Transport in Scotland

Last updated

Transport in Scotland is managed by Transport Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government Transport Scotland Sign - - 2462208.jpg
Transport in Scotland is managed by Transport Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government

The transport system in Scotland is generally well-developed. The Scottish Government and Scottish Parliament has control over most elements of transport policy within Scotland, with the Cabinet Secretary for Transport, Net Zero and Just Transition holding portfolio responsibility within the Scottish Government. [1] Transport Scotland is the Executive Agency responsible for the Scottish transport network. [2]


Government responsibility

The Scottish Government and Transport Scotland are solely responsible for transport in Scotland within the following areas:

Some aspects of transport policy and administration are reserved (i.e., not devolved), and are therefore the responsibility of the UK Government's Department for Transport: [3]


A ScotRail Class 43 High Speed Train at Greenhill, Falkirk 43124 1T98 Greenhill 24-04-20 (49971405461).jpg
A ScotRail Class 43 High Speed Train at Greenhill, Falkirk
A ScotRail Class 385031 makes its way out of Stirling towards Alloa Stirling - Abellio 383031 and the Wallace Memorial.JPG
A ScotRail Class 385031 makes its way out of Stirling towards Alloa

Railway overview

Scotland has an extensive railway network, with links across the country, connections to England, local commuter links to the major cities (many of which were electrified under British Rail) and freight. As of 2018, the total route length of the rail network in Scotland is 2,819 km (1,752 mi). 709 km (441 mi) of the rail network is electrified, and there are 359 stations. [4]

The railway network is owned by Network Rail, which is responsible for the majority of the railway infrastructure. Rail services are provided under franchises awarded by the government. The current holder of the Scottish franchise is ScotRail. Intercity services are also operated by Avanti West Coast, CrossCountry, Caledonian Sleeper, London North Eastern Railway and TransPennine Express. [5]

The East and West Coast Main Lines are the two cross-border railways that connect the networks of Scotland and England. London North Eastern Railway (LNER) provides inter-city rail journeys on the former between Inverness, Aberdeen and Edinburgh to London King's Cross via York, while Avanti West Coast runs services on the latter from either Edinburgh or Glasgow Central to London Euston with some services serving Birmingham New Street. TransPennine Express, Lumo, CrossCountry, Caledonian Sleeper and ScotRail also operate services to England. Domestic rail services within Scotland are operated by ScotRail. Glasgow's Subway is one of the four underground urban rail networks in the UK (the others being in London, Newcastle and Liverpool). Edinburgh has a tramway to and from the airport.

On 1 January 2006, Transport Scotland was established, which would oversee the regulation of railways in Scotland and administer major rail projects. [6] Since April 2022, Transport Scotland has taken ScotRail back into public ownership via its operator of last resort, Scottish Rail Holdings. [7] It will do the same with the Caledonian Sleeper service in June 2023. [8]

Cross border services

The Caledonian Sleeper, an overnight sleeper train, is operated by Scottish Rail Holdings and travels between Scotland and London Caledonian Sleeper - 50080141738.jpg
The Caledonian Sleeper, an overnight sleeper train, is operated by Scottish Rail Holdings and travels between Scotland and London

The main cross border services in Scotland are:

Scottish services

Map of railways in Scotland Rail map scotland.png
Map of railways in Scotland

Within Scotland, 94% of passenger service trains are operated by ScotRail, with the remaining 6% being cross border. [10] Until 2005, services within the former Strathclyde Regional Council area were provided by First ScotRail on behalf of SPT. [11]

History of Scottish railways

The first railway in Scotland was the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, opened in 1826. The first passenger railway was the Kilmarnock & Troon Railway. [12] The first railways in Scotland were operated using horse traction. By 1850, Scotland's major cities were linked to each other and to the rest of the British railway network. The second half of the nineteenth century saw a rapid expansion of the network, and by 1900; virtually every town with a population greater than 2,000 on the Scottish mainland had a railway station. At the same time, trains became more comfortable, faster and more frequent whilst the cost of travel declined relative to wages.

Nevertheless, there were probably never more than 100 million or so journeys made per year within Scotland, little more than 20 per head of population, illustrating how most people had little need, financial means or desire to travel long distances. Railways did, though, play an important part in moving freight, especially heavy loads such as coal, iron and steel, and played a vital role in the First World War.

After World War I, the Railways Act 1921 also known as the Grouping Act, merged the Caledonian Railway and its rival, the North British Railway into the newly created London, Midland and Scottish Railway and London and North Eastern Railway companies.

After World War II, the railways were nationalised by the Transport Act 1947 into British Railways. The Scottish network was reorganised as the Scottish Region (ScR), one of six new regions of British Railways.

By the late-1950s, the railways were operating at a loss. In 1963, the Government appointed Richard Beeching as Chairman of the British Transport Commission. He commissioned a report called The Reshaping of British Railways also known as the Beeching Repor that intended to reorganise the railways to become more profitable. This led to the infamous Beeching cuts, resulting in 650 miles of track and associated stations being closed. [13] The closures were deeply unpopular by many people affected and resulted in protests, most notably the Waverley Route. [14]

The closure programme slowed down after the Transport Act 1968 made it possible for the Government to directly subsidise loss-making lines and the last major closures in the 1970s, were the direct Edinburgh–Perth Glenfarg line and the Formartine and Buchan Railway which connected Peterhead and Fraserburgh to Aberdeen.

In the 1980s, British Railways (by that point renamed "British Rail") rebranded the Scottish Region as ScotRail.

British Rail was privatised in March 1997 by the outgoing Conservative Government. The Scotland franchise was won by National Express who decided to retain the ScotRail brand and operated the franchise until 2004. The Scotland franchise was then operated by First ScotRail until 2015 when Abellio ScotRail was awarded the franchise by the devolved Scottish Government. The Caledonian Sleeper service, which had previously been operated by the Scotland franchise holder from 1997, was separated as a new franchise in 2015. It is currently operated by Scottish Rail Holdings after being taken into public ownership by the Scottish Government and Transport Scotland in 2023. [15]

Since 1997, rail usage has risen, which has resulted in the reopening of former railway lines and stations closed under the Beeching Axe. Major reopenings include:

In 2008, the Scottish Government announced that £200 million would be spent to reduce journey times between Aberdeen and both Edinburgh and Glasgow. The funds would shorten the journey time between Aberdeen and Edinburgh by 24 minutes. However, in 2021, it was stated that only £1.68 million had been spent. [16] [17]

Glasgow Subway

The Glasgow Subway is the only underground system in Scotland. It opened on 14 December 1896, making it the third-oldest underground network in the world after the Budapest Metro and the London Underground. It is owned and operated by Strathclyde Partnership for Transport.

Trams and light rail

Edinburgh Trams opened on 31 May 2014. It is the only system currently in operation in Scotland, although Aberdeen, Dundee, Dunfermline, Edinburgh and Glasgow formerly had extensive networks.

Road network

The M8 is the busiest motorway network in Scotland Kingston Bridge in Glasgow.jpg
The M8 is the busiest motorway network in Scotland
The Queensferry Crossing carries the M90 motorway across the Firth of Forth Queensferry Bridge 2 (36766036234).jpg
The Queensferry Crossing carries the M90 motorway across the Firth of Forth
The A863 road on the Isle of Skye Isle Of Skye A863 The Cuillins.jpg
The A863 road on the Isle of Skye


Scotland has an extensive road network throughout the country. The motorway network is concentrated in the Central belt, with trunk roads (A roads) connecting the rest of the country.

Major routes in Scotland include:


Within the large cities, roads become congested in peak hours. The M8 and M77 motorways become heavily congested in peak hours, especially around Glasgow where it travels through the heart of the city. The main congestion hotspots are in Glasgow City Centre around the Kingston Bridge where a large amount of traffic leaves and enter the road. Also further down the road traffic joining at Hillington Estate and Braehead Shopping Centre near Glasgow Airport can cause hold-ups. Traffic is also extremely heavy between Glasgow and Edinburgh at all times, however rarely comes to a standstill.

Road construction

An extension to the M9 spur to link with the A90 at the Forth Bridge recently opened, as did the new Clackmannanshire Bridge over the Firth of Forth. A controversial extension to the M74 motorway through the southside of Glasgow was also completed in 2011. The road, first proposed in the 1960s, was due to be open in 2008. However, legal action against the road was brought by environmental group Friends of the Earth. The action ultimately failed; however, the motorway has widespread opposition after ministers over-ruled the Local Public Inquiry held into the project which recommended that the road not be built, as it would be unable to substantially reduce congestion and would lead to more vehicles and pollution in the area. The Scottish Ministers voted for the road, believing that it would regenerate the inner city of Glasgow's Southside and bring economic benefits to Renfrewshire, Inverclyde and the Southside of Glasgow. Construction cost is estimated at £575 million, and it is Scotland's biggest roads project, and the first motorway to be built in a British urban area for decades.

UK motorway symbol.svg Motorways of Scotland
M73M74M77 M8 M80M876M898 M9 M90
A-roads with motorway restrictions

Bus travel

Busses through Edinburgh city centre, passing Edinburgh Castle Edinburgh castle (49736353732).jpg
Busses through Edinburgh city centre, passing Edinburgh Castle
Buses, operated by Stagecoach, at Kilmarnock bus station Kilmarnock Bus Station.jpg
Buses, operated by Stagecoach, at Kilmarnock bus station

Scotland is covered by a large bus network throughout many towns, cities and rural areas. It is estimated that 95% of the population live within 5 minutes walk of a bus stop. National and international buses often operate out of main bus stations in the cities, such as Buchanan bus station in Glasgow and Edinburgh bus station.

Scottish Citylink and Megabus are the two principal long-distance coach operators within Scotland, and currently operating together as a joint venture. However, the deal is being monitored by the competition commission to ensure that it does not unfairly damage long-distance bus travel in Scotland. National Express provide coach links with cities in England and Wales.

FirstGroup and Stagecoach Group are two large public transport companies which are based in Scotland at Aberdeen and Perth, respectively, and both operate a number of local and regional services.

Numerous local independent operators also run bus services throughout Scotland as well as Lothian Buses, Edinburgh's largest bus operator and Scotland's last council-run bus company.

Scotland's bus network, like that of Great Britain outside London, is deregulated following an act of UK Parliament in 1986. This broke up the former national and city bus companies, formerly run by the local authorities since the 1930s, into private companies. The act also allowed buses to be operated by private companies and individuals for profit, provided they met the financial, background and maintenance requirements to qualify for a licence, set down by Vehicle & Operator Services Agency who administrate the system. A Public Service Vehicle Licence is then granted to allow a specified number of vehicles to be operated. Using this licence firms can then register their routes with the Local Traffic Commissioner for the area, in this case Scotland, indicating the exact route to be operated as well as the times and dates their buses will run. No requirements are set as to when and what routes buses can run, their age and what fares can be charged-this is decided by companies, often by the profitability of the route. Currently only one bus company, Lothian Buses in Edinburgh, remains under ownership and control of local councils in Lothian and Edinburgh.

On 31 January 2022, free bus travel was introduced across Scotland for everyone aged under 22. [18]



Map of ferry services in Scotland Scotland ferries map.png
Map of ferry services in Scotland
MV Isle of Mull, operated by Caledonian Macbrayne, serves the Craignure-Oban route Calmac ferry MV Isle of Mull - - 4360319.jpg
MV Isle of Mull , operated by Caledonian Macbrayne, serves the CraignureOban route

As Scotland is made up of several hundred islands, water has always been an important transport route for passengers and freight, particularly in the remote communities of the Hebrides.

Caledonian MacBrayne, a wholly-owned subsidiary of David MacBrayne Ltd, is wholly owned by Scottish Ministers and the Scottish Government. A total of 31 ferries serve a total of 52 ports and 49 routes on the ferry network in Scotland, with 5.3 million passengers travelling on the Caledonian MacBrayne ferry network in 2018. [19] The ferry network in Scotland is faced with issues, in part due to the ageing fleet of the Caledonian MacBrayne network. [20] The average age of a Caledonian MacBrayne vessel in 2023 was 40 years old, with MV Isle of Arran having been built in 1983, and serves the busiest route (ArdrossanBrodick) in Scotland's ferry network. [20]

The ferry network is often met with criticism by those living and working in Scotland's island communities, citing delays and cancellations as a reason for loss of earnings and impacting island communities local economies. [21] Construction of two replacement vessels, MV Glen Sannox and "Hull 802" were awarded to Ferguson Marine in 2015, however, have faced major delays and budget overspending, trebling to £293 million. [22]

In an attempt to deal with the political scandal arising from the ferry fiasco, the Scottish Government nationalised the Ferguson Marine shipyard, which, at the time of Scottish Government nationalisation, had debts of £70 million. [23]

There are several ferry companies operating in Scotland including:

The Strathclyde Partnership for Transport, formerly Strathclyde Passenger Transport, the only regional passenger executive in Scotland also subsidises and operates ferries on the Clyde including the Kilcreggan Ferry and the Renfrew Ferry.

The ferry to Gothenburg, Sweden, from "Newcastle" (actually North Shields) in northern England (currently run by the Danish company DFDS Seaways), ceased at the end of October 2006. [24] This service was a key route for Scottish tourist traffic from Sweden and Norway. The company cited high fuel prices and new competition from low-cost air services, especially Ryanair (which now flies to Glasgow Prestwick and London Stansted from Gothenburg City Airport), as being the cause. DFDS Seaways' sister company, DFDS Tor Line, will continue to run scheduled freight ships between Gothenburg and several English ports, including Newcastle, and these have limited capacity for passengers, but not private vehicles. The Newcastle-Kristiansand, Norway, route has however recently been cancelled.


Scotland never had an extensive canal network. The Forth and Clyde Canal, Union Canal and the Caledonian Canal were some of the most important, but went into decline after the growth of the railways. They are now being reopened and restored primarily for leisure use.

Air transport

Edinburgh Airport is Scotland's busiest airport by passenger numbers, with over 14.4 million passengers in 2023 Edinburgh Airport from the air - - 6228580.jpg
Edinburgh Airport is Scotland's busiest airport by passenger numbers, with over 14.4 million passengers in 2023
Barra Airport is the only airport in the world to use a tidal beach as its runway Twin Otter at Barra Airport.JPG
Barra Airport is the only airport in the world to use a tidal beach as its runway
Loganair is branded as Scotland's Airline GDN G-SAJF 4.jpg
Loganair is branded as Scotland's Airline

Air transport in Scotland is responsible for 0.3% of Scottish Gross Value Added (GVA) (roughly £400 million). [26] In 2019, 3.5 million international inbound visits to Scotland occurred, with a total visitor spending being estimated £2.5 billion. Of the 3.5 million inbound visits, 1.9 million used Scottish airports. [26] The Scottish Government has passed a bill in the Scottish Parliament to replace the UK-wide Air Passenger Duty with a Air Departure Tax which would apply fully and solely to Scotland. [27]

Edinburgh Airport is the busiest airport in Scotland by passenger numbers, and is a major transatlantic gateway for Scotland. In 2023, Edinburgh Airport handled in excess of 14 million passengers, a 28% increase from recorded passenger numbers in 2022. 35 airlines fly to 152 international destinations from Edinburgh Airport, with the airport handling 115,000 aircraft movements in 2023. [28] The countries second largest airport by passenger numbers is Glasgow Airport, which handles over 7 million passengers on an annual basis. A total of 20 airlines serve Glasgow Airport, flying to over 100 international destinations. [29]

Glasgow Prestwick Airport in Prestwick, South Ayrshire, was the only airport in Scotland to operate a transatlantic link for a considerable period of time before the establishment of Scotland's other larger airports, such as Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Glasgow. Aberdeen Airport is one of Europe's busiest commercial heliports due to its proximity to the North Sea and its role in supporting the North Sea oil and gas industry. The open skies policy (1990) allowed Scots to fly direct to international countries without the need to change flights at airports such as London Heathrow or London Gatwick. [30] British Airways, EasyJet, Jet2 and Ryanair operate the majority of flights between Scotland and other major UK and European airports.

Highlands and Islands Airports operates eleven airports across the Highlands, Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles, which are primarily used for short distance, public service operations, although Inverness Airport has a number of scheduled flights to destinations across the UK and mainland Europe. Inverness Airport is largely considered as the "air gateway" for the Scottish Highland area and Scotland's islands. [31] It is the largest of the ten airports serving the Highlands and Islands region, handling more than 330 flights per week to both Scottish and UK-wide destinations in 2009. [32]

A number of smaller airports across Scotland provide a mixture of commercial and military flights. Smaller airports of the country include Barra Airport, Benbecula Airport, Campbeltown Airport, Coll Airport, Colonsay Airport, Dundee Airport, Eday Airport, Fair Isle Airport, Foula Airport, Islay Airport, Tingwall Airport, North Ronaldsay Airport, Oban Airport, Papa Stour Airstrip, Papa Westray Airport, Sanday Airport, Stornoway Airport, Stronsay Airport, Sumburgh Airport, Tiree Airport, Westray Airport and Wick Airport. Islay Airport is known as the "Queen of the Hebrides" and is connected to the Scottish mainland with flights to Glasgow operated by British Airways. [33]

Scotland has five international airports – Aberdeen Airport, Edinburgh Airport, Glasgow Airport, Glasgow Prestwick Airport and Inverness Airport – with scheduled services, operating to Europe, North America and Asia, as well domestic services to England, Northern Ireland and Wales. There are currently four Scottish-based airlines:

Airports in Scotland

Location County ICAO IATA Airport nameUsage Rwy Length SurfaceElevation (m)
Aberdeen Aberdeen EGPDABZ Aberdeen Airport Public1,9536,407Asphalt66
Ardchattan and Muckairn Argyll and Bute EGEOOBN Oban Airport Public1,2404,068Asphalt7
Baltasound Shetland EGPWUNT Unst Airport Public6402,100Asphalt
Benbecula Na h-Eileanan Siar EGPLBEB Benbecula Airport Public1,8366,023Asphalt6
Barra Na h-Eileanan Siar EGPRBRR Barra Airport Public8462,776Sand2
Campbeltown Argyll and Bute EGECCAL Campbeltown Airport (RAF Machrihanish )Public3,04910,003Asphalt13
Coll Argyll and Bute EGELCOL Coll Airport Public5001,640Asphalt6
Colonsay and Oronsay Argyll and Bute EGEYCSA Colonsay Airport Public5011,644Asphalt13
North Ronaldsay Orkney EGENNRL North Ronaldsay Airport Public4671,532Graded hardcore17
Cumbernauld North Lanarkshire EGPG  Cumbernauld Airport Public8202,690Asphalt107
Dalcross Highland EGPEINV Inverness Airport Public1,8876,191Asphalt9
Dundee Dundee EGPNDND Dundee Airport Public1,4004,593Asphalt5
Dunrossness Shetland EGPBLSI Sumburgh Airport Public1,4264,678Asphalt6
Eday Orkney EGEDEOI Eday Airport Public4671,532Graded hardcore6
Edinburgh Edinburgh EGPHEDI Edinburgh Airport Public2,5608,399Asphalt41
Fair Isle Shetland EGEFFIE Fair Isle Airport Private4861,594Gravel68
Foula Shetland FOA Foula Airfield 4571,500Gravel
Islay Argyll and Bute EGPIILY Islay Airport Public1,5455,068Asphalt17
Kinglassie Fife EGPJ  Fife Airport Public7002,297Asphalt
Kinloss Moray EGQKFSS Kinloss Barracks Military2,3117,582Asphalt
Sanday Orkney EGESNDY Sanday Airport Public4671,532Graded hardcore20
Leuchars Fife EGQLADX Leuchars Station Military2,5888,491Asphalt
Lossiemouth Moray EGQSLMO RAF Lossiemouth Military2,7499,019Asphalt
Out Skerries Shetland OUKOut Skerries Airport
Papa Stour Shetland PSV Papa Stour Airport Public4421,450Gravel
Papa Westray Orkney EGEPPPW Papa Westray Airport Public4691,532Graded hardcore28
Paisley Renfrewshire EGPFGLA Glasgow Airport Public2,6588,720Asphalt8
Prestwick South Ayrshire EGPKPIK Glasgow Prestwick Airport Public2,9879,799Concrete/asphalt20
Mainland, Orkney Orkney EGPAKOI Kirkwall Airport Public1,4284,685Asphalt18
Scone Perth and Kinross EGPTPSL Perth Airport Public8532,799Asphalt
Stornoway Na h-Eileanan Siar EGPOSYY Stornoway Airport Public2,2007,218Asphalt8
Ashaig Highland EGEISKL Broadford Airfield Public7932,602Grass
Stronsay Orkney EGERSOY Stronsay Airport Public5151,690Graded hardcore12
Tingwall Shetland EGETLWK Tingwall Airport Public7642,507Asphalt14
Tiree Argyll and Bute EGPUTRE Tiree Airport Public1,4724,829Asphalt
Westray Orkney EGEWWRY Westray Airport Public4671,532Gravel9
Whalsay Shetland EGEHWHS Whalsay Airstrip Public4571,499Asphalt
Wick Highland EGPCWIC Wick Airport Public1,8255,988Asphalt

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in the United Kingdom</span> Overview of the transport in the United Kingdom

Transport in the United Kingdom is highly facilitated by road, rail, air and water networks. Transport is a devolved matter with each of the countries of the United Kingdom having separate systems under separate governments.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Argyll and Bute</span> Council area of Scotland

Argyll and Bute is one of 32 unitary council areas in Scotland and a lieutenancy area. The current lord-lieutenant for Argyll and Bute is Jane Margaret MacLeod. The administrative centre for the council area is in Lochgilphead at Kilmory Castle, a 19th-century Gothic Revival building and estate. The current council leader is Robin Currie, a councillor for Kintyre and the Islands.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">First ScotRail</span> Train operating company in the United Kingdom

First ScotRail was a train operating company in Scotland owned by FirstGroup. It operated the ScotRail franchise between October 2004 and March 2015.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Glasgow Queen Street railway station</span> Terminus railway station in Glasgow, Scotland

Glasgow Queen Street is a passenger railway terminus serving the city centre of Glasgow, Scotland. It is the smaller of the city's two mainline railway terminals and is the third busiest station in Scotland behind Central and Edinburgh Waverley.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Highland Main Line</span> Railway line in Scotland

The Highland Main Line is a railway line in Scotland. It is 118 mi (190 km) long and runs through the central Scottish Highlands, mainly following the route of the A9, and linking a series of small towns and villages with Perth at one end and Inverness at the other. Today, services between Inverness and Edinburgh, Glasgow and London use the line. At Inverness the line connects with the Far North Line, the Aberdeen-Inverness Line and the Kyle of Lochalsh Line. All trains are diesel-powered.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Glasgow</span> Overview of transport in Glasgow

The city of Glasgow, Scotland, has a transport system encompassing air, rail, road and an underground light metro line. Prior to 1962, the city was also served by trams. Commuters travelling into Glasgow from the neighbouring local authorities of North and South Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire, East Renfrewshire, and East and West Dunbartonshire have a major influence on travel patterns, with tens of thousands of residents commuting into the city each day. The most popular mode of transport in the city is the car, used by two-thirds of people for journeys around the city.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Perth railway station (Scotland)</span> Railway station in Perth, Scotland

Perth railway station is a railway station located in the city of Perth, Scotland, on both the Glasgow to Dundee line and the Highland Main Line. It is managed by ScotRail, who provide almost all of the services.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Inverness railway station</span> Railway station in the Scottish Highlands, Scotland

Inverness railway station is the railway station serving the Scottish city of Inverness. It is the terminus of the Highland Main Line, the Aberdeen–Inverness line, the Kyle of Lochalsh line and the Far North Line.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Paisley Gilmour Street railway station</span> Railway station in Renfrewshire, Scotland

Paisley Gilmour Street railway station is the largest of the four stations serving the town of Paisley, Renfrewshire, Scotland, and acts as the town's principal railway station. The station is managed by ScotRail and serves the Ayrshire Coast Line and Inverclyde Line, 7+14 miles (11.7 km) west of Glasgow Central. The station is protected as a category B listed building.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Edinburgh</span> Overview of the transport system in Edinburgh

Edinburgh is a major transport hub in east central Scotland and is at the centre of a multi-modal transport network with road, rail and air communications connecting the city with the rest of Scotland and internationally.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Aberdeen railway station</span> Railway station in Aberdeen City, Scotland, UK

Aberdeen railway station is the main railway station in Aberdeen, Scotland. It is the busiest railway station in Scotland north of the major cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. It is located on Guild Street in the city centre, next to Union Square.

<i>Caledonian Sleeper</i> Overnight sleeper trains between London and Scotland

Caledonian Sleeper is the collective name for overnight sleeper train services between London and Scotland, in the United Kingdom. It is one of only two currently operating sleeper services on the railway in the United Kingdom, the other being the Night Riviera which runs between London and Penzance.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Gleneagles railway station</span> Railway station in Perth and Kinross, Scotland

Gleneagles railway station serves the town of Auchterarder in Perth and Kinross, Scotland.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">ScotRail (National Express)</span> Scottish train operating company (1997–2004)

ScotRail was a train operating company in Scotland owned by National Express that operated the ScotRail franchise from March 1997 until October 2004. Prior to March 1997 ScotRail ran the trains and after October 2004 First ScotRail ran them.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Aberdeen</span> Overview of transport in Aberdeen

The network of transportation in Aberdeen is extensive and diversified, like that of many comparably sized cities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Transport in Tyne and Wear</span> Overview of transport in Tyne and Wear

Tyne and Wear is a metropolitan area covering the cities of Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland, as well as North and South Tyneside, Gateshead and Washington.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">David MacBrayne</span> Government-owned Scottish Ferry holding company

David MacBrayne is a limited company owned by the Scottish Government. Formed in 1851 as the private shipping company David Hutcheson & Co. with three partners, David Hutcheson, Alexander Hutcheson and David MacBrayne, it passed in 1878 to David MacBrayne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Abellio ScotRail</span> British train operating company owned by Abellio

Abellio ScotRail, operating services under the name ScotRail, was the national train operating company of Scotland. A subsidiary of the Netherlands-based transport conglomerate Abellio, it operated the ScotRail franchise between 1 April 2015 and 31 March 2022.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">British Rail Mark 5 (CAF)</span> Railway carriages used by Caledonian sleeper

The British Rail Mark 5 is the designation given to locomotive-hauled rail carriages built by Spanish manufacturer CAF for operation with Caledonian Sleeper.

After extensive privatisation of the public sector during the Margaret Thatcher administration, there remain few statutory corporations in the UK. Privatisation began in the late 1970s, and notable privatisations include the Central Electricity Generating Board, British Rail, and more recently Royal Mail. After the Hatfield rail crash accident, the British government decided to intervene and in 2002 renationalised Railtrack into Network Rail.


  1. "Cabinet Secretary for Transport, Infrastructure and Connectivity". Scottish Government. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  2. "About". Transport Scotland. Retrieved 1 March 2021.
  3. "Devolved and Reserved Powers". Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  4. "Chapter 7: Rail Services". Transport Scotland. Archived from the original on 16 March 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2019.
  5. "National Rail: Companies and coverage guide". Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  6. "Corporate: Freedom of Information Publication Scheme". Transport in Scotland. Retrieved 24 September 2014.
  7. "ScotRail goes back into public ownership". BBC News . 1 April 2022. Retrieved 1 April 2022.
  8. "Caledonian Sleeper to be delivered by the Scottish Government". Transport Scotland. 2 March 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2023.
  9. "National Express awarded contract for growth on InterCity East Coast". Department for Transport. Archived from the original on 19 December 2007.
  10. "Scottish Transport Statistics" (PDF). Transport Scotland . 2017. No. 36.
  11. "All Scotland's trains to get Saltire livery". The Scotsman . Edinburgh.
  12. "Plaque marks pioneering railway". BBC News . 6 July 2012.
  13. "450 miles of Scots railway 'dodged Beeching axe'".
  14. Brocklehurst, Steven (27 March 2013). "What was Beeching's worst railway cut?". BBC News. Retrieved 4 May 2019.
  15. "Transport Scotland | Caledonian Sleeper Franchise". Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  16. Hall, Jamie. "Concerns as rail improvement works 'no further forward' 13 years on". Evening Express. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  17. Hall, Jamie. "North-east rail upgrades on track for 2026 completion". Press and Journal. Retrieved 22 August 2021.
  18. "Free bus travel for under-22s in Scotland begins". BBC News. 31 January 2022. Retrieved 22 June 2022.
  20. 1 2 "The problem with CalMac's ageing ferries". BBC News. 22 April 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  21. "Anger grows at latest CalMac ferry disruption". BBC News. 30 March 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  22. "£87,000 bonus for Ferguson bosses branded 'unacceptable'". BBC News. 14 March 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  23. "Jobs safeguarded as SNP ministers nationalise Ferguson shipyard". The Herald. 16 August 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  24. "DFDS scraps Newcastle-Gothenburg line" Archived 28 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine , The Local, 7 September 2006: "Danish shipping company DFDS Seaways is to scrap the only passenger ferry route between Sweden and Britain, with the axing of the Gothenburg-Newcastle route at the end of October."
  25. "Facts and figures | Edinburgh Airport". Edinburgh Airport. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  26. 1 2 "Context | Transport Scotland". Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  27. "Air Departure Tax". Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  28. "Facts and figures | Edinburgh Airport". Edinburgh Airport. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  29. "About Us | Glasgow Airport". Glasgow Airport. Retrieved 24 February 2024.
  30. Jarvie, Frances and Gordon (2009). Flight in Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing. pp. 32–33. ISBN   978-1-905267-24-8.
  31. Jarvie, Frances and Gordon (2009). Flight in Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing. pp. 32–33. ISBN   978-1-905267-24-8.
  32. Jarvie, Frances and Gordon (2009). Flight in Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing. pp. 24–25. ISBN   978-1-905267-24-8.
  33. Jarvie, Frances and Gordon (2009). Flight in Scotland. Edinburgh: NMS Enterprises Limited - Publishing. pp. 24–25. ISBN   978-1-905267-24-8.

Further reading