Serbs of Montenegro

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Serbs of Montenegro
Срби у Црној Гори
Srbi u Crnoj Gori
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918).svg Serb-Montenegrin ethnic group flag.svg
Flags of the Serb community in Montenegro
Total population
Serbs in Montenegro: 178,110 (2011) [1]
Serbs-Montenegrins: 2,103 (2011)
Montenegrins-Serbs: 1,833 (2011)
Languages
Serbian
Religion
Serbian Orthodox Church
Related ethnic groups
Other South Slavs, especially Montenegrins [lower-alpha 1]

Serbs of Montenegro (Serbian : Срби у Црној Гори, romanized: Srbi u Crnoj Gori) or Montenegrin Serbs (Serbian : Црногорcки Cрби, romanized: Crnogorski Srbi), [lower-alpha 2] compose the second largest ethnic group in Montenegro (28.7% of country's population), [4] after the Montenegrins. Additional 0.64% of the population is made up of Serbs-Montenegrins (Срби-Црногорци / Srbi-Crnogorci) and Montenegrins-Serbs (Црногорци-Cрби / Crnogorci-Srbi). Serbs are a native population of Old Montenegro, Old Herzegovina, Brda, Raška, Bay of Kotor and Zeta.

Contents

History

During the Slavic migrations of the 6th and 7th centuries, the territory of modern-day Montenegro was settled by Serbs, who created several principalities in the region. [5] In southern parts of modern Montenegro, Principality of Duklja was formed, while western parts belonged to the Principality of Travunija. Northern parts of modern Montenegro belonged to the inner Principality of Serbia. All of those early polities were described in historiographical works of Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenetos (944-959). [6]

In 1018, all of Serbian principalities came under the supreme rule of the Byzantine Empire. [7] Regions of Duklja and Travunija broke away from Byzantine rule c. 1034-1042, under prince Stefan Vojislav, founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty. His son Mihailo I Vojislavljević (d. 1081) liberated Zahumlje and inner Serbia, creating a united Serbian polity and taking the title of king (c. 1077). [8] The reign of his son, King Constantine Bodin (d. 1100), was followed by a period of regional fragmentation, lasting throughout much of the 12th century. [7]

After 1180, all of what is today Montenegro came under the rule of Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the Nemanjić dynasty. The region of Zeta, formerly known as Duklja, became a crown land of the united Serbian state. [9] It was given to Vukan Nemanjić (d. 1208), the oldest son of Stefan Nemanja, and later to crown prince Stefan Radoslav, son of King Stefan Nemanjić, who succeeded his father as Serbian King in 1228. Thus it became a custom to grant the region to the heir of the throne or some other member of the royal family. In 1219, two dioceses of the Serbian Orthodox Church were created on the territory of modern-day Montenegro, Eparchy of Zeta centered in the Monastery of Holy Archangel Michael on Prevlaka, and Eparchy of Budimlja centered in the Monastery of Đurđevi Stupovi. Several other monasteries also date to this period, such as: Morača, Praskvica, Vranjina, and others. [10] Serbian Despotate is the last independent medieval Serb state and it included most of modern-day Montenegro.

Saint Sava, born in Duklja, was a Serbian prince and the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church Sveti Sava Kraljeva Crkva Detalj.jpg
Saint Sava, born in Duklja, was a Serbian prince and the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church

Montenegro saw independence under the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty, at first as a principality and then as a kingdom. Both the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Montenegro fought together as independent states in the Balkan Wars and in the First World War. At the end of the war in 1918 tensions arose between the two states as the Montenegrin Whites with Serbian support deposed Nicholas I of Montenegro and proclaimed Montenegro's unification with Serbia as part of Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed into Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929), while the Montenegrin Greens opposed it. The conflict led to the Christmas Uprising, in which the Whites with support from the Serbian army defeated the Greens. [11] During the period of the monarchic Yugoslavia, ruled by the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty, the tensions between Serbs and Croats were increasing and most of the Montenegrin politicians supported the Serbian proposed centralised state.[ citation needed ]

Serbian Kingdom from 1217 to 1346, led by the Nemanjic dynasty Balkans 1265.jpg
Serbian Kingdom from 1217 to 1346, led by the Nemanjić dynasty

During the Second World War both Serbs and Montenegrins were very active in both resistance movements, the Yugoslav Partisans and the Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland known as the Chetniks. At the end of the war the socialist Yugoslavia was created and the two became republics within the Yugoslav federation.

Yugoslav Partisan Milovan Đilas described himself as a Montenegrin Serb and described Montenegro as the spiritual homeland of Serbs, saying "I am not a Montenegrin because I am a Serb, but a Serb because I am a Montenegrin. We Montenegrins are the salt of the Serbs. All the strength of the Serbs is not here [in Montenegro] but their soul is." [12] Đilas also has said "The Montenegrins are, despite provincial and historical differences, quintessentially Serbs, and Montenegro the cradle of Serbian myths and of aspirations for the unification of Serbs.". [12]

After the secession of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia in 1991 and 1992, SR Montenegro held the Montenegrin referendum in 1992 which ended with a 95.96% of votes in favour for a state union with Serbia and with the changing of the socialist political system towards a multi-party one. The country was renamed Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In this period between 1990 and 1998 Montenegro was ruled by Momir Bulatović who had close relations with the Serbian president Slobodan Milošević and who was very supportive to keep close ties between the two republics within the state union. Montenegro was also included by the economic sanctions imposed on Serbia during the 1990s. During the 1999 NATO bombing of Yugoslavia both Serbia and Montenegro suffered the attacks of the NATO forces and several targets inside Montenegro were also bombarded. All this contributed to the rise in power in Montenegro of Milo Đukanović who was known to be much less sympathetic towards the Serbo-Montenegrin ties and would become an open supporter of the independence of Montenegro. In 2003, three years after the fall of Milošević in 2000, and after insisting on international diplomacy, the former Yugoslavia became known as the state union of Serbia and Montenegro. The process of becoming a single state union ironically lead to the separation of the two states - a change which was officiated by the referendum on Montenegrin independence on 21 May 2006. A total of 419,240 votes were cast, representing 86.5% of the total electorate. Of them, 230,661 votes or 55.5% were in favour of independence and 185,002 votes or 44.5% were against. [13]

Nemanjic dynasty Serbia in the late XIII century and contemporary borders of Montenegro. 1.King Milutin's Serbia; 2.King Dragutin's Serbia; 3.Contemporary Montenegro; Srbija na kraju XIII vijeka i sadasnje granice Crne Gore.svg
Nemanjić dynasty Serbia in the late XIII century and contemporary borders of Montenegro. 1.King Milutin's Serbia; 2.King Dragutin's Serbia; 3.Contemporary Montenegro;
Monasterio de Ostrog, Montenegro, 2014-04-14, DD 11.JPG
Rezevici Monastery 2a.png
Serbian Orthodox monasteries
Left: Ostrog, Right: Reževići Monastery

Since independence, the Montenegrin society has been divided among many issues. The independence supporters are advocating for the creation of a separate Montenegrin language, regarded before as a dialect of the Serbian language, including the creation of a new Montenegrin Cyrillic alphabet which shares the same letters with the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet except for the addition of two new letters. The Serb population of Montenegro is opposed to the idea of a linguistic separation, just as they are opposed to the separation of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church from the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The Montenegrin language lacks an ISO code, and the Montenegrin Orthodox church is canonically unrecognized.

In 2006, the NGO Serbian People's Council of Montenegro was created, headed by Momčilo Vuksanović, and in 2008 an official representative electoral body of Serbs in Montenegro was formed as the Serbian National Council of Montenegro, with Momčilo Vuksanović as president. [14]

The links between the two nations remain strong, and the fact that for the last two centuries a great number of Montenegrins had emigrated to Serbia further strengthens the ties. The Montenegrin littoral is still the main tourist destination for citizens of Serbia, and a large population of Serbians own property in Montenegro. Many of these properties consist of summer homes, and contribute to a seasonal influx of Serbs in Montenegro, during the summers. Despite the geopolitical separation, the economic balance and relationship shared between the two countries continues to be strong.[ citation needed ]

Culture

Language

Miroslav Gospel created by order of Miroslav of Hum, Montenegrin Serb ruler. Miroslav's Gospel 001.jpg
Miroslav Gospel created by order of Miroslav of Hum, Montenegrin Serb ruler.

The national language of Montenegro has historically and traditionally been called Serbian. [15] According to Pavle Ivić, two sub-dialects of the Shtokavian dialect (of the Serbian language) were spoken in Montenegro: the Eastern Herzegovinian dialect and Zeta-South Sanjak dialect. The Eastern Herzegovinian dialect is spoken in Montenegro, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. Today, the national standard is based on the Zeta-South Sanjak dialect.

Some 42.9% of the population of the country speak Serbian as their mother tongue, including 37% of the declared Montenegrins. Serbian was the official language of Montenegro until 2007 when the new Constitution of Montenegro replaced the Constitution of 1992. Amid opposition from pro-Serbian parties, [16]

Montenegrin language was made the sole official language of the country and Serbian was given the status of a recognised minority language along with Bosnian, Albanian, and Croatian. [17] Since 2006, both in linguistic and other aspects of cultural life, ethnic Serbs of Montenegro have been exposed to gradual "non-coercive" "Montenegrinisation". [18]

Religion

Serbian Orthodox Church in Kotor.jpg
Cetinje monastery.jpg
Left: Serbian orthodox church in Kotor
Right: Cetinje Monastery, Serbian Orthodox monastery

The Serbs are adherents of the Serbian Orthodox Church, the strongest religious institution of Montenegro (with a total of 460,383 followers or 74%). [19] One of the largest places of worship is the Cathedral of the Resurrection of Christ in Podgorica.

The future of the Serbian Orthodox Church in Montenegro has been threatened by the newly formed Montenegrin Orthodox Church which has claimed Serbian Orthodox churches in Montenegro, and is backed by a small percentage of the Orthodox Christians in Montenegro. The government has recognized the church, however none of the Eastern Orthodox churches have. The leader is the controversial Miraš Dedeić, a former Serbian Orthodox clergyman with Serbian nationalist views who, after being suspended from the Serbian Church, went to Rome and became a Greek Orthodox clergyman. [20]

Dedeić was later suspended by the Serbian Orthodox Church after committing adultery with a younger woman. In 1997 he was excommunicated by the Holy Synod of the Ecumenical Orthodox Patriarchate of Constantinople from the Eastern Orthodox Church. The leader of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church is anathematized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and banished from Orthodoxy.[ citation needed ]

Folk attire

Montenegrin cap.jpg
Dusanka Vest.png
Left: A Montenegrin cap with the Serbian cross
Right:Dušanka vest

The Montenegrin cap is a traditional cap worn by Montenegrins and Montenegrin Serbs, originally in the shape of a flat cylinder, having a red upper surface (called tepeluk) not dissimilar to the Herzegovina and Lika caps. It was wholly red until Prince-Bishop Petar II Petrović Njegoš surrounded it with a black rim (called derevija), [21] and the definition given was as a sign of grief of occupied Kosovo. The Kosovo Myth was very popular in the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro. The enforcement of the cap upon the Montenegrin chieftains by Peter II was a mark of expression of then's dominating Serbian national identity. [22] The national telling recorded the most often version of the cap as following: the black wrapper was sign of grief for the once big Empire, the red the bloody defeat at the Battle of Kosovo [23] and the five small stripes on the top represent the remaining remains of the once greater Serbian realm, [24] which became increasingly popular amongst the common folk during the reign of Prince Danilo I Petrović-Njegoš. Within the stripes is angled a six star, representing the last free part, Montenegro, shining upon the fallen and conquered. [25] Worn by the rulers and chieftains, the version with the Four Ocil symbol in the star's place had become across the years with growth of nationalism excessively popular amongst the ordinary people, the symbol of the Serbian Orthodox Church, which effectively worked on maintaining and raising the national identity.

Demographics

Ethnicity map of Montenegro, Serbs in blue MontenegroEthnic2011.PNG
Ethnicity map of Montenegro, Serbs in blue
Linguistic map of Montenegro, Serbian in blue MontenegroLanguage2011.PNG
Linguistic map of Montenegro, Serbian in blue

According to the 2011 census, Serbs are the second largest ethnic group and constitute 28.7% of the population of Montenegro. They are absolute majority in three and relative majority in another three municipalities, and constitute less than 20% of population in only four out of total 21 municipalities in the country. Percentage of Serbs in municipalities of Montenegro is as follows:

Notable people

Petar II Petrovic-Njegos.jpg
Stjepan Mitrov Ljubisa.jpeg
Marko Miljanov.jpg
Brigadir Janko Vukotic.jpg
Patrijarkh Gavrilo (Dozhitsh).jpg
Young Petar Lubarda.jpg
13 - 1987-arh-Miodrag-Pecic-Beograd-01-N Jerusalim.jpg
Velibor Dzomic & Amfilohije Radovic crop.jpg
Matija Beckovic.jpg
Ratko Dmitrovic, Momir Bulatovic, Zdenko Tomanovic-mc.rs (cropped).jpg
Andrija Prlainovic 2012.jpg
Zarko Paspalj Vujcic photo.jpg
Vlado Georgijev.jpg
Katarina Bulatovic London 2012 Olympics.jpg
Ana Dabovic 3.JPG

See also

Notes

  1. See: Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Montenegro
  2. The correct political terms are Serbian: црногорcки Cрби / crnogorski Srbi, meaning "Montenegrin Serbs", and Cрби Црногорци / Srbi Crnogorci meaning "Serbs Montenegrins". Specifically, Their regional autonym is simply Црногорци / Crnogorci, literal meaning "Montenegrins", [2] [3] the same as the ethnic group of Montenegrins ). In the early modern times, before the Kingdom of Montenegro, people [living within present-day borders] were divided by the identities of Brđani (Брђани; Brda), Hercegovci (Херцеговци; Old Herzegovina), Bokelji (Бокељи; Boka Kotorska) and Crnogorci (Црногорци; Old Montenegro). Срби у Црној Гори / Srbi u Crnoj Gori, meaning "Serbs in Montenegro".

Related Research Articles

Montenegro Country in Southeastern Europe

Montenegro is a country in Southeast Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea and is a part of the Balkans, sharing borders with Serbia to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the northwest, Albania to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea and Croatia to the southwest. Podgorica, the capital and largest city, covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory of 13,812 square kilometres (5,333 sq mi), and is home to roughly 30% of its total population. Montenegrins form the majority of the nation's population of over 600 thousand, while Serbs form a significant minority, followed by Bosniaks, Albanians, Croats and Roma people.

Serbs

The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group and nation, native to the Balkans in Southeastern Europe.

The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, into the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. In the 9th century, there were three principalities on the territory of Montenegro: Duklja, roughly corresponding to the southern half, Travunia, the west, and Rascia, the north. In 1042, Stefan Vojislav led a revolt that resulted in the independence of Duklja and the establishment of the Vojislavljević dynasty. Duklja reached its zenith under Vojislav's son, Mihailo (1046–81), and his grandson Bodin (1081–1101). By the 13th century, Zeta had replaced Duklja when referring to the realm. In the late 14th century, southern Montenegro (Zeta) came under the rule of the Balšić noble family, then the Crnojević noble family, and by the 15th century, Zeta was more often referred to as Crna Gora. Large portions fell under the control of the Ottoman Empire from 1496 to 1878. Parts were controlled by Venice. From 1515 until 1851 the prince-bishops (vladikas) of Cetinje were the rulers. The House of Petrović-Njegoš ruled until 1918. From 1918, it was a part of Yugoslavia. On the basis of an independence referendum held on 21 May 2006, Montenegro declared independence on 3 June of that year.

Bay of Kotor Geographic region of Montenegro

The Bay of Kotor, also known as the Boka, is the winding bay of the Adriatic Sea in southwestern Montenegro and the region of Montenegro concentrated around the bay. It is also the southernmost part of the historical region of Dalmatia. The bay has been inhabited since antiquity. Its well-preserved medieval towns of Kotor, Risan, Tivat, Perast, Prčanj and Herceg Novi, along with their natural surroundings, are major tourist attractions. The Natural and Culturo-Historical Region of Kotor was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. Its numerous Orthodox and Catholic churches and monasteries attract numerous religious and cultural pilgrims.

Zachlumia Medieval principality

Zachlumia or Zachumlia, also Hum, was a medieval principality located in the modern-day regions of Herzegovina and southern Dalmatia. In some periods it was a fully independent or semi-independent South Slavic principality. It maintained relations with various foreign and neighbouring powers and later was subjected to Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Serbia, Kingdom of Bosnia, Duchy of Saint Sava and at the end to the Ottoman Empire.

Duklja

Duklja was a medieval South Slavic state which roughly encompassed the territories of modern-day southeastern Montenegro, from the Bay of Kotor in the west to the Bojana river in the east, and to the sources of the Zeta and Morača rivers in the north. First mentioned in 10th– and 11th century Byzantine chronicles, it was a vassal of the Byzantine Empire until it became independent in 1040 under Stefan Vojislav who rose up and managed to take over territories of the earlier Serbian Principality, founding the Vojislavljević dynasty. Between 1043 and 1080, under Mihailo Vojislavljević, and his son, Constantine Bodin, Duklja saw its apogee. Mihailo was given the nominal title King of Slavs by the Pope after having left the Byzantine camp and supported an uprising in the Balkans, in which his son Bodin played a central part. Having incorporated the Serbian hinterland and installed vassal rulers there, this maritime principality emerged as the most powerful Serb polity, seen in the titles used by its rulers. However, its rise was short-lived, as Bodin was defeated by the Byzantines and imprisoned; pushed to the background, his relative and vassal Vukan became independent in Raška, which continued the fight against the Byzantines while Duklja was struck with civil wars. Between 1113 and 1149 Duklja was the centre of Serbian–Byzantine conflict, with members of the Vojislavljević as protégés of either fighting each other for power. Duklja was then incorporated as a crown land of the Grand Principality of Serbia ruled by the Vukanović dynasty, subsequently known as Zeta, remaining so until the fall of the Serbian Empire in the 14th century.

Montenegrins

Montenegrins are a South Slavic ethnic group native to Montenegro.

Metohija Geographical and historical region of Kosovo

Metohija or Dukagjini is a large basin and the name of the region covering the southwestern part of Kosovo. The region covers 35% (3,891 km2) of Kosovo's total area. According to the 2011 census, the population of the region is 700,577.

Montenegrin is a normative variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Montenegrins and is the official language of Montenegro. Montenegrin is based on the most widespread dialect of Serbo-Croatian, Shtokavian, more specifically on Eastern Herzegovinian, which is also the basis of Standard Croatian, Serbian, and Bosnian.

Travunija

Travunija or Travunia, was a South Slavic medieval principality that was part of Medieval Serbia (850–1371), and later the Medieval Bosnia (1373–1482). The principality became hereditary in a number of noble houses, often kin to the ruling dynasty. The region came under Ottoman rule in 1482. Its seat was in the city of Trebinje.

Vojislavljević dynasty

The Vojislavljević was a Serbian medieval dynasty, named after archon Stefan Vojislav, who wrested the polities of Duklja, Travunia, Zahumlje, inner Serbia and Bosnia from the Byzantines in the mid-11th century. His successors, kings Mihailo I Vojislavljević and Constantine Bodin expanded and consolidated the state. During the 12th century, the main line of the Vojislavljević family was ousted by their cadet branch, the Vukanović, in the late 12th century.

Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina

The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.

Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral

The Metropolitanate of Montenegro and the Littoral is the largest eparchy (diocese) of the Serbian Orthodox Church in modern Montenegro. Founded in 1219 by Saint Sava, as the Eparchy of Zeta, it continued to exist, without interruption, up to the present time, and remained one of the most prominent dioceses of the Serbian Orthodox Church. The current Metropolitan bishop (administrator) is Joanikije. His official title is "Archbishop of Cetinje and Metropolitan of Montenegro and the Littoral".

Kosovo Serbs Ethnic group

Kosovo Serbs are one of the ethnic groups of Kosovo. There are around 96,000 Kosovo Serbs as of 2014 and about 3/4 of them live in North Kosovo. Other Serb communities live in southern Kosovo. After Albanians and Bosniaks they form the third largest ethnic community in Kosovo (1.5%).

The Serb-Montenegrin community in Albania are one of the recognized national minorities in Albania. In the latest census (2011), citizens had the option to declare as "Montenegrins". The population was concentrated in the region of Vraka, but largely emigrated in the 1990s. The estimations ranged between 366 to 2,000. The community is bilingual and by majority adhere to Eastern Orthodoxy, while a minority professes Islam. The majority of the Serbo-Montenegrin community came to Albania from Montenegro during the interwar Zogist period following 1926 and later from 1938 until 1948.

Old Montenegro

Old Montenegro, also known as Montenegro proper, or True Montenegro, is a term used for the embryonic part of modern Montenegro. In historical context, the term designates the original territory of the Principality of Montenegro, before the territorial expansion, ratified by the Congress of Berlin in 1878, or even more precisely - the territory of the Prince-Bishopric of Montenegro prior to its unification with the region of Brda in the first half of the 19th century.

Controversy over ethnic and linguistic identity in Montenegro is an ongoing dispute over the ethnic and linguistic identity of several communities in Montenegro, a multiethnic and multilingual country in Southeastern Europe. There are several points of dispute, some of them related to identity of people who self-identify as ethnic Montenegrins, while some other identity issues are also related to communities of Serbs of Montenegro, Croats of Montenegro, Bosniaks of Montenegro and ethnic Muslims of Montenegro. All of those issues are mutually interconnected and highly politicized.

Montenegrin nationalism

Montenegrin nationalism is the nationalism that asserts that Montenegrins are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Montenegrins.

Peoples Party (Montenegro, 1906)

The People's Party, known as the Klubaši or Narodnjaci, was a political party formed in 1906, active in the Principality of Montenegro and later Kingdom of Montenegro, led by Šako Petrović, which represented the opposition to Prince/King Nikola of Montenegro. The parties political credo was the unification of Montenegro and Serbia, and dethroning of the Petrović-Njegoš dynasty.

References

  1. "Stanovništvo Crne Gore prema polu, tipu naselja, nacionalnoj, odnosno etničkoj pripadnosti, vjeroispovijesti i maternjem jeziku po opštinama u Crnoj Gori" [Population of Montenegro by sex, type of settlement, national or ethnic affiliation, religion and mother tongue by municipalities in Montenegro](PDF) (in Montenegrin). Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  2. Charles Seignobos, Political History of Europe, since 1814, ed. S. M. Macvane, H. Holt and Company, New York, 1900, pp. 663–664; excerpt from chapter XXI The Christian Nations of The Balkans, subchapter Servia and Montenegro, passages Montenegro
  3. "Projekat Rastko Cetinje – Slavenko Terzic – Ideoloski korijeni crnogorske nacije i crnogorskog separatizma". Rastko.rs. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  4. "Official results of the 2011 Montenegrin census" (PDF).
  5. Ćirković 2004, p. 11-12.
  6. Moravcsik 1967.
  7. 1 2 Fine 1991.
  8. Ćirković 2004, p. 26-27.
  9. David Luscombe; Jonathan Riley-Smith (14 October 2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, C.1024-c.1198. Cambridge University Press. pp. 266–270. ISBN   978-0-521-41411-1.
  10. Ćirković 2004.
  11. Banac 1992, p. 285.
  12. 1 2 Elizabeth Roberts. Realm of the Black Mountain: A History of Montenegro. London, England, UK: Cornell University Press, 2007. Pp. 1.
  13. "Montenegro vote result confirmed". BBC News. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  14. NARS (2010): Fourteenth Sitting of the Committee on Relations with Serbs Living Outside Serbia
  15. cf. Roland Sussex, Paul Cubberly, The Slavic Languages, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2006; esp. v. pp. 73: "Serbia had used Serbian as an official language since 1814, and Montenegro even earlier.".
  16. "Pro-Serbian parties oppose Montenegro constitution". Setimes.com. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  17. "Ustav Crne Gore". Snp.co.me. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
  18. Financial Times (2007): Neil MacDonald, Montenegro’s ethnicity debate intensifies
  19. see: Religion in Montenegro
  20. Kostic, Stevan. "Rat i Miraš, ko je i šta priča prvi čovek nepriznate CPC" [War and Mirash, who is and what is the story of the first man of the unrecognized CPC]. Radio Television of Serbia (in Bosnian). Retrieved 2021-04-14 via www.rts.rs.
  21. "Crna Gora i Crnogorci" by Vuk Stefanović Karadžić
  22. "O najstarijoj kapi kod Jugoslovena..." by Miodrag Vlahović
  23. Crna Gora... Narodni život i običaji" by Andrija Jovićević
  24. "Crnogorska muška kapa" by Zorica Radulović
  25. "Fizicki lik i izgled Njegosa" by Jovan Vukmanović

Sources

Primary sources
Secondary sources