|Comparative military ranks in English|
Major general (abbreviated MG,maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a lieutenant general outranks a major general while a major outranks a lieutenant.
In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal.
In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank.
In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor .Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term.
General de Brigada (Brigade General) is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier (officer rank in Latin America) for more information.
In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general (MGen) (major-général and Mgén in French) is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer. The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, and junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead.
The rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. It is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.
Major-generals are initially addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers; thereafter by subordinates as "sir" or "ma'am" as applicable in English or mon général in French. Major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars.
In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor.
The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish.
The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division .
In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces. The major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources, management, and discipline, and his role is roughly analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. The five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, and the Major General of the Air Force.
In the French Army, Major General (in full "Major General of the Army", Major général de l'armée de terre) is a position and the major general is normally of the rank of corps general.
Historically, the French army had some sergent-majors généraux , also called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle. These sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp (not the same as a field marshal, in the French Army from antiquity called a Maréchal de France), which was the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier; Major General of Napoléon's Grande armée. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade(brigade general) in 1793. The rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ.
In Georgia, the rank major-general (გენერალ მაიორი) has one star as for security forces. The army, however, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia.
The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor (OF-7) until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant (OF-8) was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.
With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U.S., with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, and the rank of Brigadegeneral (brigadier general, OF-6) added below them. The rank of Generaloberst (OF-9, colonel general) was no longer used.
The Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor (OF-6), abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral (KAdm).
In the Magyar Honvédség (Hungarian Defence Force), the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy.
In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are respectively sartip dovom (second brigadier general with no equivalent in other countries), sartip (brigadier general), sarlashkar (major general), sepahbod (lieutenant general), and arteshbod (general); nonetheless, major general is the highest available rank for current Iranian commanders.
The Irish Defence Forces have two major generals. They are deputy chiefs of staff with separate responsibility for operations (DCOS Ops) and support (DCOS Sp).
Major general in the Indian Army is equivalent to Rear Admiral in the Indian Navy and Air Vice Marshal in the Indian Air Force. The rank is higher than a brigadier and lower than a Lieutenant General.
In the Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps the rank "Major general" is known as Mayor general or Mayjen in short.
In the Israel Defense Forces, a major general is called an aluf and is the second-highest rank, subordinate to rav aluf (lieutenant general or general), the rank held by the chief of staff.
In Italy, the equivalent of major general is the army rank of generale di divisione. In the army, the generale di divisione is the commander of a division.
Because no brigadier-general rank is used in Japan, major-general is the rank of brigade commander. For this reason, the French are represented in the manner as général de brigade and some countries, such as Brazil and Chile, follow it also words of some countries of the Italian and Spanish, and the like. In the past, rikugun-shōshō(陸軍少将) in the Imperial Japanese Army was equivalent to major-general, in the current,rikushōho(陸将補) in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and kūshōho(空将補) in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force are equivalent to it.
In the Kazakh Army, major general is the lowest of the field officer rank and is the third-highest rank in the army. It is equivalent to the rear admiral in the Kazakh Navy.
In Kenya, major general is the third-highest rank, subordinate to general and lieutenant general, and superior to brigadier and colonel. Current general is Gen. Mwathethe
The rank of sojang is also used in North Korea, where it is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general. The North Korean equivalent to a two-star general is jungjang, which roughly translates as lieutenant general.
In South Korea, the rank of major general is known as sojang (Korean : 소장; Hanja: 少將). In the Republic of Korea Army, a sojang typically commands a division of size ~10,000 soldiers. In the Republic of Korea Navy, a sojang typically commands a fleet. They both can operate an independent field operation. In the Republic of Korea Air Force, a sojang is typically the head of a command headquarter and a junjang, one rank lower than sojang, takes charge of operations. A Republic of Korea Marine Corps sojang commands a division and the South Korean Marine Corps is organized under the Navy.
In the New Zealand Army, major-general is the rank held by the chief of army (formerly the chief of general staff). The more senior rank of lieutenant-general is reserved for when an army officer holds the position of chief of defence force, who commands all New Zealand's armed forces. This position is subject to rotation between the heads of the air force, army, and navy.
In the Norwegian Army, the Air Force and the Home Guard, generalmajor is the lowest general officer rank, equivalent to kontreadmiral in the Navy.
Major general in the Pakistan Army is equivalent to rear admiral in the Navy and air vice marshal in the Air Force. It is the lowest of the general officer ranks, ranking between brigadier and lieutenant general. The Pakistan Army has four female major generals.[ citation needed ]
Generał dywizji, literally "general of a division (military)", abbreviated gen. dyw.) is the second rank for generals in the Polish Army (both in the land forces and in the Polish air force). Depending on the context, it is equivalent to either the modern rank of major general, or the rank of brigadier general (mostly in historical context). However in navy the equivalent is Kontradmirał, the Rear admiral. In special forces, it is usually the rank of Chief of Special Forces.
The rank of major-general was reintroduced in the Portuguese Army, Air Force and National Republican Guard in 1999, replacing the former rank of brigadier in the role of brigade commander. As a rank, it had previously been used in the Army only for a brief period (from 1862 to 1864). It is equivalent to the rank of contra-almirante (rear-admiral) in the Portuguese Navy. In 2015, the rank of major-general was moved up one level, with the role of brigade commander being assumed by the below rank of brigadier-general.
In most of the 19th and first half of the 20th century, major-general was not used as a rank in the Portuguese military, but as an appointment title conferred to the general officer that acted as the military head of a service branch. The roles of Major-General of the Navy (Major-General da Armada) and Major-General of the Army (Major-General do Exército) became extinct in 1950, with their roles being unified in the then created Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.
In the Russian Army, the rank "Major general" is known as Генера́л-майо́р. Rated OF-6, it is equivalent to Brigadier in the British Army and to Brigadier General in the US Army.
In Somalia, major general is used within the Somali Armed Forces (SAF) for the highest-ranking military official.
In Sweden, the rank of generalmajor (Genmj) is used in the Army, the Amphibious Corps and the Air Force. It is the equivalent to konteramiral in the Swedish Navy. It is typically held by the heads of the three service branches, and the head of the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service.
In Switzerland, the rank of generalmajor is called Divisionär (German) or Divisionaire (French).
In Thailand, the rank of major general is called pon-tree "พลตรี" for the Royal Thai Army, which is equivalent to rear admiral (Pon-reu-tree "พลเรือตรี") for the Navy, air vice marshal (Pon-akat-tree "พลอากาศตรี") for the Air Force , and police major general ("Pon-tamruad-tree" "พลตำรวจตรี") for the Royal Thai Police.
The Turkish Army and Air Force refer to the rank as tümgeneral. The Turkish Navy equivalent is tümadmiral. The name is derived from tümen , the Turkish word for a military division (tümen itself is an older Turkish word meaning "10,000"). Thus, linguistically, it is similar to the French equivalent for a major general, général de division.
In the British Army and Royal Marines, major-general ranks below lieutenant-general and above brigadier, and is thus the lowest of the general officer ranks. Divisions are usually commanded by major-generals, and they also hold a variety of staff positions. The professional head of the Royal Marines currently holds the rank of major-general.
From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of major-general. It was superseded by the rank of air vice-marshal on the following day.
Major-general, rated as OF-7, is equivalent to rear admiral in the Royal Navy and air vice-marshal in the Royal Air Force.
In the United States Army, a major general (MG) typically commands a division of 10,000–20,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operations. They may also serve as deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Army and joint staffs. In the case of the Army National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.
In the United States Marine Corps, major generals (MajGen) typically serve as commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs.
In the United States Air Force, major generals (Maj Gen) typically serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.
In Vietnam, the rank of major general is known as thiếu tướng. It is used in the army and the air force. It is the equivalent to chuẩn Đô đốc in the Navy.
The rank of thiếu tướng is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general and admiral. In the Vietnamese People's Army, a major general commands a corps of 30,000–40,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operation.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and responsibility in a military hierarchy. It incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority into the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised. The military chain of command constructs an important component for organized collective action.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel, equivalent to a brigadier general, typically commanding a brigade of several thousand soldiers. In other countries, it is a non-commissioned rank.
Brigadier general or brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general (OF-6).
Junior officer, company officer or company grade officer refers to the lowest operational commissioned officer category of ranks in a military or paramilitary organization, ranking above non-commissioned officers and below senior officers.
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
A field officer, field-grade officer, or senior officer is an army, marine, or air force commissioned officer senior in rank to a company officer but junior to a general officer. In most armies this corresponds to the ranks of major, lieutenant colonel and colonel, or their equivalents. Some countries also include brigadier in the definition.
A flag officer is a commissioned officer in a nation's armed forces senior enough to be entitled to fly a flag to mark the position from which the officer exercises command.
The South African National Defence Force's rank system is largely based on the British system, with the Air Force sharing the Army rank titles. Rank titles changed over time as did the insignia.
Daejang or taejang is a senior military rank of the Korean Peninsula, used by both North and South Korea. It is considered the combined equivalent of a general and admiral in other nations. The rank of daejang is sometimes spelled as taejang, depending on the transliteration system used.
Lieutenant general, formerly more commonly lieutenant-general, is a senior rank in the British Army and the Royal Marines. It is the equivalent of a multinational three-star rank; some British lieutenant generals sometimes wear three-star insignia, in addition to their standard insignia, when on multinational operations.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and the United States Air Force, lieutenant general is a three-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-9. Lieutenant general ranks above major general and below general. Lieutenant general is equivalent to the rank of vice admiral in the other uniformed services.
A four-star rank is the rank of any four-star officer described by the NATO OF-9 code. Four-star officers are often the most senior commanders in the armed services, having ranks such as (full) admiral, (full) general, or air chief marshal. This designation is also used by some armed forces that are not North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) members.
An officer of three-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-8. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, three-star officers hold the rank of vice admiral, lieutenant general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air marshal.
An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal.
Major general, is a "two-star" rank in the British Army and Royal Marines. The rank was also briefly used by the Royal Air Force for a year and a half, from its creation to August 1919. In the British Army, a major general is the customary rank for the appointment of division commander. In the Royal Marines, the rank of major general is held by the Commandant General.
In the United States Army, United States Marine Corps, and United States Air Force, major general is a two-star general officer rank, with the pay grade of O-8. Major general ranks above brigadier general and below lieutenant general. A major general typically commands division-sized units of 10,000 to 15,000 soldiers. Major general is equivalent to the two-star rank of rear admiral in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard, and is the highest permanent peacetime rank in the uniformed services. Higher ranks are technically temporary and linked to specific positions, although virtually all officers promoted to those ranks are approved to retire at their highest earned rank.
A general officer is an officer of high military rank; in the uniformed services of the United States, general officers are commissioned officers above the field officer ranks, the highest of which is colonel in the Army, Marine Corps, and Air Force and captain, in the Navy, Coast Guard, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC), and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps (NOAACC).
This article tackles the ranks and insignia of the Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran, which is divided into three forces:
The ranks and rank insignia of the Red Army and Red Navy between 1940 and 1943 were characterised by continuing reforms to the Soviet armed forces in the period immediately before Operation Barbarossa and the war of national survival following it. The Soviet suspicion of rank and rank badges as a bourgeois institution remained, but the increasing experience of Soviet forces, and the massive increase in manpower all played their part, including the creation of a number of new general officer ranks and the reintroduction of permanent enlisted ranks and ratings.