital" in modern Hanoi. Other variants of Proto-Viet-Muong were driven to the lowlands by the Kinh and were called Trai, or "outpost" people," by the 13th century. These became the modern Muong people. [54] However according to Victor Lieberman, nguoi kinh may be a colonial-era term for Vietnamese speakers inserted anachronistically into translations of pre-colonial documents. [55] However, historic and modern Chữ Nôm scripture uses the Han character '京', pronounced "Jing" in Mainland Mandarin, "Kinh" with Sino-Vietnamese pronunciation.

Origins

Written history first refers to the ancient Vietnamese people simply as the Lạc or Lạc Việt, and the country of Vietnam as Văn Lang. Archaeological evidence has been found of the Đông Sơn culture (also known as Lac Society), a culture that existed during the Bronze Age.[ citation needed ]

The Vietnamese or Kinh people are an Austroasiatic people who lived originally in the area of present-day northern Vietnam and southeastern China. [56] From there, several Austroasiatic tribes migrated to other parts of Vietnam, as well as the rest of Southeast Asia and parts of present-day Indonesia and eastern India. Genetic analysis shows that they are a Southern Mongoloid population closely related to other Southeast Asians. [57]

In a 2013 book, professor emeritus of history at UCLA in Los Angeles, California, United States, Damodar R. SarDesai claimed that Vietnamese people were thought for a long time to have come from Tibet, more modern hypotheses seem to indicate that today's Vietnamese people are a mixture of northern and southern mongoloid groups, being a mix of the Yue (Viet) people and some Austronesian peoples (see Cham people). According to SarDesai, in around the 3rd century BCE, Viet people moved into the Red River Delta in present-day northern Vietnam, and Tai-speaking people, arriving from the coastal areas of eastern China absorbed, assimilated and influenced the early Vietnamese people. [58] [59]

History

According to legend, the first Vietnamese descended from the dragon lord Lạc Long Quân and the fairy Âu Cơ. They married and had one hundred eggs, from which hatched one hundred children. Their eldest son ruled as the Hùng king.

Pre-history

Historians believe that the earliest Vietnamese people gradually moved from the Indonesian archipelago through the Malay Peninsula and Thailand until they settled on the edges of the Red River in the Tonkin Delta.[ citation needed ] Archaeologists follow a path of stone tools from the Late Pleistocene across Java, Malaysia, Thailand and north to Myanmar. These stone tools are thought to be the first human tools used in Southeast Asia. Archaeologists believe that at this time the Himalayas, a chain of mountains in northern Myanmar and China, created an icy barrier which isolated the people of Southeast Asia. During the Last Glacial Maximum (25,000-18,000 BCE), ocean levels dropped significantly. This resulted in the exposure of the shallow areas surrounding the coasts and islands of Southeast Asia - today known as the Sunda Shelf.

It is generally thought[ citation needed ] that the exposed Sunda Shelf looked like a giant salt plain, and that perhaps people ventured out across this area to settle on other coasts or islands. Later, when the glaciers melted, the Sunda Shelf again disappeared under water. Because it is a relatively shallow body of water, it has always provided a safe area for traders and travelers in small boats to pass safely without the threat of high or choppy seas. In this way, the geography of the area has had a lot to do with the way in which cultures developed.[ citation needed ] As the map indicates, outside the Sunda Shelf are deep ocean basins which were not often crossed until heavier and wider Chinese vessels (massive vessels from the Song dynasty (960-1279), which dwarfed later European man-of-war sailing ships) could traverse these deep and sometimes dangerous seas.[ citation needed ]

As the glaciers melted and the seas near these coasts rose, traders and other travelers who wanted to migrate to other areas, or perhaps to proselytize religion, used boats as transport. For the next 4,000 years, until 8000 BCE, people also moved across the mainland of Southeast Asia towards the Tonkin Delta, some stopping and settling along the way. Eventually, the descendants of these migratory peoples entered the Neolithic Age (from around 8000-800 BCE), when humans started to use simple stone tools. Remains of these people and the Hoabinhian culture have been found in the Hòa Bình Caves along the Red River and in the Tonkin Delta. In the Middle Neolithic Period (2500–2000 BCE), more people appeared in the area of present-day Vietnam and settled at another location called Bắc Sơn, in a central area of the Tonkin Delta. These people were probably somewhat taller and lighter-skinned than the Hoabinhian negritos; they excelled in the art of basket weaving as well as in the manufacturing and use of polished double-edged stone tools.

Early Vietnamese civilization

Map of Van Lang, 500 BC World 500 BCE showing Van Lang.png
Map of Văn Lang, 500 BC

Sometime after the advent of the societies found at Hòa Bình and Bắc Sơn, another group of people developed a culture in what is modern Nghệ An Province, where an aspect of their religion was manifested in large mounds of mollusk shells which had been collected from the Red River Delta. Bodies had been buried under these piles of shells in a seated position with bent knees - in the same position as many buried bodies found throughout Indonesia and the Philippines. This signifies to archaeologists that these early people had an advanced society based on fishing and that their religion was oriented toward the sea. At a location further south of the Tonkin Delta, in the central region of Vietnam's coast, remains of another culture have been found at Sa Huỳnh. The Sa Huỳnh culture existed from about 4000 to 1000 BCE. Tools, ornamental beads, and funerary jars have also been found at these archaeological sites. These jars were usually located at the water's edge and probably signified a dead person's journey out to sea.

Throughout Southeast Asia, the Neolithic Period can be considered the period in which organized societies developed. During this period the Vietnamese people spread across a large area from the foothills of the Annamite Range to the eastern coast of Northern Vietnam. It is thought that they lived in small communities with groups of extended families living in a simple communal way. The growing of rice, their staple food, had developed into two distinct methods, shifting cultivation, done on a dry field, usually in upland areas, and wet rice cultivation, which involved the construction of dikes around rivers that collected water into knee-deep ponds in which the rice was grown.

Prehistoric mythology

The movement and changing cultures of early Vietnam are explained through myths which give historians insight into what might have happened in the Dong Son era. The most well-known origin myth says the first Vietnamese people originated from the marriage of a dragon father and a fairy mother who had 100 sons. Because the dragon was a water creature and the fairy was a land creature, they decided they could no longer stay together. The fairy mother took 50 sons to the highlands, and the dragon father took 50 sons to the coast. One of the sons who went with the dragon father became the founder of the Hung Dynasty which is thought to have existed from as early as 2769 BC until 100 AD. The 50 sons who went to the coast are considered to be the people of the Lac Kingdom. According to historians and archaeologists, the Lac people were coastal people who had developed a sophisticated wet rice agricultural society from as early as 1500 BC. The Hungs, as depicted in the mythology, were mountain people who are believed to have had a reciprocal agreement with the Lac Kingdom so that the Hungs protected the Lacs from aggressive mountain groups in return for rice and other crops grown on the coastal plains of the Red River. These mythological stories, which in many cases can be matched with archaeological remains, tell of the joining of fire and water, or the earth people and the water people. The joining of these two elements has both historical and religious meaning. [60] Many historians believe that the original people of Vietnam came both overland and across the water bringing different cultures, languages, and types of people together in the Tonkin Delta. Some historians believe that the water god of the Dong Son people was the frog, which might explain the many frogs found on the Dong Son drums and might indicate that the first Dong Son people arrived in Vietnam by sea. Later this symbol was changed to the dragon following Chinese mythology. These origin myths were not written down by the Vietnamese people until about the 13th century AD, long after the Vietnamese had been colonized by the Chinese. [61]

Rickshaw in Hanoi in the 19th century Hanoi conducteur de pp.jpg
Rickshaw in Hanoi in the 19th century

Origin myths also show how the early Vietnamese people saw themselves in terms of their environment. Since water and sun were the most important elements of nature, they were incorporated into their mythology in a way which gave the people and the elements a common origin. Much of early Vietnamese religion involved nature and human relationships with their surroundings. The early Vietnamese people compared the soil, the water, and the sun to God in animism. In these elements there was energy which benefited the people and the greater power to help or to destroy. At times this power was compared to that of a child who may cause great destruction without even realizing it. In the earliest times people believed in ghosts and spirits which were thought to dwell in every tree, stone, mountain, cloud, stream, and animal. Rocks and mountains were thought to be able to multiply. These spirits were said to be the wandering souls of the dead, the ancestors of the people who had settled nearby. This type of religion is known as an ancestor cult. Because the ancestor spirits were the medium between living people and the greater forces of nature, they had to be honored in rituals and sacrifices in order to maintain harmony between the elements, the spirits, the ancestors, and the people. Later, as the Vietnamese people were converted to Buddhism, Taoism, and then Confucianism by the Chinese, most villagers maintained these original beliefs—especially those involving ancestor cult and incorporated them into the new religions. This is an example of "creative borrowing" by a people while their own culture remains a strong underlying force. [62]

Dong Son period

Motif on Ngoc Lu drum Dong Son drums.jpg
Motif on Ngoc Lu drum

Before the Chinese actually annexed Vietnam, groups from present-day southern China began to move into the Tonkin Delta in order to start new lives after being forced to leave their homelands. Thus, around the 3rd century BC, changes in China began to heavily influence the Đông Sơn culture which was thriving in Vietnam. One important series of changes occurred along the Yangtze River in southern China. According to historians, in 333 BC, three cultures, the Shu, the Ch'u, and the Yueh began to fight among themselves, causing the Yueh to move south in small scattered kingdoms. At the same time, the central power of northern China, the Ch'in Dynasty, began to split so that a large number of princes and members of the aristocracy also moved south to start their own small kingdoms. Sino-Vietnamese 越 gave the name "Viet". The people of the Red River civilizations, also known as Lac society, began to feel the effects of these newcomers who gradually moved into their homelands. Many historians believe that it was not difficult for the Yueh to be incorporated into Lac society. However, the Au Lac lords began to fight with the Ch'in princes. While they were involved in this fighting, another group from the northwest, the Thuc (who had once been the Shu of the Yangtze River) took advantage of weakness in the area and asserted their authority. The legendary Cổ Loa Citadel, the remains of which can still be seen today. An Dương Vương's arrival explains the origins of the legendary Âu Lạc kingdom which is usually associated with the height of Đông Sơn culture. Vietnamese language may be representative of these influences.[ citation needed ]

Antiquity to modern period

Sung Chinese depiction of Tangut people (left) and Vietnamese people (right) Zhi Gong Tu (Chou Ying )3.jpg
Sung Chinese depiction of Tangut people (left) and Vietnamese people (right)
Aerial view of the Forbidden city of Hue in 1932 Hue, 1932 - La Ville Imperiale - Vue aerienne.jpg
Aerial view of the Forbidden city of Hue in 1932

Chinese histories refer to the early inhabitants of northern Vietnam as the Lac Viet, also shortened to Lac. [63] [64] In 258 BCE King An Dương founded the kingdom of Âu Lạc in the area of present-day northern Vietnam. In 180 BC, Zhao Tuo, a former Qin dynasty general from China, allied with the leaders of the Yue in the area of modern-day Guangdong and declared himself king of the Nanyue. He defeated King An Dương and combined Âu Lạc with his territories in southern China.

In 10th century the Vietnamese found their own state of Đại Việt. It was succeeded by Kingdom of Vietnam which was replaced by the French Indochina in 1887.

Southward migration

Vietnam today is characterized by two major river deltas, the Red River Delta in the north and the Mekong Delta in the south. In prehistoric times, before the ethnic Vietnamese moved southward, another Indianized kingdom formed along the coasts north of the Mekong Delta. It was composed of Malayo-Polynesian people and was highly influenced by Indian and Indonesian traders and religious people. This area developed into the kingdom of Champa which was similar to other Hindu-Buddhist civilizations which were being formed in Indonesia, Burma, Thailand, and Cambodia.

Map shows the migration of ethnic Vietnamese to the south (the Nam tien, 982-1757) Nam Tien.PNG
Map shows the migration of ethnic Vietnamese to the south (the Nam tiến, 982–1757)

Champa did not become an established kingdom until 192 AD after which time it became quite advanced with walled cities, books and archives, palaces, and monuments, many of which were built by slaves. Residents of Champa were able to grow two crops of rice per year with a sophisticated system of irrigation which was overseen by a water chief, someone selected to monitor the irrigation ditches and canals. While some cities in Champa remained centers of religion and trade, this kingdom was mostly made up of small territories in river valleys and on coastal plains, each with a local ruler who was seen by his subjects as a representative of the gods. The height of Cham civilization occurred during the 6th to 8th centuries. At this time, much trading occurred between the Chams and the highlanders who needed salt as well as with coastal villages in Vietnam and with China. Important trade items included elephant and rhinoceros tusks, cardamom, bee wax, aromatic woods and betel nut. However, when times were not going well in the small coastal city-states, the people turned to looting and pirating in other coastal towns of Champa and Vietnam. After centuries of these pirate raids, the Vietnamese began to fight back and eventually conquered Champa, but not before many aspects of Cham society were incorporated into the societies of Vietnam Cham society is organized in a cluster of City-States, not very different from ancient Greece, in contrast of centralized Vietnamese society influenced by China in the north.

Religions

Religion in Vietnam (2019) [1]

   Vietnamese folk religion or non religious (86.32%)
   Catholicism (6.1%)
   Buddhism (4.79%)
   Hoahaoism (1.02%)
   Protestantism (1%)
  Others (0.77%)

According to the 2019 Census, the religious demographics of Vietnam are as follows: [1]

It is worth noting here that the data is highly skewered, as a large majority of Vietnamese may declare themselves atheist yet practice forms of traditional folk religion or Mahayana Buddhism. [65]


Estimates for the year 2010 published by the Pew Research Center: [66]

  • Vietnamese folk religion, 45.3%
  • Unaffiliated, 29.6%
  • Buddhism, 16.4%
  • Christianity, 8.2%
  • Other, 0.5%

Diaspora

Traditional Vietnamese dress. Trang phuc Kinh.jpg
Traditional Vietnamese dress.
Vietnamese New Year parade, San Jose, California San Jose Tet parade, 2009.jpg
Vietnamese New Year parade, San Jose, California

Originally from northern Vietnam and southern China, the Vietnamese have conquered much of the land belonging to the former Champa Kingdom and Khmer Empire over the centuries. They are the dominant ethnic group in most provinces of Vietnam, and constitute a significant portion of the population of Cambodia.

Beginning around the sixteenth century, groups of Vietnamese migrated to Cambodia and China for commerce and political purposes. Descendants of Vietnamese migrants in China form the Gin ethnic group in the country and primarily reside in and around Guangxi Province. Vietnamese form the largest ethnic minority group in Cambodia, at 5% of the population. [67] Under the Khmer Rouge, they were heavily persecuted and survivors of the regime largely fled to Vietnam.

During French colonialism, Vietnam was regarded as the most important colony in Asia by the French colonial powers, and the Vietnamese had a higher social standing than other ethnic groups in French Indochina. [68] As a result, educated Vietnamese were often trained to be placed in colonial government positions in the other Asian French colonies of Laos and Cambodia rather than locals of the respective colonies. There was also a significant representation of Vietnamese students in France during this period, primarily consisting of members of the elite class. A large number of Vietnamese also migrated to France as workers, especially during World War I and World War II, when France recruited soldiers and locals of its colonies to help with war efforts in Metropolitan France. The wave of migrants to France during World War I formed the first major presence of Vietnamese people in France and the Western world. [69]

Congregation Of The Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri Congregation Of The Mother Coredemtrix.jpg
Congregation Of The Mother Coredemptrix in Carthage, Missouri

When Vietnam gained its independence from France in 1954, a number of Vietnamese loyal to the colonial government also migrated to France. During the partition of Vietnam into North and South, a number of South Vietnamese students also arrived to study in France, along with individuals involved in commerce for trade with France, which was a principal economic partner with South Vietnam. [69]

Forced repatriation in 1970 and deaths during the Khmer Rouge era reduced the Vietnamese population in Cambodia from between 250,000 and 300,000 in 1969 to a reported 56,000 in 1984. [70]

The Fall of Saigon and end of the Vietnam War prompted the start of the Vietnamese diaspora, which saw millions of Vietnamese fleeing the country from the new communist regime. Recognizing an international humanitarian crisis, many countries accepted Vietnamese refugees, primarily the United States, France, Australia and Canada. [71] Meanwhile, under the new communist regime, tens of thousands of Vietnamese were sent to work or study in Eastern Bloc counties of Central and Eastern Europe as development aid to the Vietnamese government and for migrants to acquire skills that were to be brought home to help with development. [72] However, after the fall of the Berlin Wall, a vast majority of these overseas Vietnamese decided to remain in their host nations.[ citation needed ]

DNA and genetics analysis

Anthropometry

Stephen Pheasant (1986), who taught anatomy, biomechanics and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, London, said that East Asian and Southeast Asian people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than European people and black African people. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of East Asian and Southeast Asian people is a difference that is most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, and least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people. [73] [74]

Nguyen Manh Lien (1998) of the Vietnam Atomic Energy Commission indicated the average sitting height to body height ratios of Vietnamese 17-19 year olds to be 52.59% for males and 52.57% for females. [75]

Neville Moray (2005) indicated that modifications in basic cockpit geometry are required to accommodate Japanese and Vietnamese pilots. Moray said that the Japanese have longer torsos and a higher shoulder point than the Vietnamese, but the Japanese have about similar arm lengths to the Vietnamese, so the control stick would have to be moved 8 cm closer to the pilot for the Japanese and 7 cm closer to the pilot for the Vietnamese. Moray said that, due to having shorter legs than Americans (of European and African descent), rudder pedals must be moved closer to the pilot by 10 cm for the Japanese and 12 cm for the Vietnamese. [76]

Craniometry

Ann Kumar (1998) said that Michael Pietrusewsky (1992) said that, in a craniometric study, Borneo, Vietnam, Sulu, Java, and Sulawesi are closer to Japan, in that order, than Mongolian and Chinese populations are close to Japan. In the craniometric study, Michael Pietrusewsky (1992) said that, even though Japanese people cluster with Mongolians, Chinese and Southeast Asians in a larger Asian cluster, Japanese people are more closely aligned with several mainland and island Southeast Asian samples than with Mongolians and Chinese. [77] [78]

Hirofumi Matsumura et al. (2001) and Hideo Matsumoto et al. (2009) said that the Japanese and Vietnamese people are regarded to be a mix of Northeast Asians and Southeast Asians who are related to today Austronesian peoples. But the amount of northern genetics is higher in Japanese people compared to Vietnamese who are closer to other Southeast Asians (Thai or Bamar people). [79] [80]

Bradley J. Adams, a forensic anthropologist in the Office of Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, said that Vietnamese people could be classified as Mongoloid. [81] [82]

A 2009 book about forensic anthropology said that Vietnamese skulls are more gracile and less sexually dimorphic than the skulls of Native Americans. [83]

Matsumura and Hudson (2005) said that a broad comparison of dental traits indicated that modern Vietnamese and other modern Southeast Asians derive from a northern source, supporting the immigration hypothesis, instead of regional continuity hypothesis, as the model for the origins of modern Southeast Asians. [84]

Genetics

Vietnamese show a close genetic relationship with other Southeast Asians. [85] The reference population for Vietnamese (Kinh) used in the Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 83% Southeast Asia & Oceania, 12% Eastern Asia and 3% Southern Asia. [86]

Jin Han-jun et al. (1999) said that the mtDNA 9‐bp deletion frequencies in the intergenic COII/tRNA Lys region for Vietnamese (23.2%) and Indonesians (25.0%), which are the two populations constituting Southeast Asians in the study, are relatively high frequencies when compared to the 9-bp deletion frequencies for Mongolians (5.1%), Chinese (14.2%), Japanese (14.3%) and Koreans (15.5%), which are the four populations constituting East Asians in the study. The study said that these 9-bp deletion frequencies are consistent with earlier surveys which showed that 9-bp deletion frequencies increase going from Japan to mainland Asia to the Malay Peninsula, which is supported by the following studies: Horai et al. (1987); Hertzberg et al. (1989); Stoneking & Wilson (1989); Horai (1991); Ballinger et al. (1992); Hanihara et al. (1992); and Chen et al. (1995). The Cavalli-Sforza's chord genetic distance (4D), from Cavalli-Sforza & Bodmer (1971), which is based on the allele frequencies of the intergenic COII/tRNALys region, between Vietnamese and other East Asian populations in the study, from least to greatest, are as follows: Vietnamese to Indonesian (0.0004), Vietnamese to Chinese (0.0135), Vietnamese to Japanese (0.0153), Vietnamese to Korean (0.0265) and Vietnamese to Mongolian (0.0750). [87]

Kim Wook et al. (2000) said that, genetically, Vietnamese people more probably clustered with East Asians of which the study analyzed DNA samples of Chinese, Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians rather than with Southeast Asians of which the study analyzed DNA samples of Indonesians, Filipinos, Thais and Vietnamese. The study said that Vietnamese people were the only population in the study's phylogenetic analysis that did not reflect a sizable genetic difference between East Asian and Southeast Asian populations. The study said that the likely reason for Vietnamese people more probably clustering with East Asians was genetic drift and distinct founder populations. The study said that the alternative reason for Vietnamese people more probably clustering with East Asians is a recent range expansion from South China. The study mentioned that the majority of its Vietnamese DNA samples were from Hanoi which is the closest region to South China. [88]

Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina, 1970 Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina 1970.jpg
Ethnolinguistic map of Indochina, 1970

Schurr & Wallace (2002) said that Vietnamese people display genetic similarities with peoples from Malaysia. The study said that the aboriginal groups from Malaysia, the Orang Asli, are somewhat genetically intermediate between Malay people and Vietnamese. The study said that mtDNA haplogroup F is present at its highest frequency in Vietnamese and a high frequency of this haplogroup is also present in the Orang Asli, a people with whom Vietnamese have a linguistic connection (Austroasiatic languages). [89]

Jung Jongsun et al. (2010) said that genetic structure analysis found significant admixture in "Vietnamese (or Cambodian) with unknown Southern original settlers." The study said that it used Cambodians and Vietnamese to represent "Southern people," and the study used Cambodia (Khmer) and Vietnam (Kinh) as its populations for "South Asia." The study said that Chinese people are located between Korean and Vietnamese people in the study's genome map. The study also said that Vietnamese people are located between Chinese and Cambodian people in the study's genome map. [90]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) did a principal component analysis using the NRY haplogroup distribution frequencies of 45 populations, and the second principal component showed a close affinity between Kinh and Vietnamese who were most likely Kinh with populations from mainland southern China because of the high frequency of NRY haplogroup O-M88. The study said that Kinh often have NRY haplogroup O-M7 which is the characteristic Chinese haplogroup. Out of the study's sample of seventy-six Kinh NRY haplogroups, twenty-three haplogroups (30.26%) were O-M88 and eight haplogroups (10.53%) were O-M7. The study said that, in northern Vietnam, it is suggested that there has been considerable Chinese assimilation through immigration into the Kinh people. [91]

A 2015 study revealed that Vietnamese (Kinh) test subjects showed more genetic variants in common with Chinese compared to Japanese. [92]

Sara Pischedda et al. (2017) stated that modern Vietnamese have a major component of their ethnic origin coming from present-day South China and a minor component from a Thai-Indonesian composite. The study said that admixture analysis indicates that Vietnamese Kinh have a major part which is most common in Chinese and two minor parts which have the highest prevalence in the Bidayuh of Malaysia and the Proto-Malay. The study said that multidimensional scaling analysis indicates that Vietnamese Kinh have a closeness to Malay people, Thai and Chinese, and the study said that Malays and Thai are the samples which could be admixed with Chinese in the Vietnamese gene pool. The study said that Vietnamese mtDNA genetic variation matches well with the pattern seen in Southeast Asia, and the study said that most Vietnamese people had mtDNA haplotypes that clustered in clades M7 (20%) and R9’F (27%) which are clades that also dominate maternal lineages in Southeast Asia more generally. [93]

Genome sequencing by Vietnamese researchers

Vinh S. Le et al. (2019) elucidated that Kinh and present‐day Southeast Asian (SEA) populations mainly originated from SEA ancestries, while Southern Han Chinese (CHS) and Northern Han Chinese (CHB) populations were mixed from both Southeast Asian and East Asian ancestries. The results are generally compatible with that from the 1KG project (2015 Genomes Project Consortium et al., 2015) and the HUGO Pan‐Asian SNP Consortium (Abdulla et al., 2009). The results from both phylogenetic tree reconstruction and PCA also reinforce the hypothesis that a population migration from Africa to Asia following the South‐to‐North route (Abdulla et al., 2009; Chu et al., 1998). Interestingly, it was discovered that Kinh and Thai people "had similar genomic structures and close evolutionary relationships". [94]

Y-chromosome DNA

Kayser et al. (2006) found four members of O-M95, four members of O-M122(xM134), one member of C-M217, and one member of O-M119 in a sample of ten individuals from Vietnam. [95]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) found that the NRY haplogroup profile for a sample of 76 Kinh in Hanoi, Vietnam was as follows: twenty-three (30.26%) belonged to O-M88, nine (11.84%) belonged to O-M95*(xM88), nine (11.84%) belonged to C-M217, eight (10.53%) belonged to O-M7, seven (9.21%) belonged to O-M134, seven (9.21%) belonged to O-P200*(xM121, M164, P201, 002611), five (6.58%) belonged to O-P203, two (2.63%) belonged to N-M231, two (2.63%) belonged to O-002611, two (2.63%) belonged to O-P201*(xM7, M134), one (1.32%) belonged to K-P131*(xN-M231, O-P191, Q-P36, R-M207), and one (1.32%) belonged to R-M17. [91]

Having analyzed the Y-DNA of another sample of 24 males from Hanoi, Vietnam, Trejaut et al. (2014) found that six (25.0%) belonged to O-M88, three (12.5%) belonged to O-M7, three (12.5%) belonged to O-M134(xM133), two (8.3%) belonged to O-M95(xM88), two (8.3%) belonged to C-M217, two (8.3%) belonged to N-LLY22g(xM128, M178), one (4.2%) belonged to O-PK4(xM95), one (4.2%) belonged to O-JST002611, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M133, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M159, one (4.2%) belonged to O-M119(xP203, M50), and one (4.2%) belonged to D-M15. [96]

A study published in 2010 reported the following data obtained through analysis of the Y-DNA of a sample from Vietnam (more precisely, Austro-Asiatic speakers from Southern Vietnam according to He Jun-dong et al.): 20.0% (14/70) O-M111, 15.7% (11/70) O-M134, 14.3% (10/70) O-JST002611, 7.1% (5/70) O-M95(xM111), 7.1% (5/70) Q-P36(xM346), 5.7% (4/70) O-M7, 5.7% (4/70) O-P203, 4.3% (3/70) C-M217, 2.9% (2/70) D-M15, 2.9% (2/70) N-LLY22g(xM178, M128), 2.9% (2/70) O-P197*(xJST002611, P201), 2.9% (2/70) O-47z, 1.4% (1/70) J2-M172, 1.4% (1/70) J-M304(xM172), 1.4% (1/70) O-P201(xM7, M134), 1.4% (1/70) O-P31(xM176, M95), 1.4% (1/70) O-M176(x47z), 1.4% (1/70) R-M17. [97]

The individuals who comprise the KHV (Kinh in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) sample of the 1000 Genomes Project have been found to belong to the following Y-DNA haplogroups: 26.1% (12/46) O-M88/M111, 13.0% (6/46) O-M7, 8.7% (4/46) O-JST002611, 8.7% (4/46) O-F444 (= O-M134(xM117)), 8.7% (4/46) O-M133, 6.5% (3/46) O-M95(xM88/M111), 4.3% (2/46) O-P203.1, 4.3% (2/46) O-F2159 (= O-KL2(xJST002611)), 4.3% (2/46) Q-Y529, 2.2% (1/46) O-CTS9996 (= O-K18(xM95)), 2.2% (1/46) O-CTS1754 (= O-M122(xM324)), 2.2% (1/46) O-F4124 (= O-N6 or O-P164(xM134)), 2.2% (1/46) C-F845, 2.2% (1/46) F-Y27277(xM427, M428), 2.2% (1/46) N1b2a-M1811, 2.2% (1/46) N1a2a-M128. [98] [99]

Mitochondrial DNA

Schurr & Wallace (2002) displayed the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 28 Vietnamese as follows: 17.9% belonged to B/B*, 32.1% belonged to F, 32.1% belonged to M and 17.9% belonged to other haplogroups. [89]

He Jun-dong et al. (2012) found that the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 139 Kinh was as follows: twenty-four (17.27%) belonged to B4, nineteen (13.67%) belonged to B5, one (0.72%) belonged to B6, four (2.88%) belonged to D, twenty-nine (20.86%) belonged to F, one (0.72%) belonged to G, seven (5.04%) belonged to M*, twenty-one (15.11%) belonged to M7, twelve (8.63%) belonged to M8, four (2.88%) belonged to M9a'b, one (0.72%) belonged to M10, two (1.44%) belonged to M12, one (0.72%) belonged to N*, two (1.44%) belonged to N9a, ten (7.19%) belonged to R9 and one (0.72%) belonged to W4. [91]

Sara Pischedda et al. (2017) found that the mtDNA haplogroup profile for a sample of 399 Kinh was as follows: 1% belonged to A, 23% belonged to B, 2% belonged to C, 4% belonged to D, 35% belonged to M (xD,C), 8% belonged to N(xB,R9'F,A) and 27% belonged to R9'F. [93]

Genetic contribution to Koreans

Bhak Jong-hwa, a professor in the biomedical engineering department at the Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), said that the ancient Vietnamese, which was a population that flourished with rapid agricultural development after 8,000 BC, slowly travelled north to ancient civilizations in the Korean Peninsula and the Russian Far East. Bhak said that Korean people were formed from the admixture of agricultural Southern Mongoloids from Vietnam who went through China, hunter-gatherer Northern Mongoloids in the Korean Peninsula and another group of Southern Mongoloids. Bhak said, "We believe the number of ancient dwellers who migrated north from Vietnam far exceeds the number of those occupying the peninsula," making Koreans inherit more of their DNA from southerners. [100] [101]

In later history, there was intermarriage between the aristocracies of Korea and Vietnam, especially with that involving an heir of the Lý Dynasty, Lý Long Tường, who was exiled to Goryeo and who was to become the progenitor of the Hwasan Lee clan that would take root on the Korean peninsula.

See also

Related Research Articles

Tonkin Historical name for Northern Vietnam

Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is an exonym referring to the northern region of Vietnam. During the 17th and 18th centuries, this term referred to the domain Đàng Ngoài under Trịnh lords' control, including both the Northern and Thanh-Nghệ regions, north of the Gianh River. From 1884 to early 1945, this term was used for the French protectorate of Tonkin, composed of only the Northern region.

Nùng people

The Nùng are a Central Tai ethnic group living primarily in northeastern Vietnam and southwestern Guangxi. The Nùng sometimes call themselves as Tho, which literally means autochthonous. Their ethnonym is often mingled with that of the Tày as Tày-Nùng.

Overseas Vietnamese Diaspora community of Kinh people

Overseas Vietnamese refers to Vietnamese people who live outside Vietnam. There are approximately 4.5 million overseas Vietnamese, the largest community of whom live in the United States. Most overseas Vietnamese left Vietnam as economic and political refugees after the 1975 fall of Saigon and the North Vietnamese takeover of the formerly pro-American South Vietnam.

Hồng Bàng dynasty legendary, semi-mythical period in Vietnamese historiography

The Hồng Bàng period, also called the Hồng Bàng dynasty, was a legendary, semi-mythical period in Vietnamese historiography, spanning from the beginning of the rule of Kinh Dương Vương over the state of Văn Lang in 2879 BC until the conquest of the state by An Dương Vương in 258 BC.

Haplogroup M (mtDNA)

Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. An enormous haplogroup spanning all the continents, the macro-haplogroup M, like its sibling the macro-haplogroup N, is a descendant of the haplogroup L3.

Haplogroup B (mtDNA)

In human mitochondrial genetics, haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.

Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. The clade is most common in East Asia and Southeast Asia. It has not been found among Native Americans.

Haplogroup N (mtDNA)

Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) clade. A macrohaplogroup, its descendant lineages are distributed across many continents. Like its sibling macrohaplogroup M, macrohaplogroup N is a descendant of the haplogroup L3.

Haplogroup D1 or D-M174 is a subclade of Haplogroup D-CTS3946. This haplogroup is found primarily in East Asia and the Andaman Islands, though it is also found regularly with low frequency in Central Asia and Southeast Asia.

Haplogroup O-M175

Haplogroup O, also known as O-M175, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is primarily found among populations in Southeast and Northeast Asia. It also is found in various percentages of populations of the Russian Far East, South Asia, Central Asia, Caucasus, Crimea, the Middle East, Oceania, Madagascar, and the Comoros. Haplogroup O is a primary descendant of haplogroup NO-M214.

In human population genetics, haplogroups define the major lineages of direct paternal (male) lines back to a shared common ancestor in Africa. Haplogroup O-M122 is an Eastern Eurasian Y-chromosome haplogroup. The lineage ranges across Southeast Asia and East Asia, where it dominates the paternal lineages with extremely high frequencies. It is also significantly present in Central Asia, especially among the Naiman tribe of Kazakhs.

The Mnong language (Bunong:ឞូន៝ង) belongs to the Austro-asiatic language family. It is spoken by the different groups of Mnong in Vietnam and a Pnong group in Cambodia.

In human genetics, Haplogroup O-M268, also known as O1b, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-M268 is a primary subclade of haplogroup O-F265, itself a primary descendant branch of Haplogroup O-M175.

Haplogroup C-M217 Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

Haplogroup C-M217, also known as C2, is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. It is the most frequently occurring branch of the wider Haplogroup C (M130). It is found mostly in Central Asia, Eastern Siberia and significant frequencies in parts of East Asia and Southeast Asia including some populations in the Caucasus, Middle East, South Asia. It is found in a much more widespread areas with a low frequency of less than 2%.

Haplogroup O-K18 also known as O-F2320 and Haplogroup O1b1, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup O-K18 is a descendant branch of Haplogroup O-P31. Based on its disjunct distribution, O-K18 can be further divided into south subclade O1b1a1-PK4 and north subclade O1b1a2-PAGE59. O-PAGE59 is widely distributed in East Asia, whereas O-PK4 is more frequent in South China and Southeast Asia. O-PK4 is best known for the high frequency of its O-M95 subclade among populations of Southeast Asia and among speakers of Austroasiatic languages in South Asia.

Y-DNA haplogroups in populations of East and Southeast Asia

The tables below provide statistics on the human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups most commonly found among ethnolinguistic groups and populations from East and South-East Asia.

Tai peoples Descendants of speakers of a common Tai language

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Haplogroup O-M117

Haplogroup O2a2b1a1-M117 is a subclade of O2a2b1-M134 that occurs frequently in China and in neighboring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, and Korea, especially among Sino-Tibetan language speaking people.

The FULRO insurgency against Vietnam was waged by the United Front for the Liberation of Oppressed Races against the South and North Vietnamese governments and the unified Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The FULRO insurgents represented the interests of minority Muslim and Hindu Cham, Christian Montagnards, and Buddhist Khmer Krom against the ethnic Kinh Vietnamese. They were supported and equipped by China and Cambodia according to those countries' interests in the Indochina Wars.

Genetic history of East Asians Genetic history of East Asian peoples

The article genetic history of East Asians explains the genetic makeup of the East Asian peoples.

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