Major general

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Major General (abbreviated MG, [1] Maj. Gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of Sergeant Major General. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparently confusing phenomenon whereby a Lieutenant General outranks a Major General while a Major outranks a Lieutenant.

Military rank element of hierarchy in armed forces

Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. Military ranks and the military rank system define among others dominance, authority, as well as roles and responsibility in a military hierarchy. The military rank system incorporates the principles of exercising power and authority, and the military chain of command – the succession of commanders superior to subordinates through which command is exercised – constructs an important component for organized collective action.

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In the Commonwealth and the United States, it is a division commander's rank subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. In the Commonwealth, major general is equivalent to the navy rank of rear admiral, and in air forces with a separate rank structure, it is equivalent to air vice-marshal.

Commonwealth of Nations Intergovernmental organisation

The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.

Division (military) military unit size designation for grouping land forces

A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. Infantry divisions during the World Wars ranged between 8,000 and 30,000 in nominal strength.

Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country. In some countries, it is a senior rank above colonel, equivalent to a brigadier general, typically commanding a brigade of several thousand soldiers. In other countries, it is a non-commissioned rank.

In some countries, including much of Eastern Europe, major general is the lowest of the general officer ranks, with no brigadier-grade rank.

Eastern Europe Eastern part of the European continent

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural, and socioeconomic connotations. There are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region". A related United Nations paper adds that "every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct". One definition describes Eastern Europe as a cultural entity: the region lying in Europe with the main characteristics consisting of Greek, Byzantine, Eastern Orthodox, Russian, and some Ottoman culture influences. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc. A similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. The majority of historians and social scientists view such definitions as outdated or relegated, but they are still sometimes used for statistical purposes.

A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.

Countries

Australia

Austria

In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a Generalmajor . [2] Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term.

Austro-Hungarian Army ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918

The Austro-Hungarian Army was the ground force of the Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the joint army, the Imperial Austrian Landwehr, and the Royal Hungarian Honvéd.

General Major, short GenMaj, is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.

Brazil

General de Brigada (Brigade General) is the lowest rank of general officers in the Brazilian Army. A General de Brigada wears two-stars as this is the entry level for general officers in the Brazilian Army. See Military ranks of Brazil and Brigadier (officer rank in Latin America) for more information.

Brazilian Army land warfare branch of Brazils military forces

The Brazilian Army is the land arm of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The Brazilian Army has fought in several international conflicts, mostly in South America during the 19th century. In the 20th century, it fought on the Allied side in World War I and World War II. Aligned with the Western Bloc, during the time of military rule in Brazil from 1964 to 1985, it also had active participation in the Cold War, in Latin America and Southern Portuguese Africa, as well as taking part in UN peacekeeping missions worldwide since the late 1950s.

Two-star rank military rank

An officer of two-star rank is a senior commander in many of the armed services holding a rank described by the NATO code of OF-7. The term is also used by some armed forces which are not NATO members. Typically, two-star officers hold the rank of rear admiral, counter admiral, major general, or in the case of those air forces with a separate rank structure, air vice-marshal.

Military ranks of Brazil

This article presents the insignia and ranks of the Brazilian military. These ranks originate from those adopted upon Brazil's independence from Portugal in 1822. Nowadays they are defined by Act no. 6880 of December 9, 1980. The following ranks show Brazil's military insignia and its corresponding NATO codes.

Canada

In the Canadian Armed Forces, the rank of major-general (MGen) (major-général and Mgén in French) is both a Canadian Army and Royal Canadian Air Force rank equivalent to the Royal Canadian Navy's rank of rear-admiral. A major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer. The major-general rank is senior to the ranks of brigadier-general and commodore, and junior to lieutenant-general and vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal, instead.

Canadian Armed Forces Combined military forces of Canada

The Canadian Armed Forces, or Canadian Forces (CF), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Canadian Army land component of the Canadian Armed Forces

The Canadian Army is the command responsible for the operational readiness of the conventional ground forces of the Canadian Armed Forces. As of 2018 the Army has 23,000 regular soldiers, about 19,000 reserve soldiers, including 5,000 rangers, for a total of 40,000 soldiers. The Army is supported by 3,000 civilian employees. It maintains regular forces units at bases across Canada, and is also responsible for the Army Reserve, the largest component of the Primary Reserve. The Commander of the Canadian Army and Chief of the Army Staff is Lieutenant-General Wayne Eyre.

The rank insignia for a major-general in the Royal Canadian Air Force is a wide braid under a single narrow braid on the cuff, as well as two silver maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. In the Canadian Army, the rank insignia is a wide braid on the cuff, as well as two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. It is worn on the shoulder straps of the service dress tunic, and on slip-ons on other uniforms. On the visor of the service cap are two rows of gold oak leaves.

Major-generals are initially addressed as "general" and name, as are all general officers; thereafter by subordinates as "sir" or "ma'am" as applicable in English or mon général in French. Major-generals are normally entitled to staff cars.

Estonia

In the Estonian military, the major general rank is called kindralmajor.

Finland, Denmark, and Sweden

The Finnish military equivalent is kenraalimajuri in Finnish, and generalmajor in Swedish and Danish.

France

The French equivalent to the rank of major general is général de division .

In the French military, major général is not a rank but an appointment conferred on some generals, usually of général de corps d'armée rank, acting as head of staff of one of the armed forces. The major general assists the chief of staff of the French army with matters such as human resources, management, and discipline, and his role is roughly analogous with the British Army position of Adjutant-General to the Forces. The position of major général can be considered the equivalent of a deputy chief of staff. The five major generals are: the Major General of the Armed Forces, head of the General Staff, the Major General of the Army, the Major General of the Navy, the Major General of the Gendarmerie, and the Major General of the Air Force.

In the French Army, Major General (in full "Major General of the Army", Major général de l'armée de terre) is a position and the major general is normally of the rank of corps general.

Historically, the French army had some sergent-majors généraux , also called sergents de bataille, whose task was to prepare the disposition of the army on the field before a battle. These sergents-majors généraux became a new rank, the maréchal de camp (not the same as a field marshal, in the French Army from antiquity called a Maréchal de France), which was the equivalent of the rank of major general. However, the term of major général was not forgotten and used to describe the appointment of armies chiefs of staff. One well-known French major général was Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier; Major General of Napoléon's Grande armée. In addition,maréchal de camp was renamed général de brigade(brigade general) in 1793. The rank was decided to correspond to brigadier general after WWⅡ.

Georgia

In Georgia, the rank major-general (გენერალ მაიორი) has one star as for security forces. The army, however, does not follow the traditional soviet model and uses the now more common two-star insignia.

Germany

The German Army and Luftwaffe referred to the rank as Generalmajor (OF-7) until 1945. Prior to 1945, the rank of Generalleutnant (OF-8) was used to define a division commander, whereas Generalmajor was a brigade commander.

West Germany

With the remilitarization of Germany in 1955 on West Germany's admission to NATO, the Heer adopted the rank structure of the U.S., with the authority of the three lower ranks being moved up one level, and the rank of Brigadegeneral (brigadier general, OF-6) added below them. The rank of Generaloberst (OF-9, colonel general) was no longer used.

GDR National People's Army

The Nationale Volksarmee of the German Democratic Republic continued the use Generalmajor (OF-6), abbreviated as "GenMaj", as the lowest general officer rank until reunification in 1990. It was equivalent to Konteradmiral (KAdm).

Hungary

In the Magyar Honvédség (Hungarian Defence Force), the equivalent rank to major general is vezérőrnagy.

Iran

In the Iranian army and air force, the ranks above colonel are respectively sartip dovom (second brigadier general with no equivalent in other countries), sartip (brigadier general), sarlashkar (major general), sepahbod (lieutenant general), and arteshbod (general); nonetheless, major general is the highest available rank for current Iranian commanders.

Ireland

The Irish Defence Forces have two major generals. They are deputy chiefs of staff with separate responsibility for operations (DCOS Ops) and support (DCOS Sp).

India

Major general in the Indian Army is equivalent to rear admiral in the Indian Navy and air vice marshal in the Indian Air Force the rank is higher than a brigadier and lower than a lieutenant general.

Indonesia

In the Indonesian Army and Indonesian Marine Corps the rank "Major general" is known as Mayor general or Mayjen in short.

Israel

In the Israel Defense Forces, a major general is called an aluf and is the second-highest rank, subordinate to rav aluf (lieutenant general or general), the rank held by the chief of staff.

Italy

In Italy, the equivalent of major general is the army rank of generale di divisione. In the army, the generale di divisione is the commander of a division.

Japan

Because no brigadier-general rank is used in Japan, major-general is the rank of brigade commander. For this reason, the French are represented in the manner as général de brigade and some countries, such as Brazil and Chile, follow it also words of some countries of the Italian and Spanish, and the like. In the past, rikugun-shōshō(陸軍少将) in the Imperial Japanese Army was equivalent to major-general, in the current,rikushōho(陸将補) in the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force and kūshōho(空将補) in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force are equivalent to it.

Kazakhstan

In the Kazakh Army, major general is the lowest of the field officer rank and is the third-highest rank in the army. It is equivalent to the rear admiral in the Kazakh Navy.

Kenya

In Kenya, major general is the third-highest rank, subordinate to general and lieutenant general, and superior to brigadier and colonel. Current general is Gen. Mwathethe

North Korea

The rank of sojang is also used in North Korea, where it is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general. The North Korean equivalent to a two-star general is jungjang, which roughly translates as lieutenant general.

South Korea

In South Korea, the rank of major general is known as sojang (Korean : 소장; Hanja: 少將). In the Republic of Korea Army, a sojang typically commands a division of size ~10,000 soldiers. In the Republic of Korea Navy, a sojang typically commands a fleet. They both can operate an independent field operation. In the Republic of Korea Air Force, a sojang is typically the head of a command headquarter and a junjang, one rank lower than sojang, takes charge of operations. A Republic of Korea Marine Corps sojang commands a division and the South Korean Marine Corps is organized under the Navy.

New Zealand

In the New Zealand Army, major-general is the rank held by the chief of army (formerly the chief of general staff). The more senior rank of lieutenant-general is reserved for when an army officer holds the position of chief of defence force, who commands all New Zealand's armed forces. This position is subject to rotation between the heads of the air force, army, and navy.

Norway

In the Norwegian Army, the Air Force and the Home Guard, generalmajor is the lowest general officer rank, equivalent to kontreadmiral in the Navy.

Pakistan

Major general in the Pakistan Army is equivalent to rear admiral in the Navy and air vice marshal in the Air Force. It is the lowest of the general officer ranks, ranking between brigadier and lieutenant general. The Pakistan Army has four female major generals.[ citation needed ]

Poland

Generał brygady (Polish pronunciation:  [ɡɛˈnɛraw brɨˈɡadɨ] , literally "general of a brigade", abbreviated gen. bryg.) is the lowest rank for generals in the Polish Army (both in the land forces and in the Polish air force). Depending on the context, it is equivalent to either the modern rank of major general, or the rank of brigadier general (mostly in historical context).

Portugal

The rank of major-general was reintroduced in the Portuguese Army, Air Force and National Republican Guard in 1999, replacing the former rank of brigadier in the role of brigade commander. As a rank, it had previously been used in the Army only for a brief period (from 1862 to 1864). It is equivalent to the rank of contra-almirante (rear-admiral) in the Portuguese Navy. In 2015, the rank of major-general was moved up one level, with the role of brigade commander being assumed by the below rank of brigadier-general.

In most of the 19th and first half of the 20th century, major-general was not used as a rank in the Portuguese military, but as an appointment title conferred to the general officer that acted as the military head of a service branch. The roles of Major-General of the Navy (Major-General da Armada) and Major-General of the Army (Major-General do Exército) became extinct in 1950, with their roles being unified in the then created Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces.

Russia

In the Russian Army, the rank "Major general" is known as Генера́л-майо́р.

Somalia

In Somalia, major general is used within the Somali Armed Forces (SAF) for the highest-ranking military official. [3]

Sweden

In Sweden, the rank of generalmajor (Genmj) is used in the Army, the Amphibious Corps and the Air Force. It is the equivalent to konteramiral in the Swedish Navy. It is typically held by the heads of the three service branches, and the head of the Swedish Military Intelligence and Security Service.

Switzerland

In Switzerland, the rank of generalmajor is called Divisionär (German) or Divisionaire (French).

Thailand

In Thailand, the rank of major general is called pon-tree "พลตรี" for the Royal Thai Army, which is equivalent to rear admiral (Pon-reu-tree "พลเรือตรี") for the Navy, air vice marshal (Pon-akat-tree "พลอากาศตรี") for the Air Force , and police major general ("Pon-tamruad-tree" "พลตำรวจตรี") for the Royal Thai Police.

Turkey

The Turkish Army and Air Force refer to the rank as tümgeneral. The Turkish Navy equivalent is tümadmiral. The name is derived from tümen , the Turkish word for a military division (tümen itself is an older Turkish word meaning "10,000"). Thus, linguistically, it is similar to the French equivalent for a major general, général de division.

United Kingdom

In the British Army and Royal Marines, major-general ranks below lieutenant-general and above brigadier, and is thus the lowest of the general officer ranks. Divisions are usually commanded by major-generals, and they also hold a variety of staff positions. The professional head of the Royal Marines currently holds the rank of major-general.

From 1 April 1918 to 31 July 1919, the Royal Air Force maintained the rank of major-general. It was superseded by the rank of air vice-marshal on the following day.

Major-general is equivalent to rear admiral in the Royal Navy and air vice-marshal in the Royal Air Force.

United States

In the United States Army, a major general (MG) typically commands a division of 10,000–20,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operations. They may also serve as deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Army and joint staffs. In the case of the Army National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.

In the United States Marine Corps, major generals (MajGen) typically serve as commanding generals of Marine Expeditionary Forces, Marine Divisions, Marine Aircraft Wings, Joint Task Force Commanders, deputy commanders in 3-star commands or as senior directors on Marine Corps and joint staffs.

In the United States Air Force, major generals (Maj Gen) typically serve as Numbered Air Force commanders, vice commanders of 3-star commands, joint task force commanders, warfare center, training center, weapons center, or logistics center commanders, or senior directors on Air Force and joint staffs. In the case of the Air National Guard, they may also serve as The Adjutant General (TAG) for their state, commonwealth or territory.

Vietnam

In Vietnam, the rank of major general is known as thiếu tướng. It is used in the army and the air force. It is the equivalent to chuẩn Đô đốc in the Navy.

The rank of thiếu tướng is the lowest general officer and flag officer rank, equivalent to a one-star general and admiral. In the Vietnamese People's Army, a major general commands a corps of 30,000–40,000 soldiers and is capable of fully independent field operation.

Insignia

Army

Air force

See also

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References

Citations

  1. MILITÄRISCHES STUDIENGLOSAR ENGLISCH Teil I, L – Z, Bundessprachenamt (Stand Januar 2001), page 742, definition: Major General [MG].
  2. Bowden & Tarbox, p 24. The authors write that FML (field-marshal-lieutenant) is the same as lieutenant-general and General-feldwachtmeister the same as major-general, but they list no equivalent rank to brigadier-general. Nevertheless, the page cited is an excellent source of Austro-Hungarian ranks.
  3. Somalia: A Country Study – Army Ranks and Insignia Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine , www.marines.mil

Sources

  • Boatner, Mark M., III. The Civil War Dictionary. New York: David McKay, 1959. ISBN   0-679-50013-8.
  • Bowden, Scotty & Tarbox, Charlie. Armies on the Danube 1809. Arlington, TX: Empire Games Press, 1980. OCLC   6649795.
  • Foote, Shelby. The Civil War: A Narrative. Vol. 2. New York: Random House, 1986. ISBN   0-394-74621-X.