|Dukedom of Northumberland|
|Created by||King George III|
|Peerage||Peerage of Great Britain|
|First holder||Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland|
|Present holder||Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland|
|Heir apparent||George Percy, Earl Percy|
|Remainder to||the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten|
|Subsidiary titles|| Earl of Northumberland |
Earl of Beverley
Baronet Percy of Stanwick
|Extinction date||1553 (first creation)|
1716 (second creation)
|Seat(s)|| Alnwick Castle |
|Former seat(s)|| Warkworth Castle |
Duke of Northumberland is a noble title that has been created three times in English and British history, twice in the Peerage of England and once in the Peerage of Great Britain. The current holder of this title is Ralph Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland.
The title was first created in the Peerage of England in 1551 for John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick. He had already been created Viscount Lisle in 1543 and Earl of Warwick in 1547, also in the Peerage of England. In 1553, Dudley advanced the claim of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey, to the English throne, but when she was deposed by Queen Mary I, Dudley was convicted of high treason and executed. An illegitimate son of one of his younger sons, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, Sir Robert Dudley, claimed the dukedom when in exile in Italy. On 9 March 1620 the Emperor Ferdinand II officially recognised the title, an act which infuriated James I of England.
George FitzRoy, 1st Earl of Northumberland, an illegitimate son of king Charles II, was created Duke of Northumberland in the Peerage of England in 1683. He had already been created Baron of Pontefract, Viscount Falmouth and Earl of Northumberland in 1674, also in the Peerage of England. However, all the titles became extinct on his death in 1716 as he left no heirs.
In 1716 Philip Wharton, 1st Duke of Wharton, was created Duke of Northumberland, Marquess of Woburn, Earl of Malmesbury and Viscount Winchendon in the Jacobite Peerage, by the Old Pretender. The title had no legal validity in the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The title was created for the third time in 1766 for Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland, the former Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet (1714–1786), who had assumed by Act of Parliament in 1750 for himself and his descendants the surname Percy, due to his having married in 1740 the daughter of Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset (1684–1750), whose mother Lady Elizabeth Percy (1667–1722), was the last of the senior blood line of the ancient House of Percy, being the only surviving child of Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland (1644–1670). In 1749 King George II created Algernon who had inherited the Dukedom of Somerset in 1748 Earl of Northumberland and by courtesy title (for eldest male heir) Baron Warkworth, of Warkworth Castle in the County of Northumberland with special remainder to his son-in-law Sir Hugh Smithson, 4th Baronet.
The above steps formed a deliberate move to allow ancient names and titles of the Percys to be revived in the male-heir exhausted senior branch of the Dukedom of Somerset which at that time was about to see its largest removal, to another noble but very cadet branch (a fourth cousin) on Algernon's death. Algernon was also created Earl of Egremont at the same time with a different remainder—see this article for further information.
In 1784 the 1st Duke was also granted the substantive title Lord Lovaine, Baron of Alnwick in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of Great Britain, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy,who succeeded and who was created Earl of Beverley in 1790 and thus it too became a courtesy title.
The Duke was succeeded in the dukedom and associated titles by his eldest son, Hugh, the 2nd Duke, a lieutenant-general in the British Army. The 2nd Duke was in his turn succeeded by his eldest son, Hugh, the 3rd Duke, who in 1812, five years before he succeeded in the dukedom, had been summoned to the House of Lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Baron Percy.The 3rd Duke later held office as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland from 1829 to 1830. He was childless and was succeeded by his younger brother, Algernon, 1st Baron Prudhoe, the 4th Duke, who in 1814 had been created Baron Prudhoe, of Prudhoe Castle in the County of Northumberland, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The 4th Duke was an admiral in the Royal Navy and notably served as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1852. He was also childless and on his death in 1865 the barony of Prudhoe became extinct while the barony of Percy (which could be passed on through the female line) was inherited by his great-nephew, John Stewart-Murray, 7th Duke of Atholl. The Admiral was succeeded in the dukedom and remaining titles by his first cousin, George, the 2nd Earl of Beverley, eldest son of the second son of the 1st Duke. The barony of Lovaine and earldom of Beverley have since been merged in the dukedom as courtesy titles.
The 5th Duke was succeeded by his eldest son, Algernon, the 6th Duke, who notably served as Lord Privy Seal between 1879 and 1880 under Lord Beaconsfield. The 6th Duke's eldest son, Henry, the 7th Duke, was summoned to the House of lords through a writ of acceleration in his father's junior title of Lord Lovaine in 1887.The 7th Duke's eldest son, Henry Percy, Earl Percy, predeceased him. He was succeeded by his fourth but eldest surviving son, Alan, the 8th Duke, whose eldest son, Henry, the 9th Duke, was killed during the retreat to Dunkirk during the Second World War. Henry was succeeded by his younger brother, Hugh, the 10th Duke. In 1957, on the death of his fourth cousin once removed, James Stewart-Murray, 9th Duke of Atholl, Hugh succeeded as 9th Baron Percy, the title thus re-merging with the Dukedom. As of 2012 the titles are held by his second son, Ralph, the 12th Duke, who succeeded on the death of his elder brother in 1995.
Northumberland Estates manages 100,000 acres (400 km2): directly managing 4,000 acres (16 km2) of forestry and 20,000 acres (81 km2) of farmland, with approximately 100 tenant farmers managing the remaining bulk of the land.
Several other members of the Percy family have also gained distinction. Charlotte Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the third Duke, was governess of the future Queen Victoria. Lord Josceline Percy, second son of the fifth Duke, was a politician. Lord Henry Percy, third son of the fifth Duke, was a soldier. Lord Algernon Percy, second son of the sixth Duke, was a politician. Lord Eustace Percy, seventh son of the seventh Duke, was a politician who was raised to the peerage as Baron Percy of Newcastle in 1953. Jane Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, wife of the twelfth Duke, is Lord-Lieutenant of Northumberland since 2009. See also Earl of Beverley for younger sons of the first Earl of Beverley.
The seat of the Dukes of Northumberland is Alnwick Castle, which is located in Alnwick, Northumberland.The family's London residence is Syon House in Brentford, which replaced, as their London residence, the demolished Northumberland House in the Strand. Warkworth and Prudhoe castles were the residences of the Earls of Northumberland in the Middle Ages, and ownership was retained by the later Dukes. Both are now in the custody of English Heritage. Albury Park is a former residence which has been converted into apartments, while the surrounding estate is still directly owned by the Duke. The traditional burial place of the Dukes is the Northumberland Vault in Westminster Abbey in London, the Percys thus being the last family to maintain such a privilege. Their family vault is however nearly full, and a new private graveyard has been created in Hulne Park near Alnwick.
|Created by Edward VI of England|
| John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland |
|1551–1553||Jane Guildford||Tudor courtier and general, regent for Edward VI, executed for high treason against Mary I|| Earl of Warwick |
|Created by Charles II of England|
| George FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Northumberland |
|Illegitimate son of Charles II, died without heirs male|| Earl of Northumberland |
Baron of Pontefract
|Created by George II of Great Britain|
|Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, 1st Earl of Northumberland (1684–1750)||1749–1750||Frances Thynne||Grandson of Josceline Percy, 11th Earl of Northumberland|| Duke of Somerset etc. |
|Hugh Percy, 2nd Earl of Northumberland (1714–1786)||1750–1786|| Elizabeth Percy,|
2nd Baroness Percy
|Son-in-law of Algernon Seymour, 1st Earl of Northumberland; created Duke of Northumberland in 1766|| Baron Warkworth |
Baronet of Stanwick
|Created by George III of Great Britain|
| Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland |
|1766–1786|| Elizabeth Percy,|
2nd Baroness Percy
|Created Lord Lovaine in 1784, with remainder to his second son Lord Algernon Percy, later 2nd Lord Lovaine and 1st Earl of Beverley.|| Earl of Northumberland |
Baronet of Stanwick
| Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland |
|1786–1817||Frances Burrell||Son of the preceding|| Earl of Northumberland |
Baronet of Stanwick
| Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland |
|1817–1847||Lady Charlotte Clive||Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Baron Percy in 1812|
| Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland |
|1847–1865||Lady Eleanor Grosvenor||Brother of the preceding; had been created Baron Prudhoe in his own right in 1814|| Earl of Northumberland |
Baronet of Stanwick
|George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland (1778–1867)||1865–1867||widowed||Cousin of the preceding; eldest son of Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley, second son of the 1st Duke of Northumberland – had succeeded in earldom in 1830|| Earl of Northumberland |
Earl of Beverley
Baronet of Stanwick
|Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland (1810–1899)||1867–1899||Louisa Drummond||Son of the preceding|
|Henry George Percy, 7th Duke of Northumberland (1846–1918)||1899–1918||Lady Edith Campbell||Son of the preceding; had been summoned to the House of Lords as Lord Lovaine in 1887|
|Alan Ian Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland (1880–1930)||1918–1930||Lady Helen Gordon-Lennox||Son of the preceding|
|Henry George Alan Percy, 9th Duke of Northumberland (1912–1940)||1930–1940||none||Son of the preceding|
|Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland (1914–1988)||1940–1988||Lady Elizabeth Montagu Douglas Scott||Brother of the preceding|| Earl of Northumberland |
Earl of Beverley
Baron Percy (from 1957)
Baronet of Stanwick
|Henry Alan Walter Richard Percy, 11th Duke of Northumberland (1953–1995)||1988–1995||none||Son of the preceding|
|Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland (b. 1956)||since 1995||Jane Richard||Brother of the preceding|
The heir apparent is the present holder's elder son George Percy, Earl Percy (b. 1984)
|Family tree of the Earls and Dukes of Northumberland and Earls of Beverley|
Since at least the mid 18th century, the family has maintained a Northumbrian piper; the earliest known of these was Joseph Turnbull, who was painted in 1756 playing his pipes; the portrait, entitled Joseph Turnbull, Piper to the Duchess of Northumberland is at Alnwick Castle. At this time, before the Third Creation of the Dukedom, he would actually have been piper to the Countess. A later piper, William Green stated that "Joe Turnbull was the first Piper at Alnwick Castle – that was ever!" A list of the Ducal Pipers is at.The present Ducal Piper is Richard Butler. The piper's main duty is to play at the Shrove Tuesday football match in Alnwick.
Other pipers have been associated less formally with the family – the notorious piper James Allan (1729–1810) was a favourite of the Countess; in the last century Tom Clough and Richard Mowat are known to have played together with the Duke's then piper, James Hall, for the Duke and his guests at Alnwick; one such guest was Edward VII, in 1905.
Duke of Somerset, from the county of Somerset, is a title that has been created five times in the peerage of England. It is particularly associated with two families: the Beauforts, who held the title from the creation of 1448, and the Seymours, from the creation of 1547, in whose name the title is still held. The present dukedom is unique, in that the first holder of the title created it for himself in his capacity of Lord Protector of the Kingdom of England, using a power granted in the will of his nephew King Edward VI.
Duke of Atholl, named for Atholl in Scotland, is a title in the Peerage of Scotland held by the head of Clan Murray. It was created by Queen Anne in 1703 for John Murray, 2nd Marquess of Atholl, with a special remainder to the heir male of his father, the 1st Marquess.
Charles Seymour, 6th Duke of Somerset, known by the epithet "The Proud Duke", was an English peer. He rebuilt Petworth House in Sussex, the ancient Percy seat inherited from his wife, in the palatial form which survives today. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, he was a remarkably handsome man, and inordinately fond of taking a conspicuous part in court ceremonial; his vanity, which earned him the sobriquet of "the proud duke", was a byword among his contemporaries and was the subject of numerous anecdotes; Macaulay described him as "a man in whom the pride of birth and rank amounted almost to a disease".
The title of Earl of Northumberland has been created several times in the Peerage of England and of Great Britain, succeeding the title Earl of Northumbria. Its most famous holders are the House of Percy, who were the most powerful noble family in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages. The heirs of the Percys, via a female line, were ultimately made Duke of Northumberland in 1766, and continue to hold the earldom as a subsidiary title.
Admiral Algernon Percy, 4th Duke of Northumberland,, styled Lord Algernon Percy from birth until 1816 and known as The Lord Prudhoe between 1816 and 1847, was a British naval commander, explorer and Conservative politician.
Hugh Percy, 3rd Duke of Northumberland, styled Earl Percy until 1817, was a British aristocrat and Tory politician who served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland under the Duke of Wellington from 1829 to 1830.
The House of Percy is an English noble family. They were one of the most powerful noble families in Northern England for much of the Middle Ages, known for their long rivalry with another powerful northern English family, the House of Neville.
Ralph George Algernon Percy, 12th Duke of Northumberland,, styled Lord Ralph Percy until 1995, is a British hereditary peer and rural landowner and current head of the House of Percy.
Hugh Algernon Percy, 10th Duke of Northumberland, styled Lord Hugh Percy between 1918 and 1940, was a British landowner, soldier and peer. He was the son of Alan Percy, 8th Duke of Northumberland, and Lady Helen Gordon-Lennox. He succeeded to the dukedom of Northumberland in 1940 when his brother, the 9th Duke, was killed in action in World War II.
Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset was an English peer and landowner.
General Algernon Seymour, 7th Duke of Somerset, styled Earl of Hertford until 1748, of Petworth House in Sussex, was a British Army officer and Whig politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 until 1722 when he was raised to the House of Lords as Baron Percy.
Algernon George Percy, 6th Duke of Northumberland,, styled Lord Lovaine between 1830 and 1865 and Earl Percy between 1865 and 1867, was a British Conservative politician. He held office under the Earl of Derby as Paymaster-General and Vice-President of the Board of Trade in 1859 and under Benjamin Disraeli as Lord Privy Seal between 1878 and 1880.
Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland,, was an English peer, landowner, and art patron.
George Percy, 5th Duke of Northumberland PC, styled Lord Lovaine between 1790 and 1830 and known as the Earl of Beverley between 1830 and 1865, was a British Tory politician. He served as Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard under Sir Robert Peel between 1842 and 1846. He succeeded to his peerage on 12 February 1865, after the death of his childless cousin Algernon Percy.
Earl of Beverley, in the County of York, is a title in the Peerage of Great Britain, held by the Duke of Northumberland since 1865. It was created in 1790 for Algernon Percy, 2nd Baron Lovaine. He was the second son of Hugh Percy, 1st Duke of Northumberland. The title of Baron Lovaine, of Alnwick in the County of Northumberland, had been created in the Peerage of Great Britain in 1784 for the first Duke of Northumberland, with a special remainder to his second son, the aforementioned Algernon, who succeeded in the barony on his father's death in 1786. Lord Beverley was succeeded by his son, George, the 2nd Earl, who in 1865 inherited the dukedom of Northumberland from his cousin, the 4th Duke. All three titles have remained united since.
Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley FSA, styled Lord Algernon Percy between 1766 and 1786 and known as The Lord Lovaine between 1786 and 1790, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1774 to 1786 when he succeeded to the Peerage.
JoscelinePercy, 11th Earl of Northumberland, 5th Baron Percy, of Alnwick Castle, Northumberland and Petworth House, Sussex, was an English peer.
Mary Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, formerly Mary Webb, was the wife of Edward Seymour, 8th Duke of Somerset, and the mother of both the 9th and 10th dukes.
Isabella Susan Percy, Countess of Beverley, formerly Isabella Susan Burrell, was the wife of Algernon Percy, 1st Earl of Beverley, and the mother of the 5th Duke of Northumberland.
Frances Julia Percy, Duchess of Northumberland, formerly Frances Julia Burrell, was the second wife of Hugh Percy, 2nd Duke of Northumberland, and the mother of the 3rd and 4th Dukes.