London and North Eastern Railway

Last updated

London and North Eastern Railway
LNER logo 1932.png
Flying Scotsman express, 2547, Doncaster (CJ Allen, Steel Highway, 1928).jpg
LNER Class A1 No. 2547 Doncaster with The Flying Scotsman train in 1928.
Overview
Dates of operation1 January 1923
31 December 1947
Predecessor Great Eastern Railway
Great Central Railway
Great Northern Railway
Great North of Scotland Railway
Hull and Barnsley Railway
North British Railway
North Eastern Railway
and others
Successor British Rail:
Technical
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge
Length6,590 miles (10,610 km)
Timetable for Autumn 1926 detailing the resumption of services after the General Strike LNER railway timetable North Eastern area for Autumn 1926.jpg
Timetable for Autumn 1926 detailing the resumption of services after the General Strike

The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) was the second largest (after LMS) of the "Big Four" railway companies created by the Railways Act 1921 in Britain. It operated from 1 January 1923 until nationalisation on 1 January 1948. At that time, it was divided into the new British Railways' Eastern Region, North Eastern Region, and partially the Scottish Region.

Contents

History

The company was the second largest created by the Railways Act 1921. The principal constituents of the LNER were:

The total route mileage was 6,590 miles (10,610 km). The North Eastern Railway had the largest route mileage of 1,757 miles (2,828 km), whilst the Hull and Barnsley Railway was 106.5 miles (171.4 km).

It covered the area north and east of London. It included the East Coast Main Line from London to Edinburgh via York and Newcastle upon Tyne and the routes from Edinburgh to Aberdeen and Inverness. Most of the country east of the Pennines was within its purview, including East Anglia. The main workshops were in Doncaster, with others at Darlington, Inverurie and Stratford, London. [1] [2]

The LNER inherited four of London's termini: Fenchurch Street (ex-London and Blackwall Railway; [3] King's Cross (ex-Great Northern Railway); Liverpool Street (ex-Great Eastern Railway); and Marylebone (ex-Great Central Railway). [4] In addition, it ran suburban services to Broad Street (London, Midland and Scottish Railway) and Moorgate (Metropolitan Railway, later London Transport). [5]

The LNER owned:

In partnership with the London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS), the LNER was co-owner of the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, the UK's biggest joint railway, much of which competed with the LNER's own lines. The M&GNJR was incorporated into the LNER in 1936. In 1933, on the formation of the London Passenger Transport Board, the LNER acquired the remaining operations of the Metropolitan Railway Company.

The LNER was the majority partner in the Cheshire Lines Committee and the Forth Bridge Railway Company.

It depended on freight from heavy industry in Yorkshire, the north east of England and Scotland, and its revenue was reduced by the economic depression for much of the early part of its existence. In a bid to improve financial efficiency, staffing levels reduced from 207,500 in 1924 to 175,800 in 1937. [6] For investment to retain freight traffic, new marshalling yards were built in Whitemoor in Cambridgeshire, and Hull in Yorkshire to attempt to retain freight traffic.

Sir Ralph Wedgwood introduced a Traffic Apprenticeship Scheme to attract graduates, train young managers and provide supervision by assistant general manager Robert Bell for career planning. The company adopted a regional managerial system, with general managers based in London, York and Edinburgh, and for a short time, Aberdeen. [6]

For passenger services, Sir Nigel Gresley, the Chief Mechanical Engineer built new powerful locomotives and new coaches. [7] Later developments such as the streamlined Silver Jubilee train of 1935 were exploited by the LNER publicity department, and embedded the non-stop London to Edinburgh services such as the Flying Scotsman in the public imagination. The crowning glory of this time was the world record speed of 126 miles per hour (203 km/h) achieved on a test run by LNER Class A4 4468 Mallard. [8]

In 1929, the LNER chose the typeface Gill Sans as the standard typeface for the company. Soon it appeared on every facet of the company's identity, from metal locomotive nameplates and hand-painted station signage to printed restaurant car menus, timetables and advertising posters. [9] [10] [11] The LNER promoted their rebranding by offering Eric Gill a footplate ride on the Flying Scotsman express service; he also painted for it a signboard in the style of Gill Sans, which survives in the collection of the St Bride Library. [12] [13] [14] Gill Sans was retained by the Railway Executive in 1949 and was the official typeface until British Rail replaced it in the mid 1960s with Rail Alphabet.

Continental shipping services were provided from Harwich Parkeston Quay. [15]

The company took up the offer in 1933 of government loans at low interest rates and electrified the lines from Manchester to Sheffield and Wath yard, and also commuter lines in the London suburban area. [16]

Ancillary activities

The LNER inherited:

It took shares in a large number of bus companies, including for a time a majority stake in United Automobile Services Ltd. In Halifax and Sheffield, it participated in Joint Omnibus Committees with the LMS and the Corporation. [1]

In 1935, with the LMS, Wilson Line of Hull and others it formed the shipping company Associated Humber Lines Ltd. [1]

In 1938 it was reported that the LNER, with 800 mechanical horse tractors, was the world's largest owner of this vehicle type. [19]

Ships

The LNER operated a number of ships.

Liveries

Detail of LNER teak panelled coaches, preserved on the Severn Valley Railway LNER teak coaches.jpg
Detail of LNER teak panelled coaches, preserved on the Severn Valley Railway

The most common liveries were lined apple green on passenger locomotives (much lighter and brighter than the green used by the Great Western Railway) and unlined black on freight locomotives, both with gold lettering. Passenger carriages were generally varnished teak (wood) finish; the few metal-panelled coaches were painted to represent teak.

Some special trains and A4 Pacific locomotives were painted differently, including silver-grey and garter blue.

Advertising

The LNER covered quite an extensive area of Britain, from London through East Anglia, the East Midlands and Yorkshire to the north east of England and Scotland. The 1923 grouping meant that former rivals within the LNER had to work together. The task of creating an instantly recognisable public image went to William M. Teasdale, the first advertising manager. Teasdale was influenced by the philosophies and policies of Frank Pick, who controlled the style and content of the London Underground's widely acclaimed poster advertising. Teasdale did not confine his artists within strict guidelines but allowed them a free hand. William Barribal designed a series of bold Art Deco posters in the 1920s and 1930s. [20] When Teasdale was promoted to Assistant General Manager, this philosophy was carried on by Cecil Dandridge who succeeded him and was the Advertising Manager until nationalisation in 1948. Dandridge was largely responsible for the adoption of the Gill Sans typeface, later adopted by British Railways.

The LNER was a very industrial company: hauling more than a third of Britain's coal, it derived two thirds of its income from freight. Despite this, the main image presented was one of glamour, of fast trains and sophisticated destinations. Advertising was highly sophisticated and advanced compared with those of its rivals. Teasdale and Dandridge commissioned top graphic designers and poster artists such as Tom Purvis to promote its services and encourage the public to visit the holiday destinations of the east coast in the summer.

Chief office holders

Chairmen of the Board

Chief General Managers

Chief mechanical engineers

The most famous of the A1/A3 Class locomotives, A3 4472 Flying Scotsman Flying Scotsman in Doncaster.JPG
The most famous of the A1/A3 Class locomotives, A3 4472 Flying Scotsman
A4 Pacific Mallard, world speed record holder for steam traction Mallard locomotive 625.jpg
A4 Pacific Mallard , world speed record holder for steam traction

Nationalisation

The company was nationalised in 1948 along with the rest of the railway companies of Great Britain to form British Railways. It continued to exist as a legal entity for nearly two more years, being formally wound up on 23 December 1949. [23]

On the privatisation of British Rail in 1996, the franchise to run long distance express trains on the East Coast Main Line was won by Sea Containers Ltd, who named the new operating company Great North Eastern Railway (GNER), a name and initials deliberately chosen to echo the LNER.

Following the collapse of Virgin Trains East Coast in May 2018, the newly-nationalised operator of the East Coast Main Line was named London North Eastern Railway to evoque the earlier company. [24]

Cultural activities

During the 1930s, the LNER Musical Society comprised a number of amateur male-voice choirs, based at Doncaster, Leicester, Huddersfield, Peterborough, Selby and elsewhere, which annually combined for a performance in London under their musical director Leslie Woodgate. [25]

Accidents

See also

Related Research Articles

London, Midland and Scottish Railway Former railway in the UK, 1923–1947

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway (LMS) was a British railway company. It was formed on 1 January 1923 under the Railways Act of 1921, which required the grouping of over 120 separate railways into four. The companies merged into the LMS included the London and North Western Railway, Midland Railway, the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, several Scottish railway companies, and numerous other, smaller ventures.

North Eastern Railway (United Kingdom) British railway company, active 1854–1922

The North Eastern Railway (NER) was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854 by the combination of several existing railway companies. Later, it was amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923. Its main line survives to the present day as part of the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh.

LNER Class V2

The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Class V2 2-6-2 steam locomotives were designed by Sir Nigel Gresley for express mixed traffic work, and built at the LNER shops at Doncaster and Darlington between 1936–1944. The best known is the first of the class, 4771 Green Arrow, which is the sole survivor of the class.

SECR C class

The South Eastern and Chatham Railway (SECR) C Class is a class of 0-6-0 steam locomotive, designed by Harry Wainwright and built between 1900 and 1908. They were designed for freight duties, although occasionally used for passenger trains. They operated over the lines of the railway in London and south-east England until the early 1960s. One example was rebuilt as an S Class saddle tank.

GER Class S69

The Great Eastern Railway (GER) Class S69, also known as 1500 Class, and later classified B12 by the London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) is a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed to haul express passenger trains from London Liverpool Street station along the Great Eastern Main Line. Originally they were designed by S. D. Holden, but were much rebuilt, resulting in several subclasses.

NER Class S3

The North Eastern Railway Class S3, classified B16 by the LNER, was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed for mixed traffic work. It was designed by Vincent Raven and introduced in 1920. The earlier members of this class were fitted with Westinghouse Brakes - all of this equipment was removed during the 1930s.

Midland Railway 1000 Class is a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed for passenger work. They were known to reach speeds of up to 85 mph.

LNER Class B17

The London and North Eastern Railway (LNER) Class B17, also known as "Sandringham" or "Footballer" class was a class of 4-6-0 steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley for hauling passenger services on the Great Eastern Main Line. In total 73 were built.

GNR Class N2

The Great Northern Railway (GNR) Class N2 is an 0-6-2T side tank steam locomotive designed by Nigel Gresley and introduced in 1920. Further batches were built by the London and North Eastern Railway from 1925. They had superheaters and piston valves driven by Stephenson valve gear.

GER Classes S46, D56 and H88

The GER Classes S46, D56 and H88 were three classes of similar 4-4-0 steam locomotive designed by James Holden and A. J. Hill (H88) for the Great Eastern Railway.

NER Class M1

The North Eastern Railway Class M1 is a class of 4-4-0 steam locomotive, designed by Wilson Worsdell. 20 initial engines were built, then 30 further units were built, designated Class Q.

Great Western Railway accidents

Great Western Railway accidents include several notable incidents that influenced rail safety in the United Kingdom.

References

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Bonavia 1980 , p. [ page needed ]
  2. Hughes 1987, p. 146.
  3. Awdry 1990, p. 144.
  4. Whitehouse & Thomas 1989, pp. 57, 59.
  5. Hughes 1987, p. 50.
  6. 1 2 Simmons, Jack; Biddle, Gordon (1840). The Oxford Companion to British Railway History. Oxford University Press. pp. 283–284. ISBN   978-0198662389.
  7. Hughes, Geoffrey (2001). Sir Nigel Gresley: The Engineer and his Family. The Oakwood Library of Railway History. Oakwood Press. ISBN   978-0853615798.
  8. Hale, Don (2005). Mallard: How the 'Blue Streak' Broke the World Steam Speed Record. London: Aurum Press. ISBN   978-1854109392.
  9. Robinson, Edwin (1939). "Preparing a railway timetable" (PDF). Monotype Recorder. 38 (1): 14–17, 24–26. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  10. Skelton, Stephen. "Gill Sans" (PDF). New Writing. University of East Anglia. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
  11. Cole & Durack 1992, pp. 15–23.
  12. Mosley, James (10 November 2015). Lecture on Gill's work (Speech). 'Me & Mr Gill' talk. Old Truman Brewery, London.
  13. Robinson, Edwin (1939). "Preparing a Railway Timetable" (PDF). Monotype Recorder. 38 (1): 24. Retrieved 12 July 2015.
  14. Hewitt, John (1995). "East Coast Joys: Tom Purvis and the LNER". Journal of Design History. 8 (4): 291–311. doi:10.1093/jdh/8.4.291. JSTOR   1316023.
  15. Bonavia, Michael R. (1982). A History of the LNER. 1 The early Years, 1923-1933. Allen and Unwin. ISBN   978-0043850886.
  16. Allen, Cecil J. (1966). The London & North Eastern Railway. Allen.
  17. Railway Magazine September 1936 LNER hotels advert page iv
  18. advert on Wednesday 21 May 1947 in Hull Daily Mail
  19. Whitaker 1938 [ page needed ]
  20. Cole & Durack 1992, p. 128.
  21. "New Chairman of L.N.E.R. Sir Ronald W. Matthews Appointed" . Yorkshire Post and Leeds Intelligencer. England. 1 October 1938. Retrieved 18 August 2017 via British Newspaper Archive.
  22. "A Railway Hierarchy" . Cambridge Daily News. England. 13 February 1939. Retrieved 22 November 2017 via British Newspaper Archive.
  23. The Railway Magazine (February 1950) "Main-Line Companies Dissolved", p. 73
  24. East Coast train line to be put into public control BBC News 16 May 2018
  25. Scowcroft, Philip. "Chorus Master and Composer: Leslie Woodgate". musicweb-international.com. Retrieved 16 January 2015.
  26. Hall 1990, p. 83.
  27. Hoole 1982, p. 25.
  28. 1 2 Hall 1990, p. 84.
  29. Hoole 1982, p. 44.
  30. Earnshaw 1990, p. 15.
  31. Pringle, J W (27 June 1926). "London & North East Railways" (PDF). www.railwaysarchive.co.uk. Retrieved 24 June 2016.
  32. 1 2 Hoole 1982, p. 26.
  33. Trevena 1980, p. 35.
  34. Hoole 1982, p. 27.
  35. Hoole 1982, p. 28.
  36. Earnshaw 1990, p. 16.
  37. Vaughan 1989, pp. 69–73.
  38. Vaughan 1989, pp. 74–49.
  39. Hoole 1983, p. 19.
  40. Trevena 1980, pp. 36–37.
  41. 1 2 Earnshaw 1991, p. 26.
  42. Earnshaw 1993, p. 18.
  43. Earnshaw 1990, p. 20.
  44. Trevena 1980, p. 41.
  45. Earnshaw 1990, p. 21.
  46. Earnshaw 1989, p. 28.
  47. Earnshaw 1991, p. 28.
  48. Earnshaw 1991, p. 32.
  49. "Accident Report" (PDF). Ministry of War Transport. 26 June 1941. Retrieved 3 July 2014.
  50. Grosbois, Thierry (2007). Pierlot, 1930–1950. Brussels: Racine. p. 16. ISBN   978-2873864859.
  51. 1 2 Hoole 1982, p. 35.
  52. Earnshaw 1991, p. 29.
  53. Hoole 1982, pp. 36–37.
  54. Earnshaw 1991, p. 30.
  55. Hoole 1982, p. 37.

Sources