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Wave Energy Scotland (WES) is a technology development body set up by the Scottish Government to facilitate the development of wave energy in Scotland. It was set up in 2015 and is a subsidiary of Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) based in Inverness. WES manages a number of projects resulting from its pre-commercial procurement funding calls.
The Scottish Government is the executive in Scotland for areas of public policy which are not reserved. The government was established in 1999 as the Scottish Executive under the Scotland Act 1998, which created a devolved administration for Scotland in line with the result of the 1997 referendum on Scottish devolution. Following increasing use of the name "government" in place of "executive" during the first decade of the 21st century, its name was formally changed in law to Scottish Government by the Scotland Act 2012.
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain, with a border with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than 790 islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Highlands and Islands Enterprise (HIE) is the Scottish Government's economic and community development agency for a diverse region which covers more than half of Scotland and is home to around 450,000 people.
The Scottish Government took positive action to support the ailing wave energy sector in Scotland, following the demise of one of the leading developers Pelamis Wave Power. The Energy Minister Fergus Ewing announced an initial budget for the body of £14.3 million over 13 months at the RenewableUK conference in February 2015
Pelamis Wave Power designed and manufactured the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter – a technology that uses the motion of ocean surface waves to create electricity. The company was established in 1998 and had offices and fabrication facilities in Leith Docks, Edinburgh, Scotland. It went into administration in November 2014.
Fergus Stewart Ewing is a Scottish politician, serving as the Scottish Government's Cabinet Secretary for Rural Economy and the Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) for Inverness and Nairn.
RenewableUK, formerly known as the 'British Wind Energy Association' (BWEA), is the trade association for wind power, wave power and tidal power industries in the United Kingdom. RenewableUK has over 660 corporate members, from wind, wave and tidal stream power generation and associated industries.
The original objectives for WES were set out by the Scottish Government as:
To date, WES has held four funding calls,.
|Call Title||Launch Date||Call Closed||Budget||Notice|
|Secondary energy conversion technologies (power take-off systems, PTO)||19 March 2015||22 May 2015||£7m||MAR203890|
|Novel wave energy converters||10 June 2015||13 August 2015||up to £2.4m||JUN211095|
|Structural materials and manufacturing processes 18 July 2016||15 July 2016||8 September 2016||up to £3m||JUL250786|
|Control systems||5 April 2017||12 June 2017||£660k|
A total of 42 applications were made for this £7m call, with contracts awarded to nine consortia.
|Project name||Lead organisation||Other partners||Contract value|
|Advanced Hydraulic-electric Power Take Off (AHPTO)||Nova Innovation Ltd||Aquamarine Power, Siemens||£89,929|
|Direct contact dielectric elastomer PTO for submerged wave energy converters||Scuola Superiore di Studi Uniersitari e di Perfezionamento Sant'Anna (SSSA)||University of Edinburgh, Universita di Bologna||£96,000|
|Edinburgh Designs Adaptive Power Take Off (EDAPTO)||Edinburgh Designs||None||£78,090|
|New Electric Automotive Power Extraction Device (NEAPED)||Marine Design International (MDI)||4c Design||£79,400|
|Power Electronic Controlled Magnet Gear (PECMAG)||Ecosse Subsea Systems||Bathwick Electrical Design Ltd, Pure Marine Ltd, Supply Design Ltd.||£100,000|
|Power Sharing Transmission based Bi-directional to Uni-directional PTO (PST-PTO)||Cofely Fabricom||Ghent University||£99,990|
|Survivable and Efficient OLeo-hydraulic assisted power TAke-off (SEÒLTA)||TECNALIA Research & Innovation||OCEANTEC Energías Marinas S.L.||£87,271|
|Wave Energy Transmission Module||Romax Technology Ltd||Sea Power Ltd, Limerick Wave & Pure Marine Gen||£100,000|
|'WEC-Direct' - The application of a direct drive, contra-rotating generator to wave energy converters||Energy Systems Research Unit, University of Strathclyde||Nautricity Ltd||£99,128|
Eight projects were funded for the first stage of the Novel Wave Energy Converter call, out of 37 applications.
|Project Name||Lead Organisation||Other Partners||Contract Value|
|Attenuator Cost of Energy Reduction (ACER)||4C Engineering||Sea Power Ltd||£300,000|
|WaveTrain Sloped Pneumatic WEC||Joules Energy Efficiency Services Ltd||None||£291,039|
|WaveNET Series 12||Albatern Ltd||None||£259,867|
|Mocean Wave Energy Converter||Mocean Energy Ltd||The University of Edinburgh||£299,491|
|CCell Mark 3 – Novel Curved WEC Optimisation||Zyba Limited||The University of Bath||£252,024.88|
|AISV - Automatically Inflatable and Stowable Volume for step reduction in WEC cost of energy||Quoceant Ltd||None||£300,000|
|Anaconda Novel Wave Energy Converter||Checkmate Seaenergy Ltd||None||£271,012|
|Advanced Archimedes Waveswing||AWS Ocean Energy Ltd||None||£284,853|
Ten projects were funded from this third Innovation Call
|Project Name||Lead Organisation||Other Partners||Contract Value|
|Hydrocomp||CorPower Ocean||Balmoral Offshore Engineering, Wave Venture||£248,600|
|Reinforced polymers for Wave EneRgy||Cruz Acheson Consulting Engineers Lda||Carnegie Wave Energy, CorPower Ocean, Arup Consulting Engineers, DNV-GL, National Composites Centre||£249,614|
|Advanced Rotational Moulding for Ocean Renewables (ARMOR)||Haydale Composite Solutions Ltd||Crompton Moulding Ltd., Wave Venture, Carbon Trust||£249,762|
|Concrete as a Technology Enabler (CREATE)||Ove Arup & Partners||Cruz Atcheson Consulting Engineers, MPA: The Concrete Centre, MPA British precast, SeaPower Ltd., Wello OY||£250,000|
|Advanced Rotational Moulding for Wave Energy Technologies (ARMWET)||Polygen Ltd.||Wave Venture, Rototek Ltd.||£209,000|
|Advanced Concrete Engineering - WEC (ACE-WEC)||Quoceant Ltd.||University of Dundee, Black and Veatch, Innosea, David Kerr||£245,231|
|Polyshell||Technology from Ideas ltd.||DuPont, Cruz Atcheson Consulting Engineers, Radius Systenms||£244,500|
|Netbuoy||Tension Technology International Ltd.||Black and Veatch Ltd., Optimus ( Abderdeen) Ltd., Quoceant Ltd.||£245,300|
|ELASTO ( A feasibility Study on Elastomeric-based WECs.||University of Edinburgh||University of Plymouth, Griffon Hoverwork||£244,714|
|Rotational Moulding of Polymers, Composites and Hybrid WEC Structures||University of Edinburgh||Queens University Belfast, Pelagic Innovation, CETO UK, Eire Composites, Kingspan Environmental||£250,000|
Thirteen concepts were funded from this fourth Innovation Call.
|Project Name||Other Partners||Contract Value|
|SURF-MATIC||Wave Venture, Mocean Energy Ltd., Altran Ltd., CorPower Ocean AB||£48,860|
|Predictability Bounded Control of the Mocean WEC||Mocean Energy Ltd., University of Bath||£34,434|
|WEETICS||University of Edinburgh, Oceantec Energias Marinas SL, Tecnalia Research and Innovation||£45,000|
|Adaptive Control of the WaveSub WEC using a Romax electromechanical PTO||Marine Power Systems Ltd., University of Bath, Romax Technology Ltd.||£41,850|
|DataWave||Mocean Energy Ltd., Wave Venture, CorPower Ocean AB, Polygen Ltd., MarynSol Ltd||£46,200|
|WEQUAD FRAME Project||INNOSEA Ltd., EPF Elettrotecnica Srl||£41690|
|Cost of Energy Optimised by Reinforcement Learning (CEORL)||Maxsim Ltd., Caelulum Ltd., Aquaharmonics Inc, Wave Conundrums Consulting, David Forehand, David Pizer, Mocean Energy Ltd, CorPower Ocean AB||£46,926|
|Control of WECs based on dielectric elastomer generators||University of Edinburgh, Cheros Srl, University of Bologna, University of Trento||£47,000|
|Non-linear Optimal Control: Concepts, Practicalities and Benefits||Mocean Energy ltd., Pelagic Innovation Ltd., Industrial Systems and Control Ltd.||£47,000|
|Adaptive hierarchical model predictive control of wave energy converters||Mocean Energy Ltd, Queen Mary University of London||£28,209|
|Forewave||Innosea Ltd., Politecnico di Torino, Wave for Energy Srl, Industrial Systems and control Ltd.||£37,600|
|IMPACT Integrated Marine Point Absorber Control Tool||SgurrControl Ltd., Cruz Atcheson Consulting Engineers||£47,000|
|Wave Energy Advanced Control System (WEACS)||CPower Alba Ltd., SgurrControl Ltd., Wave Venture.||£46,900|
WES has acquired intellectual property developed by the now defunct companies Pelamis Wave Power and Aquamarine Power. The former as part of the inception of Wave Energy Scotland, whilst the latter was completed in September 2016.
Aquamarine Power was a wave energy company, which was founded in 2005 to commercialise a wave energy device concept known as the Oyster wave energy converter. The company's head offices were based in Edinburgh. The company had further operations in Orkney, Ireland, Northern Ireland and the United States. Its chief executive officer was Martin McAdam, who joined the company in 2008. The company was advised by Trevor Whittaker, inventor of the Oyster concept, and Stephen Salter, inventor of the Salter's Duck. The company ceased to trade on 20 November 2015.
The first Wave Energy Scotland annual conference was held on 2 December 2016 at Pollock Halls in Edinburgh "Wave Energy Scotland's first Annual Conference" . Retrieved 2 December 2016. This provided an update of ongoing and future calls, plus quick-fire updates from participants ongoing PTO and NWEC calls.
A second annual conference was held on 28 November 2017.
The third annual conference was held on 6 December 2018 at the Edinburgh International Conference Centre
Wave power is the capture of energy of wind waves to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or pumping water. A machine that exploits wave power is a wave energy converter (WEC).
The Pelamis Wave Energy Converter was a technology that used the motion of ocean surface waves to create electricity. The machine was made up of connected sections which flex and bend as waves pass; it is this motion which is used to generate electricity.
The production of renewable energy in Scotland is an issue that has come to the fore in technical, economic, and political terms during the opening years of the 21st century. The natural resource base for renewable energy is extraordinary by European, and even global standards, with the most important potential sources being wind, wave, and tide.
A wave farm – or wave power farm or wave energy park – is a collection of machines in the same location and used for the generation of wave power electricity. Wave farms can be either offshore or nearshore, with the former the most promising for the production of large quantities of electricity for the grid. The first wave farm was constructed in Portugal, the Aguçadoura Wave Farm, consisting of three Pelamis machines. The world's largest is planned for Scotland.
Renewable energy in Portugal was the source for 25.7% of energy consumption in 2013. In 2014, 27% of Portugal's energy needs were supplied by renewable sources. In 2016, 28% of final energy consumption in Portugal came from renewable sources, an increase against the previous year (27%).
The Wave Hub is a wave power research project. The project is developed approximately 10 miles (16 km) off Hayle, on the north coast of Cornwall, United Kingdom. The hub was installed on the seabed in September 2010, and is a 'socket' sitting on the seabed for wave energy converters to be plugged into. It will have connections to it from arrays of up to four kinds of wave energy converter. A cable from the hub to main land will take electrical power from the devices to the electric grid. The total capacity of the hub will be 20 MWe. The estimated cost of the project is £28 million.
Renewable energy in the United Kingdom can be divided into production for electricity, heat, and transport.
The Aguçadoura Wave Farm was a wave farm located 5 km (3 mi) offshore near Póvoa de Varzim north of Porto in Portugal. The farm was designed to use three Pelamis Wave Energy Converters to convert the motion of the ocean surface waves into electricity, totalling to 2.25 MW in total installed capacity. The farm was officially opened on 23 September 2008, by the Portuguese Minister of Economy. The wave farm was shut down two months after the official opening in November 2008.
The European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) Ltd is a UKAS accredited test and research centre focusing on wave and tidal power development based in the Orkney Islands, UK. The Centre provides developers with the opportunity to test full-scale grid-connected prototype devices in unrivalled wave and tidal conditions. The operations are spread over five sites:
Sustainable development in Scotland has a number of distinct strands. The idea of sustainable development was used by the Brundtland Commission which defined it as development that "meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs." At the 2005 World Summit it was noted that this requires the reconciliation of environmental, social and economic demands - the "three pillars" of sustainability. These general aims are being addressed in a diversity of ways by the public, private, voluntary and community sectors in Scotland.
The Siadar Wave Power Station was a proposed 4 MW wave farm 400 metres (1,300 ft) off the shore of Siadar Bay, in Lewis, Scotland. The £30 million project, was to be built by Wavegen, received Scottish Government approval on 22 January 2009. Originally, the project was developed in cooperation with npower Renewables. However, in August 2011, npower Renewables left the project. In 2012 project was cancelled.
The Oyster is a hydro-electric wave energy device that uses the motion of ocean waves to generate electricity. It is made up of a Power Connector Frame (PCF), which is bolted to the seabed, and a Power Capture Unit (PCU). The PCU is a hinged buoyant flap that moves back and forth with movement of the waves. The movement of the flap drives two hydraulic pistons that feed high-pressured water to an onshore hydro-electric turbine, which drives a generator to make electricity. Oyster is stationed at the European Marine Energy Centre (EMEC) at its Billia Croo site in Orkney, Scotland.
Marine energy or marine power refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences. The movement of water in the world’s oceans creates a vast store of kinetic energy, or energy in motion. Some of this energy can be harnessed to generate electricity to power homes, transport and industries.
The Aegir wave farm was a planned wave farm off the south west of Shetland. The project was developed by Aegir Wave Power, a 2009 formed joint venture of Vattenfall and the wave power technology developer Pelamis Wave Power. The wave farm would have had capacity from 10 MW potentially up to 100 MW. Following the collapse of Pelamis in November 2014, the project was cancelled by Vattenfall in February 2015.
The Saltire Prize, named after the flag of Scotland, is the national award for advances in the commercial development of marine energy.
Richard Yemm is the British inventor of the Pelamis Wave Energy Converter and was director of the former Pelamis Wave Power, a company he founded in Edinburgh in 1998. In 2014 he co-founded a new company, Quoceant, who are engineering consultants specializing in marine energy and technology innovation.