Canning Town

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Canning Town
Royal Victoria Dock - with Canary Wharf and the Millennium Dome in the background - geograph.org.uk - 1168534.jpg
Royal Victoria Dock
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
Canning Town
Location within Greater London
Population30,806 (Canning Town North and South wards, 2011) [1]
OS grid reference TQ4081
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district E13, E16
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°30′54″N0°01′34″E / 51.515°N 0.026°E / 51.515; 0.026 Coordinates: 51°30′54″N0°01′34″E / 51.515°N 0.026°E / 51.515; 0.026

Canning Town is a district in East London, England. It has formed part of the London Borough of Newham since 1965. It is located in the area of the former Royal Docks on the north side of the River Thames, and is the location of Rathbone Market. Canning Town was part of the ancient parish of West Ham in the county of Essex. It was transferred to Greater London in 1965.

Contents

The area is undergoing significant regeneration as of 2012. According to Newham Council: "The Canning Town and Custom House Regeneration Programme includes the building of up to 10,000 new homes, creation of thousands of new jobs and two improved town centres. This £3.7 billion project aims to transform the area physically, socially and economically." [2]

History

Map c1872, showing Victoria Docks, now Royal Victoria Dock, Bow Creek and the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company. Victoria Docks 1872.jpg
Map c1872, showing Victoria Docks, now Royal Victoria Dock, Bow Creek and the Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company.
Map 1908, showing Canning Town to the north of Royal Victoria Dock and Silvertown to the south of the dock. Canning Town and Royal Victoria Dock 1908.jpg
Map 1908, showing Canning Town to the north of Royal Victoria Dock and Silvertown to the south of the dock.
Bidder Street in 1891, one of the oldest parts of Canning Town. The Bidder Street area is now an industrial area Bidder Street 1891.jpg
Bidder Street in 1891, one of the oldest parts of Canning Town. The Bidder Street area is now an industrial area
The West Ham Power Station, also known as Canning Town Power Station, next to Bow Creek on Tucker Street in 1973 West Ham B Power Station.jpg
The West Ham Power Station, also known as Canning Town Power Station, next to Bow Creek on Tucker Street in 1973

Prior to the 19th century, the district was largely marshland, and accessible only by boat, or a toll bridge. In 1809, an Act of Parliament was passed for the construction of the Barking Road between the East India Docks and Barking. A five span iron bridge was constructed in 1810 to carry the road across the River Lea at Bow Creek. This bridge was damaged by a collision with a collier in March 1887 and replaced by the London County Council (LCC) in 1896. This bridge was in turn replaced in 1934, [3] at a site to the north and today's concrete flyover begun in smaller form in the 1960s, but successively modified to incorporate new road layouts for the upgraded A13 road and a feeder to the Limehouse Link tunnel, avoiding the Blackwall Tunnel. The abutments of the old iron bridge have now been utilised for the Jubilee footbridge, linking the area to Leamouth, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, on the western bank of the Lea.

The first workers' homes built in Canning Town around 1850. Worker's homes Canning Town 1850.gif
The first workers' homes built in Canning Town around 1850.

The area is thought to be named for the first Viceroy of India, Charles John Canning, who suppressed the Indian Mutiny about the time the district expanded. The population increased rapidly after the North London Line was built from Stratford to North Woolwich, in 1846. This was built to carry coal and goods from the docks; and when the passenger station was first built it was known as Barking Road. [4] Speculative builders constructed houses for the workers attracted by the new chemical industries established in the lower reaches of the River Lea, and for the nearby Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company and Tate & Lyle refinery. [5]

The opening of the Royal Victoria Dock in 1855 accelerated the development of the area [3] creating employment and a need to house dock workers and their families. New settlements around the dock developed, starting with Hallsville, Canning Town and Woolwich, and later the areas now known as Custom House, Silvertown and West Silvertown. The new settlements lacked water supply and had no sewage system, leading to the spread of cholera and smallpox. [6] The casual nature of employment at the docks meant poverty and squalid living conditions for many residents, [5] and in 1857 Henry Morley wrote about the area:

"Canning Town is the child of the Victoria Docks. The condition of this place and of its neighbour prevents the steadier class of mechanics from residing in it. They go from their work to Stratford or to Plaistow. Many select such a dwelling place because they are already debased below the point of enmity to filth; poorer labourers live there, because they cannot afford to go farther, and there become debased. The Dock Company is surely, to a very great extent, answerable for the condition of the town they are creating. Not a few of the houses in it are built by poor and ignorant men who have saved a few hundred pounds, and are deluded by the prospect of a fatally cheap building investment." [7]

The industries around the dock were often unhealthy and dangerous. As trade unions and political activists fought for better living conditions and the dock area became the centre of numerous movements with Will Thorne, James Keir Hardie and other later becoming leading figures in the Labour Party. [6] Thorne and others worked and gave speeches at Canning Town Public Hall which had been built in 1894 as the population grew in the southern part of the borough. From the late 19th century, a large African mariner community was established in Canning Town as a result of new shipping links to the Caribbean and West Africa. [8] In 1917 50 tons of TNT exploded at the Brunner Mond & Co ammunition work in Silvertown, causing the largest explosion in London's history and damaging more than 70,000 buildings and killing 73 people. [6] (see Silvertown explosion)

In the 1930s the County Borough of West Ham commenced slum clearances. [5] New houses, clinics, nurseries and a lido were opened. Silvertown ByPass and Britain's first flyover, the Silvertown Way, were built along with other new approach roads to the docks. Canning Town was heavily hit by the bombings in World War II and Canning Town Council's plan to rebuild the area focused on a reduction of the population, transferring industry and the building of new housing such as the Keir Hardie Estate, which included schools and welfare services. [6] In the early hours of 10 September 1940, a bomb hit South Hallsville School where up to 600 local refugees were accommodated. At least 200, mainly children, were killed or injured. Many bodies were never recovered. [9]

The slum clearances and the devastation of World War II, destroying 85% of the housing stock, led to the preponderance of council estates that characterise the area today. [5] Post-war housing schemes followed the urban planning principles of the garden city movement. As demand for housing grew the first high rise buildings were built in Canning Town in 1961. In 1968 part of Ronan Point, a 22-storey tower block in Newham, collapsed and most of the tall tower blocks built in the area in the early 1960s were eventually demolished or reduced in size. [6]

Slum housing

Notice to the poor on cholera, 1848. From the minutes of the West Ham Board of Guardians. States amongst others: "The Guardians are prepared to issue "CERTIFICATES" to the Poor generally, entitling them to Medical Relief gratuitously, should "CHOLERA" break out, or its symptoms prevail in the Neighbourhood." Note to the Poor on Cholera 1848 West Ham.jpg
Notice to the poor on cholera, 1848. From the minutes of the West Ham Board of Guardians. States amongst others: "The Guardians are prepared to issue "CERTIFICATES" to the Poor generally, entitling them to Medical Relief gratuitously, should "CHOLERA" break out, or its symptoms prevail in the Neighbourhood."
The Little Tommy Lee sewer, an open sewer in Canning Town, c.1888 Little Tommy Lee sewer.jpg
The Little Tommy Lee sewer, an open sewer in Canning Town, c.1888

Victorian era

In 1857 Henry Morley published a detailed description of the area in Charles Dickens' Household Words entitled "Londoners over the Border", writing:

"...by the law there is one suburb on the border of the Essex marshes which is quite cut off from the comforts of the Metropolitan Buildings Act;-in fact, it lies just without its boundaries, and therefore is chosen as a place of refuge for offensive trade establishments turned out of the town, - those of oil boilers, gut spinners, varnish makers, printers ink makers and the like. Being cut off from the support of the Metropolitan Local Managing Act, this outskirt is free to possess new streets of houses without drains, roads, gas, or pavement." [7]

Describing the slum housing conditions and its effect on the health of local residents, Morley wrote:

"Rows of small houses, which may have cost for their construction eighty pounds a piece, are built designedly and systematically with their backs to the marsh ditches; ...to or three yards of clay pipe "drain" each house into the open cess pool under its back windows, when it does not happen that the house is built as to overhang it... In winter time every block becomes now and then an island, and you may hear a sick man, in an upper room, complain of water trickling down over his bed. Then the flood cleans the ditches, lifting all their filth into itself, and spreading it over the land. No wonder that the stench of the marsh in Hallsville and Canning Town of nights, is horrible. A fetid mist covers the ground... the parish surgeon... was himself for a time invalided by fever, upon which ague followed. Ague, of course, is one of the most prevalent diseases of the district; fever abounds. When an epidemic comes into the place, it becomes serious in its form, and stays for months. Disease comes upon human bodies saturated with the influences of such air as is breathed day and night, as a spark upon touchwood. A case or two of small pox caused, in spite of vaccination, an epidemic of confluent small pox, which remained three or four months upon the spot." [7]

Morley also describes efforts to improve the housing conditions in the area:

"Two years ago, when application was made by more than a tenth of the rate payers of the parish of West Ham for an inquiry into the sanitary condition of the district, with a view to bringing it under the conditions of the Public Health Act, Mr Alfred Dickens was the civil engineer sent by the general Board of Health as an inspector. His report and the evidence at his inquiry is before us as we write, and it dwells very much upon the state of Canning Town and Hallsville. We learn from this report that the area of the ditches in the parish amounted to not less than one hundred and fifty acres, according to a surveyors book upwards of thirty five years old, and that area has been increased by side cuttings at the railway and new cuttings of open sewer. Disease had cost the parish six hundred pounds in the year previous to the inquiry. There was then, of course, as now, no drainage or paving in Canning Town; the roads in winter were impassable; but the inhabitants were paying (for what they did not get) an eighteen penny rate under the Commissioners Act, not for works done in accordance with it, but "for the expenses of the act". Also, although the parish did not take charge of their roads, they were paying a highway rate for the parishioners elsewhere. One horrible detail in Mr Dickens report has, happily, to be omitted from our sketch. Two years ago, there was in Hallsville and Canning Town no water supply. Good water is now laid on. In all other respects, the old offences against civilised life cleave to the district. The local Board of Health which the inhabitants of the parish sought and obtained, whatever it may have done for Stratford, seems to have done nothing for Hallsville, unless it be considered something to indulge it with an odd pinch of deodorising powder." [7]

Alfred Dickens highlighted the severe overcrowding suffered by many of the slum inhabitants as a result of landlord charging high rents and households relying on casual work. [10]

20th century

The 1890 Housing Act made the local council responsible for providing decent accommodation, and in the 1890s some of the first council houses were built in Bethell Avenue. However, many of the terraced houses built during the late 19th century were little more than slums and cleared by the council in the 1930s. The council replaced the terraces with the first high-rise blocks. [11]

Today

According to Newham London Borough Council, Canning Town and Custom House are among the five percent most deprived areas in the UK. Residents suffer from poor health, low education and poverty. 17 percent of the working age population have a limiting long-term illness, 17.5 percent claim income support and 49.7 percent of 16- to 74-year-olds have no formal qualifications. [12]

Regeneration project

The consultation and governance mechanism of the currently ongoing regeneration project is underpinning by a partnership between councillors, residents, local businesses and other "partners". [12] According to Newham council:

"The views of residents and businesses is central to the development and delivery of the regeneration initiative and developers will be expected to continue with extensive community consultation and engagement as part of their remit." [12]

Newham council is currently attempting to encourage "re-interpretations" of London's established street and housing forms. The council has identified terraced housing as such housing form, stating that it "continues to have enduring popularity with all types of residents including families and children". [12]

The area is at the western end of the Thames Gateway zone and is currently undergoing a £1.7 billion regeneration project, which includes:

The Olympic Uniform Distribution and Accreditation Centre, which was located in Canning Town, was due to be demolished and replaced with a new industrial estate as part of the Olympic Legacy programme. [13]

Politics and local government

The area falls within the parliamentary constituency of West Ham. The Local Member of Parliament is Lyn Brown. The ward is located in the London Borough of Newham.

In May 2002, Canning Town South was the only ward in the Borough to return a non-Labour councillor. In 2006, residents elected three Christian Peoples Alliance candidates, one of whom was Alan Craig. In 2010, Labour gained all three seats and have held them with significant majorities since.

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Canning Town South - 2018 (3) [14]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Alan Griffiths* 1,991
Labour Rohit K Dasgupta 1,965
Labour Belgica Guana 1,693
Liberal Democrats Caroline Carey652
Conservative Marc Pooler643
Conservative Mark Seymour559
Green Danny Keeling464
Conservative Mahyar Tousi378
CPA Myrtle Laing222
CPA Sharmila Swarna145
CPA Prossy Namwanje144
Turnout 28.2
Registered electors 11,749
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Canning Town South - 2014 (3) [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bryan Collier 1,896
Labour Alan Griffiths 1,600
Labour Sheila Thomas 1,581
UKIP Kay McKenzie657
Conservative Abul Mohammed632
Conservative Gareth Knight537
Conservative Jaja Rachel420
CPA Faith Johnson387
CPA Benjamin Stafford279
CPA Ethel Odiete237
Turnout 33.0
Registered electors 10,170
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Canning Town South - 2010 (3) [15]
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Bryan Collier 2,263
Labour Alan Taylor 2,074
Labour Michael Nicholas 2,028
CPA Alan Craig 1,399
CPA Denise Stafford1,004
CPA Hamilton Amachree892
Conservative Christopher Buckwell858
Conservative Gareth Knight794
Conservative Abul Kashem721
Turnout 43.8
Registered electors 9,187
Labour gain from CPA Swing
Labour gain from CPA Swing
Labour gain from CPA Swing
Canning Town South - 2006 (3)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
CPA Alan Craig 1,536
CPA Denise Stafford 1,170
CPA Simeon Ademolake 1,091
Labour Bryan Collier927
Labour Alan Griffiths887
Labour Julie Sussex855
Conservative Christopher Buckwell332
Conservative Abul Abdul306
Respect Khadija Hassan225
Conservative Bakary Ceesay193
Respect Mohammed Abdur Rob193
Respect Berlyne Hamilton192
Turnout 32.8
Registered electors 8,661
CPA hold Swing
CPA gain from Labour Swing
CPA gain from Labour Swing
Canning Town South - 2002 (3)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
CPA Alan Craig 959
Labour Alan Taylor 946
Labour Maureen Jones 887
Labour Simon Tucker808
CPA Benjamin Stafford739
CPA Rose Irtwangejibril525
Turnout 26.2
Registered electors 7,601
CPA gain from Labour Swing
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing
Canning Town South - 1998 (2)
PartyCandidateVotes%±%
Labour Clive Furness 797
Labour Robert Wales 617
Liberal Democrats Kathleen Chater267
Conservative Brendan Morley191
BNP Michael Davidson186
Conservative Simon Pearce145
Turnout 22.8
Registered electors 5,483
Labour hold Swing
Labour hold Swing

Culture

Thames Ironworks F.C., the works team of the nearby Ironworks, went on to become West Ham United F.C. after turning professional.

The Bridge House, a public house named for the 1887 Iron Bridge, was at 23 Barking Road now demolished. The venue operated during the 1970s and 1980s and was host to The Police, Depeche Mode, Jeff Beck, Billy Bragg, Alexis Korner, Modern Romance, Sham 69, Lindisfarne, The Cockney Rejects, Iron Maiden, Remus Down Boulevard and many other notable acts. [16] A venue bearing the name The Bridge House 2 was opened in Bidder Street in more recent years. [17]

Education

Transport

London Buses route 5, 69, 115, 147, 241, 300, 309, 323, 330, 474 and night routes N15, N550 and N551 all serve Canning Town at the bus station, [18]

Route D3 starts/ends at Leamouth [19] and route 276 runs on Barking Road, and 325 route at Canning Town Recreation Ground and Custom House, [20] [21] and route 473 and school route 678 start at Prince Regent bus station.

Related Research Articles

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References

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  2. 2QU, London Borough of Newham, Newham Dockside, 1000 Dockside Road, London, E16. Canning Town and Custom House regeneration.
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  4. West Ham: Transport and postal services, A History of the County of Essex: Volume 6 (1973), pp. 61-63 accessed: 16 January 2008.
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  7. 1 2 3 4 Henry Morley Londoners over the Border, Household Words – Volume XVI (1857)
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  11. "Housing in Canning Town in Victorian Times". Archived from the original on 21 August 2008. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
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  14. "London Borough Council Elections 3 May 2018" (PDF). London Datastore. London Residuary Body. Retrieved 29 December 2019.
  15. 1 2 Statement as to persons nominated - Canning Town South (LB Newham) accessed 12 April 2010
  16. Terence Murphy The Bridge House, Canning Town: Memoires of a Legendary Rock and Roll Hangout (2007)
  17. "Bridge House 2". timeout.com. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  18. "Canning Town - Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  19. "Leamouth / Orchard Place - Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  20. "Canning Town Recreation Ground - Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2020.
  21. "Custom House Station - Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. Retrieved 9 May 2020.