Preveza

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Preveza

Πρέβεζα
Preveza Greece from above dsc06080.jpg
Preveza from the air. The cape of Actium and the airport can be seen in the lower right.
Flag of Preveza.svg
Flag
Greece location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Preveza
Location within the region
2011 Dimos Prevezas.png
Coordinates: 38°57′N20°44′E / 38.950°N 20.733°E / 38.950; 20.733 Coordinates: 38°57′N20°44′E / 38.950°N 20.733°E / 38.950; 20.733
Country Greece
Administrative region Epirus
Regional unit Preveza
Government
  MayorNikos Georgakos
Area
  Municipality380.5 km2 (146.9 sq mi)
  Municipal unit66.8 km2 (25.8 sq mi)
Elevation
8 m (26 ft)
Population
 (2011) [1]
  Municipality
31,733
  Municipality density83/km2 (220/sq mi)
  Municipal unit
22,853
  Municipal unit density340/km2 (890/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Prevezian
Community
[1]
  Population20,795 (2011)
Time zone UTC+2 (EET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
481 00
Area code(s) 26820
Vehicle registration ΡΖ
Website http://www.dimosprevezas.gr

Preveza (Greek : Πρέβεζα, pronounced  [ˈpreveza] ) is a town in the region of Epirus, northwestern Greece, located at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. It is the capital of the regional unit of Preveza, which is part of the region of Epirus. The Aktio-Preveza Immersed Tunnel – the first and so far only undersea tunnel in Greece – was completed in 2002 and connects Preveza to Aktio in western Acarnania in Aetolia-Acarnania. The ruins of the ancient city of Nicopolis lie 7 kilometres (4 miles) north of the city.

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Epirus (region) Place in Epirus and Western Macedonia, Greece

Epirus, is a traditional geographic and modern administrative region in northwestern Greece. It borders the regions of West Macedonia and Thessaly to the east, West Greece to the south, the Ionian Sea and Ionian Islands to the west and Albania to the north. The region has an area of about 9,200 km2 (3,600 sq mi). It is part of the wider historical region of Epirus, which overlaps modern Albania and Greece but lies mostly within Greek territory.

Greece republic in Southeast Europe

Greece, officially the Hellenic Republic, also known as Hellas, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2018; Athens is the nation's capital and largest city, followed by Thessaloniki.

Contents

Origin of the name

Despite the three views which have been presented by the academic society on the origin of the name "Preveza", the most accepted view is that Preveza means Passage, and that the word reached this form from the Slavic, through the Albanian language. [2]

Slavic languages languages of the Slavic peoples

The Slavic languages are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic, spoken during the Early Middle Ages, which in turn is thought to have descended from the earlier Proto-Balto-Slavic language, linking the Slavic languages to the Baltic languages in a Balto-Slavic group within the Indo-European family.

Albanian language Indo-European language

Albanian is an Indo-European language spoken by the Albanians in the Balkans and the Albanian diaspora in the Americas, Europe and Oceania. With about 7.5 million speakers, it comprises an independent branch within the Indo-European languages and is not closely related to any other language in Europe.

Max Vasmer Russian-German linguist

Max Julius Friedrich Vasmer was a Russo-German linguist. He studied problems of etymology in Indo-European, Finno-Ugric and Turkic languages and worked on the history of Slavic, Baltic, Iranian, and Finno-Ugric peoples.

Fyodor Uspensky Russian byzaninist

Fyodor Ivanovich Uspensky or Uspenskij was the preeminent Russian Byzantinist in the first third of the 20th century. His works are considered to be among the finest illustrations of the flowering of Byzantine studies in the Russian Empire.

Municipality

Overview of the port Preveza Banner.jpg
Overview of the port

The present municipality Preveza was formed at the 2011 local government reform by the merger of the following 3 former municipalities, that became municipal units (constituent communities in brackets): [6]

Louros Place in Greece

Louros is a town and a former municipality in the Preveza regional unit, Epirus, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Preveza, of which it is a municipal unit. The seat of the municipality was the small town of Louros. The area of the municipal unit is 176.075 km², with a population of 4,581 people (2011). The town and municipal unit are named after the river Louros which flows just south of the town. Until recently, the Louros valley was swampy, but in modern times the marshes were drained and are now used for the production of olives, oranges and tomatoes. Besides the town of Louros itself, the largest towns in the municipality are Néos Oropós, Stefáni (440), Vrysoúla (172), Áno Ráchi (127), and Áno Kotsanópoulo (159).

Skiadas is a small mountain village in the Preveza regional unit in northwestern Greece. It is part of the Louros municipal unit. It is built upon the mountain Baldenezi, at 500 meters above sea level.

Stefani is a village in the municipal unit of Louros, Preveza regional unit, Greece. In 2001 Stefani had a population of 513. Stefani is situated at the foot of steep hills, near the right bank of the river Louros. It is 4 km northeast of Louros (village), 8 km southwest of Filippiada and 25 km north of Preveza. The Greek National Road 21 passes south of the village.

The municipality has an area of 380.541 km2, the municipal unit 66.835 km2. [7]

History

Antiquity

The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro (1672); oil painting in National Maritime Museum of Greenwich, London (Director's Office) Castro Battle of Actium.jpg
The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro (1672); oil painting in National Maritime Museum of Greenwich, London (Director's Office)
The Battle of Preveza (1538) by Ohannes Umed Behzad, painted in 1866 Battle of Preveza (1538).jpg
The Battle of Preveza (1538) by Ohannes Umed Behzad, painted in 1866

In antiquity, the south-southwestern part of Epirus was inhabited by the Greek tribe of Cassopeans, part of a larger tribe, the Thesprotians. [8] Their capital city was Cassope (today, near the village of Kamarina). At the southernmost part of Epirus, king Pyrrhus founded, in 290 BC, the town of Berenikea or Berenike, named after his mother-in-law Berenice I of Egypt., [9] [10] Today, it is believed that Berenikea lies on the hills near the village of Michalitsi, following the excavations by Sotirios Dakaris in 1965. The Ionian Sea, near Berenikea, was the site of the naval Battle of Actium, on 2 September 31 BC, in which Octavian's forces defeated those of Mark Antony and queen Cleopatra of Egypt. The ancient city of Nicopolis (Νικόπολις, "Victory City") was built, nearby, by Augustus to commemorate his victory. [11] The city is believed to have, at its peak, a population of 150,000. [12] In AD 90, Epictetus arrived at Nicopolis, after been banished by the Roman emperor Domitian, and established a school of philosophy. One of his students, Arrian, became a famous historian and recorded all of his works.[ citation needed ]

Medieval period

The city was first attested in the Chronicle of the Morea (1292). [13] However, Hammond places the foundation of Preveza much later, at the end of the 14th century, possibly by Albanians. [14] After 1204, it came under the Despotate of Epirus. It then came under Venetian rule until it was captured by the Ottomans in 1463.

First Ottoman period

The Ottomans refounded Preveza probably in 1477, with a subsequent strengthening of the fortifications in 1495. [15] The naval Battle of Preveza was fought off the shores of Preveza on 29 September 1538, where the Ottoman fleet of Hayreddin Barbarossa defeated a united Christian fleet under the Genoese captain Andrea Doria. This day is a Turkish Navy National Holiday, and some of today Turkish submarines called "Preveze".

Venetian intervention

The conquest of Preveza by unknown painter (17th century) The conquest of Preveza.jpg
The conquest of Preveza by unknown painter (17th century)
Preveza and other Venetian possessions of the Ionian Sea Ionian Sea. Venetian possessions.jpg
Preveza and other Venetian possessions of the Ionian Sea

Preveza was hotly contested in several Ottoman-Venetian Wars. In September 1684, at the early part of the Morean War, the Venetians, aided by Greek irregulars, crossed from the island of Lefkada (Santa Maura) and captured Preveza as well as Vonitsa, which gave them control of Acarnania – an important morale booster towards the main campaign in the Morea. [16] However, at the end of the war in 1699 Preveza was handed back to Ottoman rule. Venice captured Preveza again in 1717, during its next war with the Ottomans and was this time able to hold on to the town and fort it – a meager achievement in a war which otherwise went very badly for the Republic. Venetian rule would persist until the very end of the Venetian Republic itself in 1797. During this period, in 1779, the Orthodox missionary Kosmas visited Preveza where it is said he founded a Greek school, which would be the only school of the city during the 18th century. [17] At the end of the 18th century, Preveza became a transit center of trade with western Europe (particularly France), which resulted in the increase of its population to approximately 10,000–12,000. [18]

Year of French rule (1797)

The Venetian clock tower of the city 1750 Preveza The Venetian Clock.jpg
The Venetian clock tower of the city
Battle of Nicopolis
Part of French Revolutionary Wars (specifically related to French Campaign in Egypt and Syria)
Date12 October 1798
Location
Environs of Preveza, near the ruins of Nicopolis
Result Ottoman victory (Preveza was recaptured by Ottomans)
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg French Army
Flag of Greece (1821).svg Greek Civil Guard of Preveza and Souliotes
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ottoman Pashalik of Yanina
Commanders and leaders
Flag of France.svg General La Salchette
Flag of Greece (1821).svg Captain Christakis, commander of the Souliotes
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Ali Pasha Tepelena
Flag of the Ottoman Empire.svg Mukhtar Pasha
Strength
280 French Grenadiers
200 Preveza Civil Guards
60 Souliote warriors
7,000
Casualties and losses
Heavily decimated in battle and in the massacre which followed unknown

Following the Treaty of Campo Formio, where Napoleon Bonaparte decreed the final dissolution of the Venetian Republic, Preveza – like other Venetian possessions in Greece and Albania – was ceded to Revolutionary France. 280 French grenadiers arrived in Preveza under the commands of General La Salchette. The people of Preveza welcomed the French troops, and formed a pro-French civic militia.[ citation needed ] Around this same time the poet Rigas Feraios was combining support for the ideas of the French Revolution with calls for a Greek uprising against Ottoman rule. He was intercepted and killed by the Ottoman authorities when en route to meet Napoleon and directly ask for his help for the Greek cause.

Napoleon Bonaparte, however, focused his attention in another direction, launching the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria, placing France at war with the Ottoman Empire and giving little thought to the fate of the small Preveza garrison exposed on the edge of Ottoman territory. In October 1798, the local Ottoman governor Ali Pasha Tepelena – having great ambitions to make himself a semi-independent ruler – attacked Preveza with an overwhelming force. In the Battle of Nicopolis on 12 October 1798 the 7,000 Ottoman troops of Ali Pasha and his son Mukhtar completely overwhelmed the 280 French grenadiers and their local allies, the 200 Preveza Civil Guards and 60 Souliote warriors under Captain Christakis. Over the next two days, 13–14 October 1798, a major massacre of the French troops and the local Greek population which defended the city took place in Preveza and Port Salaora, on the Ambracian Gulf, starting before Ali Pasha entered Preveza on 13 October but also continuing in his presence. [19] On 14 October, Ali Pasha called on those citizens of Preveza who had escaped to the Acarnanian Mountains to return to the city, and declared that they would be in no danger. However, upon their return, 170 of them were executed by the sword at the Salaora Port Customs. [20] Many prisoners who survived the massacre died from the hardships on the road to Ioannina. In the grand return and reception held for his victorious troops, which Ali Pasha organized at Ioannina, surviving French and rebel prisoners were given the unpleasant role of walking at the head of the procession, holding the cut and salted heads of their companions, under the shouts and jeers of Ioannina's pro-Ottoman residents. From Ioannina, nine captured French grenadiers, and two officers were sent chained to Istanbul for questioning. One of them, Captain Louis-Auguste Camus de Richemont, was later released, possibly mediated by the mother of Napoleon Bonaparte, Maria Letizia Bonaparte, and eventually became a general. Some popularly circulating tales, of doubtful historical authenticity, link this incident with the origins of the Spoonmaker's Diamond, one of the most closely guarded treasures of Istanbul's Topkapı Palace.[ citation needed ]

"Lieutenant Richemont shakes down an Albanian horseman, during the battle of Nicopolis, in October 1798" by Felician Myrbach Myrbach 82 fp.jpg
"Lieutenant Richemont shakes down an Albanian horseman, during the battle of Nicopolis, in October 1798" by Felician Myrbach

Though Preveza would remain under Ottoman rule for more than a century, this event – both the short period of Greek militias active in the city and the shock of the massacre that followed – and the influence of the ideas of the French Revolution had a part in the development of Greek nationalism towards the Greek War of Independence, which broke out three decades later.

Second Ottoman period

A 1892 decree signed by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II which documents possession of a state farm in Preveza passing to the Sultan's ownership Decree signed by Ottoman Sultan.jpg
A 1892 decree signed by the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II which documents possession of a state farm in Preveza passing to the Sultan's ownership

From 1798 to 1820, Preveza was under the rule of the semi-independent Ali Pasha Tepelena. Following his death in 1822 at Ioannina, Preveza was more directly controlled from Istanbul. Preveza became the seat of a province (the Sanjak of Preveze) in 1863, until the year 1912 when the city joined Greece. In 1835, educational activity in the city revived with the foundation of a new Greek school, the Theophaneios, named after its sponsor, Anastassios Theophanis. In the following decades, this school became a centre of education in the surrounding area and in 1851 it also hosted a female and a secondary school. [21]

According to the Congress of Berlin in 1878, parts of southern Epirus, including Preveza, were to be ceded by the Ottoman Empire to the Kingdom of Greece. Under this context, five meetings were held in Preveza, between Greek and Ottoman representatives, but all of them failed to reach an agreement. [22] Even before negotiations started, the Ottoman side used a number of Albanian national figures for delaying purposes and appointed Abedin bey Dino, member of the League of Prizren and representative of the Albanian national movement, as Ottoman foreign minister. [23] Moreover, Abedin Dino managed to gather various Albanian personalities in Preveza, from all over Albania and Epirus, [24] who believed that the Ottomans will provide full support to the Albanian movement and were against annexation of Epirus to Greece. [25] [26] [27] [28] They also organized a meeting there in January 1879 [29] and on 28 February 1879, signed a petition with a threat to take arms to prevent an annexation of Preveza to Greece. [30] As a result of the unrest created, led by Abdyl Frashëri, another Albanian national figure, the local Ottoman governor was recalled. [31] Abedin Dino was also recalled from Preveza, while the recently arrived Albanians left the city and returned to their homelands. [32]

The discussions between the two sides continued latter in Constantinople, but the Ottoman side disagreed with the proposed border by using as an excuse the unrest created by Albanian representatives. [33] In March 1881, the Ottoman side proposed the cession of Thessaly and Arta regions, a proposal that ignored the Albanian positions, and was finally accepted by Greece, although most of Epirus was still outside Greece. [34] On the other hand, the Greek organisation, Epirote Society, founded at 1906 by members of the Epirote diaspora, Panagiotis Danglis and Spyros Spyromilios, aimed at the annexation of the region to Greece [35] by supplying local Greeks with firearms. [36]

From 1881 to 1912 the main sectors of the local economy witnessed dramatic decline and the port of the city lost most of its former commercial significance. However, education was still flourishing with two schools operating: one boys' and one girls' school. The school system of the city was primarily financed by Anastasios Theofanis, notable member of the diaspora. [37]

Annexation to Kingdom of Greece

Greek armed forces in Preveza during the First Balkan War at the castle of Saint Andrew St Andrews castle 1913.jpg
Greek armed forces in Preveza during the First Balkan War at the castle of Saint Andrew

The city of Preveza remained under Ottoman control until finally taken by the Greek Army on 21 October 1912, during the First Balkan War. The city was liberated after the Battle of Nicopolis, by the Greek forces under Colonel Papagiotis Spiliadis. A garrison of the 8th Infantry Division was stationed in the city by December. Later on in the same war, on 8 February 1913, the inhabitants of Preveza were involved in the first instance in world history of a pilot being shot down in combat. The Russian pilot N. de Sackoff, flying for the Greeks, had his biplane hit by ground fire following a bomb run on the walls of Fort Bizani near Ioannina. He came down near Preveza, and with the help of local townspeople repaired his plane and resumed his flight back to base. [38] In the following months there arrived in Preveza the famous Swiss photographer Frederic Boissonnas, and a lot of photographs from this period are available today. Preveza along with the rest of southern Epirus formally became part of Greece via the Treaty of London in 1913.

After the Balkan Wars the harbor of Preveza became a significant regional commercial center in western Greece. Moreover, local labor unions were created during the Interwar period. [37]

Second World War

Along with the rest of Greece, Preveza was occupied by Fascist Italy (1941–1943) and Nazi Germany (1943–1944) during World War II. After the departure of the Wehrmacht from Preveza, in September 1944, an episode of the Greek Civil War known as the Battle of Preveza took place, lasting for 16 days, between armed partisans of the right-wing EDES and the left-wing EAM-ELAS. The fights stopped after the Convention of Cazerta between Great Britain and the two main Greek resistance groups, EDES and ELAS.

Modern period

The port Port of Preveza 2013.jpg
The port
View of the promenade Promenade of Preveza, Greece.jpg
View of the promenade

Today Preveza is a commercial harbour and tourist hub, with a marina, 4 Museums, two cinemas, an open theatre, a music Hall (OASIS), many clubs, taverns and cafes, benefiting from its proximity to the nearby Aktion National Airport and the nearby island of Lefkada, a major tourist destination. There are in the city University of Financial (TEI) and Commercial Navy Academy. The Aktio-Preveza Immersed Tunnel, opened on 2002, is an important work of infrastructure for what has traditionally been a remote and underdeveloped region, and links Preveza to Actium (Greek : Άκτιο, Aktio) on the southern shore of the Ambracian Gulf, greatly shortening the distance of the trip to Lefkada.

Notable sights

Canoeing in Acheron river Acheron River's Canyon.png
Canoeing in Acheron river
Ancient Cassope Kassope 2016-05-09 12.50.33.jpg
Ancient Cassope
The Roman aqueduct of Nicopolis Roman aqueduct of Nikolpolis 5.jpg
The Roman aqueduct of Nicopolis

Notable natives and residents

Transport

Preveza is linked by road to Igoumenitsa and other coastal settlements through the E55 national road, and is also linked with other cities in Epirus such as Ioannina and Arta. The Aktio-Preveza Undersea Tunnel links Preveza by road to Aetolia-Acarnania in Central Greece. Preveza also has a small commercial and passenger port and is served by the nearby Aktion National Airport, which also serves the island of Lefkada.

Historical population statistics

YearCommunityMunicipal unitMunicipality
198113,624
199113,34116,886
200117,72419,605
201120,79522,85331,733

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Preveza is a founding member of the Douzelage, a unique town twinning association of 24 towns across the European Union. This active town twinning began in 1991 and there are regular events, such as a produce market from each of the other countries and festivals. [40] [41] Discussions regarding membership are also in hand with three further towns (Agros in Cyprus, Škofja Loka in Slovenia and Tryavna in Bulgaria).

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. 1 2 "Απογραφή Πληθυσμού - Κατοικιών 2011. ΜΟΝΙΜΟΣ Πληθυσμός" (in Greek). Hellenic Statistical Authority.
  2. It was only Panagiotis Aravantinos, an Epirotan scholar, who, in 1857, suggested the Italian origin of the name. Most later researchers accepted the view of Max Vasmer, Peter Soustal and Johannes Koder on the Slavic origin of the name, which arrived to its present form through the Albanian language, see Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin, 1941, p. 64, sv. Preveza.
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    Reproduced in his: Άπαντα, (in Greek), Preveza, 2012, pp. 47–52.
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    Alexis G. K. Savvides, The Turkish conquest of Preveza through the Short Chronicles, in the: Proceedings of the 1st International Symposium on the History of Preveza, (in Greek), Preveza, 1993, pp. 25–39.
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    Max Vasmer, Die Slaven in Griechenland, Berlin, 1941, p. 64, sv. Πρέβεζα.
  5. Panagiotis Aravantinos, Chronography of Epirus, (in Greek), Athens, 1857, vol. 2, p. 133, sv. Πρέβεζα.
  6. Kallikratis law Greece Ministry of Interior (in Greek)
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  9. Plutarch: Life of King Pyrrhus, Kaktos editions, Athens
  10. Green, Peter (1993). Alexander to Actium: the historical evolution of the Hellenistic age. Hellenistic culture and society. University of California Press. p. 123. ISBN   0-520-08349-0.
  11. Plutarch: Life of Marc Antony, vol.III
  12. Konstantinos Zachos: Ancient Nicopolis, The Greek Ministry of Culture, 2003
  13. Isager Jacob. Foundation and destruction, Nikopolis and Northwestern Greece. Danish Institute at Athens, 2001, ISBN   978-87-7288-734-0, p. 47.
  14. Hammond, Nicholas Geoffrey (1967). Epirus: The Geography, The Ancient Remains, The History and the Topography of Epirus and Adjacent Areas. Oxford University Press. p. 46. Retrieved 10 June 2010.
  15. Isager Jacob: "Foundation and destruction, Nikopolis and Northwestern Greece". Danish Institute at Athens, 2001, ISBN   978-87-7288-734-0, p. 60.
  16. Finlay, p. 209
  17. Sakellariou M.V.:"Epirus, 4,000 years of Greek history and civilisation", Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN   978-960-213-371-2, p. 306
  18. Mikropoulos A. Tassos:Elevating and Safeguarding Culture Using Tools of the Information Society: Dusty traces of the Muslim culture. Earthlab. ISBN   978-960-233-187-3, p. 313-315.
  19. Fleming Katherine Elizabeth: The Muslim Bonaparte: Diplomacy and Orientalism in Ali Pasha's Greece. Princeton University Press, 1999. ISBN   978-0-691-00194-4, p. 99
  20. Nikos Karabelas: "Foreign travellers in Preveza", Newspaper Kathimerini, 28 January 2001
  21. Sakellariou M. V.: "Epirus, 4,000 years of Greek history and civilisation". Ekdotikē Athēnōn, 1997, ISBN   978-960-213-371-2, p. 306
  22. Kondis, 1976, p. 21: "In February 1879, Greek and Turkish commissioners met at Preveza in accordance with the Congress recommendation; five meetings were held, but all failed completely."
  23. Kondis, 1976, p. 24: "Just before the start of the Berlin Conference the Porte, in order to use Albanian unrest for delaying purposes, appointed a member of the Albanian League, Abded Din Pasha Dino, a big landlord from Epirus, as foreign minister. In secret directives Abded Din Pasha promised to the Albanian League the support of the Porte in its conflict with Greece."
  24. Skoulidas p. 152: "Μεγάλη υπήρξε και η κινητοποίηση του Abeddin bey Dino, ο οποίος συγκέντρωσε στην Πρέβεζα αλβανούς ηγέτες από ολόκληρο τον αλβανικό και τον ηπειρωτικό χώρο, οι οποίοι διαμαρτύρονταν για την ενδεχόμενη προσάρτηση της Ηπείρου στην Ελλάδα. Υπήρξαν ελληνικές εκτιμήσεις, με τη συνδρομή του ιταλού υποπρόξενου Corti, ότι ο Abeddin βρισκόταν στα όρια της χρεοκοπίας και ότι θα μπορούσε να εξαγοραστεί με 100 χιλιάδες φράγκα, όμως οι σχετικές κινήσεις δεν προχώρησαν υπό το πνεύμα μήπως υπάρξουν επιπλοκές στις διαπραγματεύσεις, τις οποίες οι ελληνικές θεωρήσεις"
  25. Medlicott William Norton. Bismarck, Gladstone, and the Concert of Europe University of London, Athlone Press, 1956, p. 77
  26. Kondis, 1976, p. 24
  27. Jelavich, Barbara (1989). History of the Balkans: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Joint Committee on Eastern Europe Publication Series. Cambridge University Press. p. 365. ISBN   0-521-27458-3.
  28. Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878–1912. Princeton University Press. p. 70.
  29. Anamali, Skënder and Prifti, Kristaq. Historia e popullit shqiptar në katër vëllime. Botimet Toena, 2002, ISBN   99927-1-622-3.
  30. Gawrych, George (2006). The crescent and the eagle: Ottoman rule, Islam and the Albanians, 1874–1913. I.B.Tauris. p. 54. ISBN   1-84511-287-3.
  31. Ortayli, İlber (1998). Belleten. Belleten. 62. Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 153. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  32. Skoulidas, 2001, p. 157: "Η Υψηλή Πύλη, για άγνωστους λόγους που ενδεχομένως σχετίζονταν με την σημαντική κινητοποίηση και παρουσία Αλβανών στην Πρέβεζα που θα μπορούσε να καταστεί επικίνδυνη για τα συμφέροντα της, ανακάλεσε τον Abeddiii bey Dino στην Κων/λη και στη θέση του έστειλε τον Costali Pasha, προκαλώντας τη δυσαρέσκεια του Vessel bey Dino, του καδή της Πρέβεζας και άλλων αλβανών προκρίτων, οι οποίοι στη συνέχεια αποχώρησαν στις ιδιαίτερες πατρίδες τους..."
  33. Kondis, 1976, p. 25: "In the Berlin Conference as was the case at Preveza and Constantinople matters dragged out. Turkey was willing to make a small concession in Thessaly but she refused to cede any territory from the vilayet of Janina to Greece. Albanian unrest was again used as an excuse."
  34. Skoulidas, 2001, p. 164: "Η στάση της αυτοκρατορίας μεταβλήθηκε στα τέλη του Μαρτίου 1881 όταν και παρουσίασε μία νέα πρόταση: παραχώρηση στην Ελλάδα της Θεσσαλίας και του τμήματος του καζά Άρτας ανατολικά του Αράχθου, αλλά όχι μεγαλύτερο τμήμα από την Ήπειρο. Μία πρόταση, η οποία ήταν και αυτή που εφαρμόστηκε τελικά. Η μεταβολή της στάσεως που ακολούθησε η Οθωμανική αυτοκρατορία δεν μπορεί να εξηγηθεί χωρίς να ληφθεί υπόψη η μεταβολή στις σχέσεις Οθωμανών και Αλβανών, οι οποίες σταδιακά είχαν οδηγηθεί σε ρήξη."
  35. Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. p. 310. ISBN   978-960-213-371-2.
  36. Sakellariou, M. V. (1997). Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization. Ekdotike Athenon. p. 360. ISBN   978-960-213-371-2.
  37. 1 2 Πρέβεζα Η Καθημερινή, Επτά Ημέρες, 2001, p. 7-8
  38. Baker, David, "Flight and Flying: A Chronology", Facts On File, Inc., New York City, 1994, Library of Congress card number 92-31491, ISBN   0-8160-1854-5, page 61.
  39. Vitalis, Filaretos (1978). Ειδήσεις για τα σχολεία Πρεβέζης επί Τουρκοκρατίας (PDF). Πρεβεζάνικα Χρονικά (in Greek) (1). Municipal Library of Preveza. p. 9. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
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