Stratford, London

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Stratford
HE1080991 Old Town Hall Stratford (1).jpg
West Ham Town Hall, Stratford
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
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Stratford
Location within Greater London
Population51,387 (2011 Census Stratford and New Town, Forest Gate North and South wards) [1]
OS grid reference TQ385845
  Charing Cross 6 mi (9.7 km)  WSW
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district E7, E15, E20
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°32′32″N0°00′09″W / 51.5423°N 0.00256°W / 51.5423; -0.00256 Coordinates: 51°32′32″N0°00′09″W / 51.5423°N 0.00256°W / 51.5423; -0.00256

Stratford is a district in the East End of London, in the London Borough of Newham, England. It is 6 miles (10 km) east-northeast of Charing Cross and is in East London. Stratford is part of the Lower Lea Valley and includes the localities of Maryland, East Village, Mill Meads (shared with West Ham), Stratford City and Forest Gate. It is historically part of the ancient parish and subsequent County Borough of West Ham, which became the western half of the modern borough within a Greater London in 1965. Historically an agrarian settlement in the county of Essex, Stratford was transformed into an industrial suburb after the introduction of the railway in 1839.

Contents

The late 20th century was a period of severe economic decline, eventually reversed by regeneration associated with the 2012 Summer Olympics, for which Stratford's Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park was the principal venue and later with West Ham United F.C. and British Athletics moving to the London Stadium.

Stratford, along with Ilford and Romford are East London's primary retail, cultural and leisure centres. Stratford has also become the second most significant (after Canary Wharf) business location in the east of the capital.

History

Stratford's early significance was due to a Roman road running from Aldgate in the City, to Romford, Chelmsford and Colchester, crossed the River Lea. At that time the various branches of the river were tidal and unchannelised, while the marshes surrounding them had yet to be drained. The Lea valley formed a natural boundary between Essex on the eastern bank and Middlesex on the west, and was a formidable obstacle to overland trade and travel.

Original ford and place name origin

The name is first recorded in 1067 as Strætforda and means 'ford on a Roman road'. [2] It is formed from Old English 'stræt' (in modern English ‘street’) and 'ford'. The former river crossing lay at an uncertain location north of Stratford High Street.

The district of Old Ford in northern Bow – west of the Lea and now in Tower Hamlets – is named after the former crossing, while Bow itself was also initially named Stratford, after the same ford, and a variety of suffixes were used to distinguish the two distinct settlements. [2]

The settlement to the east of the Lea was also known as Estratford referring to the location east of the other Stratford[ citation needed ], Statford Hamme alluding to the location within the parish of West Ham, Abbei Stratford, referring to the presence of Stratford Langthorne Abbey. [2] and Stretford Langthorne after a distinctive thorn tree (probably a pollarded Hawthorn) which was mentioned in a charter of 958 AD.

Bow bridge

In 1110 Matilda, wife of Henry I, ordered a distinctively bow-shaped (arched) bridge to be built over the River Lea, together with a causeway across the marshes along the line now occupied by Stratford High Street. Reports state she (or her retinue) encountered problems crossing the river to get to Barking Abbey.

The western Stratford then become suffixed by “-atte-Bow” (at the Bow), eventually becoming known simply as Bow, while over time the eastern Stratford lost its “Langthorne” suffix.

Bow Bridge depicted in 1851 ECR(1851) p18b - Bow Bridge.jpg
Bow Bridge depicted in 1851

The bridge was repaired and upgraded many times over the centuries until eventually demolished and replaced in the 19th century.

Stratford Langthorne Abbey

In 1135 the Cistercian Order founded Stratford Langthorne Abbey, also known as West Ham Abbey. This became one of the largest and most wealthy monasteries in England, owning 1,500 acres (610 hectares) in the immediate area and 20 manors throughout Essex. [3]

The Abbey lay between the Channelsea River and Marsh Lane (Manor Road). Nothing visible remains on the site, as after it dissolution by Henry VIII in 1538, local landowners took away much of the stone for their own buildings and the land was subsequently urbanised.

A stone window and a carving featuring skulls – thought to have been over the door to the charnel house – remain in All Saints Church, West Ham (dating from about 1180). The Great Gate of the abbey survived in Baker's Row until 1825. [4]

Arms of the County Borough of West Ham. West Ham arms.png
Arms of the County Borough of West Ham.

The doorway to the Old Court House, in Tramway Avenue (Stratford), displays the Abbey's coat of arms. The chevrons from this device, originally from the arms of the Mountfitchet family, together with an abbot's crozier were incorporated into the arms of the former County Borough of West Ham in 1887. The new London Borough of Newham adopted the same arms in 1965. [5]

Industrialisation

The industrialisation of Stratford started slowly and accelerated rapidly in the early Victorian era.

London 2012 Opening Ceremony - Industrial Revolution London 2012 olympics industrial revolution.jpg
London 2012 Opening Ceremony – Industrial Revolution

The Stratford and national experience of the Industrial Revolution inspired scenes in the 2012 Olympic Opening Ceremony covering the traumatic transition from a ‘Green and Pleasant Land’ to the ‘Pandemonium’ of the revolution and the huge social and economic changes it brought.

Pre-industrial economy

Stratford was originally an agricultural community, whose proximity to London provided a ready market for its produce. By the 18th century, the area around Stratford was noted for potato growing, a business that continued into the mid-1800s. [6] Stratford also became a desirable country retreat for wealthy merchants and financiers, within an easy ride of the City. When Daniel Defoe visited Stratford in 1722, he reported it had "...increased in buildings to a strange degree, within the compass of about 20 or 30 years past at the most". He continues that "...this increase is, generally speaking, of hansom large houses... being chiefly for the habitations of the richest citizens, such as either are able to keep two houses, one in the country, and one in the city; or for such citizens as being rich, and having left off trade, live altogether in these neighbouring villages, for the pleasure and health of the latter part of their days". [7]

Early developments

An early industrial undertaking at Stratford was the Bow porcelain factory, which despite the name, was on the Essex side of the River Lea. Using a process that was patented in 1744, Edward Heylin and Thomas Frye operated a factory near Bow Bridge called "New Canton" to produce some of the first soft-paste porcelain to be made in the country. [8] The site of the factory was to the north of Stratford High Street near the modern Bow Flyover; it was the subject of archaeological excavations in 1921 and 1969. [9]

Victorian acceleration

The Victorian era saw growth hugely accelerated by three major factors; the Metropolitan Building Act, the arrival of the railway and the creation of the nearby Royal Docks.

Rapid growth followed the Metropolitan Building Act in 1844. The Act restricted dangerous and noxious industries from operating in the metropolitan area, the eastern boundary of which was the River Lea. Consequently, many of these activities were relocated to the banks of the river. As a result, West Ham became one of Victorian Britain's major manufacturing centres for pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and processed foods. This rapid growth earned it the name "London over the border". [10] The growth of the town was summarised by The Times in 1886:

"Factory after factory was erected on the marshy wastes of Stratford and Plaistow, and it only required the construction at Canning Town of the Victoria and Albert Docks to make the once desolate parish of West Ham a manufacturing and commercial centre of the first importance and to bring upon it a teeming and an industrious population." [10]

By the early 19th century, Stratford was an important transport hub, with omnibuses and coaches running into London four times every hour and coaches from East Anglia passing through hourly. The route into London was plied by Walter Hancock's steam coaches for a period during the 1830s. [11] A small dock and a number of wharves were operating on the River Lea at Stratford by the 1820s, serving the needs of local industries. However, the opening of the nearby Royal Victoria Dock in 1855 and the subsequent construction of the Royal Group of Docks (at one time the largest area of impounded water in the world), increased Stratford's importance as a transport and manufacturing centre. [12] Rising population levels led to two major new Anglican churches in the area, St John's Church in 1834 and Christ Church in 1851.

Engine repair shop of the Stratford Railway Works, 1921 Stratford Railway Works.jpg
Engine repair shop of the Stratford Railway Works, 1921

Stratford station was opened on 20 June 1839 by the Eastern Counties Railway (ECR). The Northern and Eastern Railway opened a section of its authorised line from Broxbourne to join the ECR at Stratford on 15 September 1840. [13] A railway works and depot for engines and rolling stock was established by Great Eastern in 1847 to the north of Stratford. At its peak, the works employed over 2,500 many of whom had homes, along with other rail workers, in the town that developed nearby. It was originally called Hudson Town, after George Hudson, the "Railway King;", but after his involvement in bribery and fraud was revealed in 1849, the settlement quickly became better known as Stratford New Town, which by 1862 had a population of 20,000. [14] During the lifetime of the Stratford works, 1,682 locomotives, 5,500 passenger coaches and 33,000 goods wagons were built.

The last part of the works closed in March 1991. [15]

20th century

Stratford, like many areas of London, particularly in the East End, suffered significant de-industrialisation in the 20th century. [16] This was compounded by the closing of the London Docks in the 1960s. [17] Around this time, the Stratford Shopping Centre was built, beginning efforts to guide the area through the process of transformation from a working-class industrial and transport hub to a retail and leisure destination for the contemporary age. [16] These efforts continued with the Olympic bid for Stratford, and the ongoing urban regeneration work going on there. [18]

Geography

Stratford began as a hamlet in the NW part of the ancient parish of West Ham, as the area urbanised it expanded, increased in population and merged with neighbouring districts.

Except as a ward, Stratford has never been a unit of administration and so, like many London districts, lacks formally defined boundaries. As described however, Stratford occupies the north-west part of West Ham and so takes the NW boundaries of that area; boundaries which have subsequently become the NW boundary of the modern London Borough of Newham.

In this way the River Lea and the complex network of the Bow Back Rivers mark the western limits of the area, which also extends north as far as the boundary of the London Borough of Waltham Forest.

Governance

History

Stratford was one of three ancient wards in the large parish of West Ham, in the Becontree hundred of Essex. It came within the Metropolitan Police District in 1840. [19]

Stratford ward of West Ham Civil Parish in 1867. West Ham CP Ward Map 1867.svg
Stratford ward of West Ham Civil Parish in 1867.

Despite forming part of the built up area of London the parish remained outside the statutory metropolitan area established in 1855 and the County of London established in 1889. Instead, administrative reform was undertaken in the area in much the same way as a large provincial town. A local board was formed in 1856 under the Public Health Act 1848 and subsequently the parish was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1886. In 1889 the borough was large enough in terms of population to become a county borough and was outside the area of responsibility of Essex County Council. Stratford formed the centre of administration of the county borough and was the location of the town hall.

In 1965 West Ham was reunited with East Ham (Ham is believed to have formed a single unit until the late 12th century) and small areas of neighbouring districts, to form the London Borough of Newham, part of the new Greater London.

Today

Stratford is in the constituency of West Ham, represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 2005 by Lyn Brown of the Labour Party.

Stratford is part of the mayorship under the Mayor of Newham which is a directly elected mayor and is held by Rokhsana Fiaz since 4 May 2018. In 2018, previous incumbent Sir Robin Wales was de-selected by the Newham Labour Party to be their candidate in the mayoral election, losing to Custom House councillor Rokhsana Fiaz by 861 votes to Wales who had 503.

The modern borough has an electoral ward named 'Stratford and New Town'.

Post code districts

The Royal Mail has given the postcode E20 to the Olympic Park and Stratford City developments; this was previously only used by the BBC TV soap EastEnders for its fictional East London setting of Walford. [20] The name "Walford" is a portmanteau of the names of nearby Walthamstow and Stratford itself.

Demography

As of the 2011 census, White British is the largest ethnic group in the Stratford and New Town ward, at 21% of the population, followed by Other White at 19% and Black African at 13%. [21]

Local Politics

Residents of Stratford fall into the ward of Stratford and New Town. They elect three councilors every four years to represent them on Newham Council. The next election is scheduled to take place in May 2022.

Stratford and New Town - 2018 (3)
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Joshua Garfield 3,288
Labour Nareser Osei 2,970
Labour Terence Paul* 2,825
Liberal Democrats Gareth Evans1,395
Green Rachel Nunson1,017
Liberal Democrats Sheree Miller848
Liberal Democrats James Rumsby790
Conservative Andrius Kavaliauskas642
Conservative John Oxley635
Conservative Shardi Shameli529
Christian Peoples Alliance John Falana172
Christian Peoples Alliance Esther Smith136
Turnout
Registered electors 18,252
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Stratford and New Town by-election, 7 May 2015 [22]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Charlene McLean 4,607
Conservative Matthew Gass1,778
Green Isabelle Anderson1,170
UKIP Jamie Ross McKenzie403
Christian Peoples Alliance Joe Mettle99
TUSC Bob Severn70
Majority35.0
Turnout 8,127
Registered electors 15,024
Labour hold Swing
Stratford and New Town - 2014 (3) [23] [24] [25]
PartyCandidateVotes%±
Labour Charlene McLean 2,582
Labour Richard Crawford 2,517
Labour Terry Paul 2,449
Conservative Matt Gass777
Conservative Bilal Hassan744
Conservative Augustine Chipungu646
Christian Peoples Alliance Julie Afiari199
Christian Peoples Alliance Florence Asiwaju-Dada174
Christian Peoples Alliance John Falana157
Turnout
Registered electors 11,722
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing

Religion

The two main faiths of the people are Christianity and Islam, with 8106 Christians and 3643 Muslims. [26]

St John's Church in Stratford Broadway St John's Stratford.JPG
St John's Church in Stratford Broadway

The Church of England parish church of Stratford is the 1830s church called St John's on Stratford Broadway, a major thoroughfare and The Grove and is part of Diocese of Chelmsford, itself part of the Province of Canterbury. It is a Grade II listed building. [27] In its churchyard is a memorial to the Stratford Martyrs, who were burned at the stake in 1556 during the reign of Queen Mary. The memorial itself is octagonal with terracotta plaques on each face, surmounted by a twelve sided spire. It was unveiled in 1878. [28]

Economy

Stratford town centre with Stratford Broadway, the Gurney Memorial and the spire of St John's Church Stratford Broadway.JPG
Stratford town centre with Stratford Broadway, the Gurney Memorial and the spire of St John's Church

Both of Stratford's shopping centres: The Stratford Centre and the recently opened (2011) Westfield Stratford City are on either side of Stratford station. Westfield Stratford City, home to 350 stores, is one of the largest shopping centres in Europe. The older centre has a range of accessibly-priced stores, its indoor and outdoor market stalls, and the 'inshops' network of small retail outlets. The centre occupies much of the 'island site' created in the 1960s by the surrounding gyratory traffic system.

Regeneration

Stratford has been a focus of regeneration for some years as the local economy has grown, and is the location of a number of major projects.

Westfield Stratford City opened in September 2011 Westfield stratford city.jpg
Westfield Stratford City opened in September 2011
During construction of the International Quarter International Quarter under construction Oct 2016.jpg
During construction of the International Quarter

Developments:

Olympic Park developments:

Neighbouring developments:

Landmarks

Gurney memorial drinking fountain

Directly to the south of the churchyard stands a 12.80-metre tall granite obelisk, which was erected in 1861 as a memorial to the Quaker philanthropist and abolitionist, Samuel Gurney (1766 to 1856). The plinth carries two brass drinking fountain heads on opposite sides, and the inscription; IN REMEMBRANCE OF SAMUEL GURNEY / WHO DIED 5 June 1856 / ERECTED BY HIS FELLOW PARISHIONERS AND FRIENDS / 1861 / "When the ear heard him then it blessed him" [35] (a paraphrase from the Book of Job, Chapter 29 verse 11).

Old town hall

Designed by Lewis Angell and John Giles in the Italianate style with a 100-foot (30.5-metre) tall domed tower, Stratford Town Hall opened in 1869 as the public offices for the West Ham Local board of health. It later became the town hall for the county borough and was enlarged in 1881 to accommodate a courthouse and cells. [36] On 26 June 1982, the main part of the building was badly damaged by fire; after a painstaking reconstruction of the original features and refurbishment as a conference centre, it was reopened by the Queen in July 1986. It is a Grade II Listed Building. [37]

King Edward VII public house

Opposite St John's Church stands an early 19th-century pub, the King Edward VII with original pedimented doors and early 19th-century bay windows. It is a Grade II Listed Building. [38]

It was originally called "The King of Prussia", either in honour of Frederick the Great or else after King Frederick William IV who visited the area in 1842 to meet Elizabeth Fry, the prison reformer.

In 1914, the first year of World War One, the pub was renamed [39] in honour of the reigning king, Edward VII. The old name was problematic as ‘The King of Prussia’ was one of the titles of the German Emperor, Kaiser Wilhelm II. More than a hundred years later, the King Edward VII pub is still locally nicknamed ‘The Prussian’.

"Robert" the tank engine

A 38 tonne 0-6-0 saddle-tank steam locomotive named "Robert" is displayed in Meridian Square, the forecourt of Stratford Station. It was built in 1933 by the Avonside Engine Company of Bristol for use at the Lamport Ironstone mines railway near Brixworth, Northamptonshire. It was previously an exhibit at the North Woolwich Old Station Museum, but moved to Stratford in 1999. In 2008, it was removed to the East Anglia Railway Museum at Chappel and Wakes Colne railway station near Colchester; there it was cleaned and repainted at the expense of the Olympic Delivery Authority and returned to Stratford in 2011. [40]

The ArcelorMittal Orbit observation tower in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. ArcelorMittal Orbit, April 2012.jpg
The ArcelorMittal Orbit observation tower in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park.
ArcelorMittal orbit

A 114-metre-tall (374 ft) sculpture and observation tower in the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park. It is Britain's largest piece of public art, and is intended to be a permanent legacy of the 2012 Summer Olympics. It closed after the end of the Games, but was re-opened to the public in April 2014. [41]

The Old Abbey Mills Pumping Station in Abbey Lane Old Abbey Mills Pumping Station, Stratford. - geograph.org.uk - 445286.jpg
The Old Abbey Mills Pumping Station in Abbey Lane
Abbey Mills Pumping Stations

Built in 1868 as part of the new London sewerage system by Sir Joseph Bazalgette, the building originally housed steam pumps and is a notable example of Italian style Gothic Revival architecture. It is opened to the public on an occasional basis, when the "flamboyant interior of enriched cast ironwork" can be seen. It was used to portray a lunatic asylum in the 2005 film Batman Begins , and is a Grade II* listed building. [42]

Entertainment

Stratford Circus on Great Eastern Street. Stratford Circus (2179748935).jpg
Stratford Circus on Great Eastern Street.

Stratford's Cultural Quarter, adjacent to the shopping centre, is home to several arts venues, bars and cafes. Such as the Theatre Royal Stratford East which designed by architect James George Buckle, who was commissioned by the actor-manager Charles Dillon in 1884. [43] 'Stratford East' however is not a location; the 'East' is used to differentiate between Stratford (east London) and Stratford-upon-Avon. Stratford Circus is a contemporary performing arts venue that was designed by Levitt Bernstein architects and built with funding from the National Lottery which opened in 2001.

Damnably Records relocated to Stratford from Forest Gate in 2014 and is run by George Gargan, a Manor Park born musician from the band Former Utopia and Lazarus Clamp (1999–2003). The Discover Children's Story Centre is a partner in the Cultural Quarter which is a purpose-built Story World and Story Garden are creative play spaces, it works with schools, libraries and the local community. [44]

Filmography

Stratford has been used as a shooting location for numerous films, notably Sparrows Can't Sing (1963) and Bronco Bullfrog (1970), Batman Begins (2005) and Attack the Block (2011). The promotional film for the Beatles' "Penny Lane" single was filmed in and around the southern part of Angel Lane, demolished in the late 1960s to build the Stratford Centre.

Sports

Stratford is home to the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, a sporting complex built for the 2012 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics and is named after Elizabeth II to commemorate her Diamond Jubilee. [45]

The first annual Invictus Games (set up by Prince Harry) were held between 10–14 September 2014 in the park, events were held at many of the venues used during the 2012 Olympics, including the Copper Box and the Lee Valley Athletics Centre which had 300 competitors from 13 countries which have fought alongside the United Kingdom in recent military campaigns participated. [46] [47] [48] [49]

The Premier League football club West Ham United F.C. is based in Stratford Queen Elizabeth Olympics Park. From 1904 until 2016, the club's home ground was Boleyn Ground in Upton Park. In 2016, West Ham moved to a new multi-purpose ground, the London Stadium, which is also home to UK Athletics (known as British Athletics) who ground share with West Ham. The stadium has hosted a few 2015 Rugby World Cup and English rugby union matches and also both the 2017 IAAF World Championships and the 2017 World Para Athletics Championships.

The London Aquatics Centre is also in the park and is an indoor facility with two 50-metre (160-foot) swimming pools and further has a 25-metre (82-foot) diving pool.

Education

University of East London Stratford Campus UEL Stratford Campus.JPG
University of East London Stratford Campus

The University of East London (UEL) has a major campus in Stratford, whose main building, University House, is a historic listed building dating from the 19th Century. The adjacent Passmore Edwards Building is also one of the area's most historic and beautiful buildings, with colourful frescoes and domed roof. In addition, Birkbeck College, part of the University of London, has launched courses in the area, initially using space provided by UEL, with a view to constructing its own campus in Stratford. A new university is planned on the Olympic Park following the 2012 Olympic Games.

Newham College of Further Education is a further education college that has a campus in Stratford which opened in 1993 with Stratford as it secondary educational teaching site. [50] In April 2016 the college announced a strategic alliance with University of East London. [51]

The Chobham Academy is an academy in the Stratford neighbourhood of East Village and is run by the Harris Federation which opened in September 2013. It is classed as an education campus and comprises a nursery, primary and secondary school, sixth form and adult learning facility. [52]

Sarah Bonnell School is one of the oldest girls schools in England and currently a girls only secondary school. It had moved to its present site in Deanery Road from Forest Gate. It took over the buildings that had previously been called Deanery High School for Girls and Stratford Green Secondary School. [53]

The Carpenters Primary School is a state school in the Carpenters Estate, the livery company of the City of London Worshipful Company of Carpenters has close links with the school who make regular grants. The school is built on a site next to the original Carpenters’ Institute. [54]

Other schools in Stratford include Colegrave, [55] John F Kennedy [56] and also St Francis [57] and Maryland [58] in the locality of Maryland.

Transport

Stratford station's new northern entrance Stratford station northern entrance.jpg
Stratford station's new northern entrance

Stratford has significant and historical transport hub, and today is well served by bus routes, and a number of railway stations and cycle lanes, as well by omnibuses and coaches in the 19th century. Stratford overall is served by six stations, covering a large catchment area.

Rail

Stratford Regional is a major National Rail interchange on the Great Eastern Main Line, North London Line and Lea Valley Lines. According to 2017-18 figures, 40.08 million passengers entered or exited the station, making it the UK's 7th busiest station. [59] The station is managed by TfL Rail. [60] The station is served by several rail operators. Greater Anglia and TfL Rail both run services out of London Liverpool Street in the City of London to Stratford. TfL Rail trains travel east as far as Shenfield in Essex, via Romford. Greater Anglia trains terminate at destinations in East Anglia, including Southend Victoria, Colchester Town, Harwich, Ipswich and Norwich. Trains run directly to London Southend Airport from Stratford. Greater Anglia trains also use Lea Valley Lines towards Tottenham Hale and Bishop's Stortford. London Overground services from Stratford follow the North London Line towards Highbury & Islington, travelling through Gospel Oak and Willesden Junction towards Richmond or Clapham Junction. [61] London Underground's Central and Jubilee lines both serve the station, linking Stratford to Oxford Street, Wembley Stadium, Epping and Canary Wharf. The Jubilee line was extended to Stratford in 1999. The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) was extended to Stratford in 1987, and to Stratford International in 2011, with services to Poplar, Canary Wharf, Lewisham, London City Airport, the Excel Centre, Beckton and Woolwich Arsenal. [62]

Stratford International, to the northwest, is on the High Speed 1 (HS1) line from St Pancras International to Kent, and is served by Southeastern domestic high speed services; so far, no decision has been made for international Eurostar services to call. The International and Regional stations are linked by a branch of the Docklands Light Railway – opened in August 2011.

Pudding Mill Lane is in the south of the Olympic Park (though it closed during the Olympics for safety reasons due to its size) and west of Stratford town centre and normally provides transport to the local factories. Served by the Docklands Light Railway to Stratford, Poplar and Canary Wharf, it was re-sited south as part of the Crossrail project. Also is Stratford High Street, another DLR-only station to the south of Stratford Regional, situated on the site of the former Stratford Market railway station.

The eastern part of Stratford town centre is served by Maryland railway station. The Liverpool Street-Shenfield via Ilford and Romford service known as the Shenfield Metro service and runs every 10 minutes and is operated by TfL Rail and in eastern residential area of Stratford known as Forest Gate is also served by Forest Gate railway station. This service also calls at Stratford and was incorporated into the Crossrail service in 2017.

Bus and Coach

Stratford bus station is adjacent to Stratford Regional and the Stratford Centre, served by London Buses.

London Buses travel to destinations in the West and East End, northeast and south London, served by London Bus routes 69, 86, 104, 158, 238, 241, 257, 262, 276, 308, 425, 473, D8 and by the 25 and N8 to Central London. [63]

A newer bus station, Stratford City bus station, opened in 2011 as part of the Westfield Stratford City regeneration project to the north of Stratford Regional. London Bus routes 97, 241, 308, 339, 388, 108 and N205 call here. [63] National Express run coaches from Stratford City bus station to Stansted Airport and destinations in East Anglia. [64] [65] Megabus coaches also call at Stratford City bus station with a direct service to Norwich. [66]

Road

Stratford is connected to the National Road Network by several major routes.

The A12 passes through Stratford between Bow and Leyton, carrying eastbound traffic from London towards the North Circular, the M25, the M11 and East Anglia. The A11 (Bow Road) meets the A12 at the Bow Interchange to Stratford's southwest. The A11 carries traffic between the City and Stratford, whilst the A12 to the south carries traffic to the A13 and Canary Wharf. Transport for London (TfL) are responsible for the A11 and A12 roads. [67] [68]

Stratford High Street is numbered the A118, which runs from Bow Interchange to Ilford and Romford. The A112 is a north-south route through Stratford, which ultimately terminates near Chingford in the north (via Leyton and Walthamstow) and London City Airport in the south. [67]

All roads in Stratford are part of London's Low Emission Zone. [69]

Air Quality

Newham Council partake in roadside pollution monitoring. In a 2018 report, Leytonstone Road in Stratford recorded the highest percentage of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in roadside air of all monitoring sites in Newham, with an annual mean of 60%. Temple Mills Lane in Stratford recorded an annual mean of 40%. [70] It is thought that Nitrogen Dioxide is linked to respiratory conditions, can decrease lung function and increase response to allergens. [71]

Cycling

Stratford is linked to London's cycle network, with cycling infrastructure provided by both Transport for London (TfL) and Newham Council.

The eastern terminus of Cycle Superhighway 2 (CS2) is on Stratford High Street. CS2 follows Stratford High Street southwest on segregated cycle track towards Bow Interchange. Signal controls at Bow Interchange give priority to cyclists, who can also use cycle lanes to cross the junction. CS2 then follows Bow Road (the A11) to Aldgate on cycle track. [72] CS2 was the first fully segregated Cycle Superhighway to open in London. [73]

Quietway 6 passes through the north of Stratford between Victoria Park and Wanstead, running non-stop to Barkingside in the northeast. [74] Quietway 22 runs from Victoria Park, over Stratford High Street (CS2), towards Plaistow and Beckton. [75] Quietways are signposted routes on quieter roads.

National Cycle Route 1 (NCN1) skirts around Stratford on its northwestern edge, running along the Hertford Union Canal and Lee Navigation towpaths. NCN1 is a long cycle route between Dover, Kent, and the Shetland Islands, running in north London non-stop between the Greenwich Foot Tunnel and Waltham Abbey. [76] Cycling is permitted on the Hertford Union Canal and Lee Navigation towpaths around Stratford, which are shared-use paths maintained by the Canal and River Trust. [77]

The Santander Cycles sharing scheme operates in Stratford. [78]

Between 2010 and 2014, the A118 (Stratford High Street) saw 153 pedal cycle casualties, constituting a 31% share of cycle casualties in Newham. By 2016, however, there were only 79 serious cyclist injuries across the whole borough, with no deaths. [79] The Borough has launched a "Cycling Strategy" to improve cycling provisions between 2018 and 2025. [79]

People from Stratford

See Category:People from Stratford, London

See also

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Leyton is a district of east London and part of the London Borough of Waltham Forest, located 6.2 miles (10 km) north-east of Charing Cross in the United Kingdom. It borders Walthamstow and Leytonstone in Waltham Forest, Stratford in the London Borough of Newham and Homerton and Lower Clapton in the London Borough of Hackney. The district includes part of the Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, which hosted the 2012 Olympic Games, as well as Leyton Orient Football Club, although it is predominantly residential. It consists mainly of terraced houses built between 1870 and 1910, interspersed with some modern housing estates.

West Ham Human settlement in England

West Ham is a district in East London, located 6.1 mi (9.8 km) east of Charing Cross Forming the centre western part of the modern London Borough of Newham, the West Ham electoral ward covers part of the central area of that borough. West Ham was an ancient parish in the county of Essex, and became part of Greater London in 1965, following the passing of the London Government Act 1963.

London Borough of Newham London borough in United Kingdom

The London Borough of Newham is a London borough created in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. It covers an area previously administered by the Essex county boroughs of West Ham and East Ham, authorities that were both abolished by the same act.

Plaistow, Newham Human settlement in England

Plaistow is a district in the London Borough of Newham in East London, England. It forms the majority of the London E13 postcode district.

East Ham Suburban district of London, England

East Ham is a district of the London Borough of Newham, England, 8 miles (12.8 km) east of Charing Cross. East Ham is identified in the London Plan as a Major Centre. The population is 76,186.

West Ham station London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, and railway station

West Ham is a London Underground, Docklands Light Railway (DLR) and National Rail intermodal interchange station in the West Ham area of London, United Kingdom. On the Underground network it is on the District and Hammersmith & City lines between Plaistow and Bromley-by-Bow and the Jubilee line between Stratford and Canning Town. On the DLR it is on the Stratford International branch between Abbey Road and Star Lane. On the main line West Ham is 4 miles 7 chains (6.6 km) from the London terminus at Fenchurch Street and is situated between Limehouse and Barking, with services currently operated by c2c.

Bromley-by-Bow Human settlement in England

Bromley, commonly known as Bromley-by-Bow, is a district in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets in East London, located on the western banks of the River Lea, in the Lower Lea Valley in East London.

Manor Park, London Human settlement in England

Manor Park is a residential area and district of the London Borough of Newham in east London, England. The area is bordered by Ilford to the east, Forest Gate to the west, Wanstead to the north, and East Ham to the south. Further west lies Stratford and the City of London, and further east lies Romford and the Essex boundary.

Canning Town Human settlement in England

Canning Town is a district in East London, England. It has formed part of the London Borough of Newham since 1965. It is located in the area of the former Royal Docks on the north side of the River Thames, and is the location of Rathbone Market. Canning Town was part of the ancient parish of West Ham in the county of Essex. It was transferred to Greater London in 1965.

A11 road (England) major road in England

The A11 is a major trunk road in England. It runs roughly north east from London to Norwich, Norfolk, although after the M11 opened in the 1970s and then the A12 extension in 1999, a lengthy section has been downgraded between the suburbs of east London and the north-west corner of the county of Essex. It also multiplexes/overlaps with the A14 on the Newmarket bypass.

Bow, London Human settlement in England

Bow is an area of East London within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is primarily a built-up and mostly residential area and is 4.6 miles (7.4 km) east of Charing Cross.

Forest Gate Human settlement in England

Forest Gate is a residential district in east London, England, in the London Borough of Newham.

Greenway footpath, London

The Greenway is an approximately 4.3 miles long footpath and bike freeway in London. The western end of the Greenway is at Wick Lane in Fish Island but the Greenway actually continues a bit further north to Victoria Park, London alongside Wick Lane underpass on pavement under the East Cross Route in London Borough of Tower Hamlets and it crosses Stratford and West Ham. The eastern end is at Royal Docks Road in Beckton. Work has taken place to resurface and renovate the route—especially around the Olympic Park.

Lower Lea Valley

The Lower Lea Valley is the southern end of the Lea Valley which surrounds the River Lea. It is part of the Thames Gateway redevelopment area and was the location of the 2012 Summer Olympics.

Upton Park, London Human settlement in England

Upton Park is an area of the East London borough of Newham, centred on Green Street which is the boundary between West Ham and East Ham. West Ham United Football Club formerly played at the Boleyn Ground, commonly known as Upton Park.

East London Northeastern part of London, United Kingdom

East London is a popularly and informally defined part of London, capital of the United Kingdom. By most definitions it is east of the ancient City of London and north of the River Thames. It broadly comprises the London boroughs of Barking and Dagenham, Hackney, Havering, Newham, Redbridge, Tower Hamlets and Waltham Forest. The East End of London is a subset of East London, consisting of areas close to the ancient City of London. The Eastern (E) Postal District is a different subset of East London; and there is also an "East" sub-region used in the London Plan for planning policy reporting purposes. The most recent (2011) iteration includes seven boroughs north of the Thames, with the addition of three boroughs south of the river.

Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park Place in Greater London

Queen Elizabeth Olympic Park, in London, England, United Kingdom, is a sporting complex in Stratford. It was built for the 2012 Summer Olympics and the Paralympics, situated to the east of the city adjacent to the Stratford City development. It contains the athletes' Olympic Village and several of the sporting venues including the London Stadium and London Aquatics Centre, besides the London Olympics Media Centre.

County Borough of West Ham

West Ham was a local government district in the extreme south west of Essex from 1886 to 1965, forming part of the built-up area of London, although outside the County of London. It was immediately north of the River Thames and east of the River Lea.

Abbey Road DLR station Docklands Light Railway station

Abbey Road DLR station is a Docklands Light Railway station in West Ham in the London Borough of Newham, in east London, England. It is located on the Stratford International extension of the Docklands Light Railway.

Stratford Langthorne Abbey human settlement in the United Kingdom

Stratford Langthorne Abbey, or the Abbey of St Mary's, Stratford Langthorne was a Cistercian monastery founded in 1135 at Stratford Langthorne — then Essex but now Stratford in the London Borough of Newham. The Abbey, also known as West Ham Abbey as it lay in that parish, was one of the largest Cistercian abbeys in England, possessing 1,500 acres (6.07 km2) of local land, controlling over 20 manors throughout Essex. The Abbey was self-sufficient for its needs and wealthy besides; some of this wealth came from the ecclesiastic mills grinding wheat for local bakers to supply bread to the City of London. This later led to competition with the Guild of Bakers, who sought powers to levy a toll on loaves entering the City at Whitechapel.

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