|Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom|
|First holder||Robert Malet|
The Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom is the sixth of the Great Officers of State (not to be confused with the Great Offices of State), ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster (though since the 1960s his personal authority has been limited to the royal apartments and Westminster Hall).
On formal state occasions, he wears a distinctive scarlet court uniform and bears a gold key and a white stave as the insignia of his office.
The position is a hereditary one, held since 1780 in gross. At any one time, a single person actually exercises the office of Lord Great Chamberlain. The various individuals who hold fractions of the Lord Great Chamberlainship are technically each Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain. The Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlains are choosing one individual of the rank of a knight or higher to be the Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain.Due to an agreement from 1912, the right to exercise the office for a given reign rotates proportionately between three families (of the then three joint office holders) to the fraction of the office held. For instance, the Marquesses of Cholmondeley hold one-half of the office, and may therefore exercise the office or appoint a deputy every alternate reign. Whenever one of the three shares of the 1912 agreement is split further, the joint heirs of this share have to agree among each other, who should be their deputy or any mechanism to determine who of them has the right to choose a deputy.
The office of Lord Great Chamberlain is distinct from the non-hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household, a position in the monarch's household. This office arose in the 14th century as a deputy of the Lord Great Chamberlain to fulfil the latter's duties in the Royal Household, but now they are quite distinct.
The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that a hereditary peer exercising the office of Lord Great Chamberlain (as well as the Earl Marshal) be exempt from such a rule, in order to perform ceremonial functions.
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The office was originally held by Robert Malet, a son of one of the leading companions of William the Conqueror. In 1133, however, King Henry I declared Malet's estates and titles forfeit, and awarded the office of Lord Great Chamberlain to Aubrey de Vere, whose son was created Earl of Oxford. Thereafter, the Earls of Oxford held the title almost continuously until 1526, with a few intermissions due to the forfeiture of some Earls for treason. In 1526, however, the fourteenth Earl of Oxford died, leaving his aunts as his heirs. The earldom was inherited by a more distant heir-male, his second cousin. The Sovereign then decreed that the office belonged to The Crown, and was not transmitted along with the earldom. The Sovereign appointed the fifteenth Earl to the office, but the appointment was deemed for life and was not hereditary. The family's association with the office was interrupted in 1540, when the fifteenth earl died and Thomas Cromwell, the King's chief adviser, was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain.After Cromwell's attainder and execution later the same year, the office passed through a few more court figures, until 1553, when it was passed back to the De Vere family, the sixteenth Earl of Oxford, again as an uninheritable life appointment. Later, Queen Mary I ruled that the Earls of Oxford were indeed entitled to the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on an hereditary basis.
Thus, the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth Earls of Oxford held the position on a hereditary basis until 1626, when the eighteenth Earl died, again leaving a distant relative as heir male, but a closer one as a female heir. The House of Lords eventually ruled that the office belonged to the heir general, Robert Bertie, 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, who later became Earl of Lindsey. The office remained vested in the Earls of Lindsey, who later became Dukes of Ancaster and Kesteven. In 1779, however, the fourth Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven died, leaving two sisters as female heirs, and an uncle as an heir male. The uncle became the fifth and last Duke, but the House of Lords ruled that the two sisters were jointly Lord Great Chamberlain and could appoint a Deputy to fulfil the functions of the office. The barony of Willoughby de Eresby went into abeyance between the two sisters, but the Sovereign terminated the abeyance and granted the title to the elder sister, Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. The younger sister later married the first Marquess of Cholmondeley. The office of Lord Great Chamberlain, however, was divided between Priscilla and her younger sister Georgiana. Priscilla's share was eventually split between two of her granddaughters, and has been split several more times since then. By contrast, Georgiana's share has been inherited by a single male heir each time; that individual has in each case been the Marquess of Cholmondeley, a title created for Georgiana's husband.
In 1902 it was ruled by the house of Lords, that the joint office holders, the Earl of Ancaster, the Marquess of Cholmondeley and the Earl Carrington have to agree on a deputy to exercise the office, subject to the approval of the Sovereign. Otherwise the Sovereign should appoint a deputy until an agreement is reached.
In 1912 an agreement was reached, that, alternating every reign, the right to appoint the person who exercises the office, rotates between the three joint office holders or respectively their heirs with the Marquess of Cholmondeley or his heirs, take turn every second reign.
As the shares of the Marquess of Cholmondeley and the Earl of Ancaster are not further splitted, they decide in their turn who should or even act themselve as Lord Great Chamberlain. The share of the Earl of Carrington is widely spread and it is expected that on their turns his heirs will choose the current Lord Carrington, who is not even a shareholder of the office, to act as Lord Great Chamberlain.
The Lord Great Chamberlain also has a major part to play in royal coronations, having the right to dress the monarch on coronation day and to serve the monarch water before and after the coronation banquet, and also being involved in investing the monarch with the insignia of rule.[ citation needed ]
|Years||Lord Great Chamberlain|
|1133–1141||Aubrey de Vere II|
|1141–1194||Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford|
|1194–1214||Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford|
|1214–1221||Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford|
|1221–1263||Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford|
|1263–1265||Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford|
|1265–1267||unclear, perhaps vacant.|
|1267–1296||unclear, perhaps again Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford|
|1296–1331||Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford|
|1331–1360||John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford|
|1360–1371||Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford|
|1371–1388||Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford|
|1389–1399||John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter|
|1399–1400||Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford|
|1400–1417||Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford|
|1417–1462||John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford|
|1462–1475||John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford|
|1475–1485||unclear, perhaps Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, perhaps still the Earl of Oxford|
|1485–1513||John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford|
|1513–1526||John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford|
|1526–1540||John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford|
|1540–1540||Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex|
|1540–1542||Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex|
|1543–1549||Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford|
|1549–1550||John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick|
|1550–1553||William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton|
|1553–1562||John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford|
|1562–1604||Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford|
|1604–1625||Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford|
|1626–1642||Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey|
|1642–1666||Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey|
|1666–1701||Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey|
|1701–1723||Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1723–1742||Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1742–1778||Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1778–1779||Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
The fractions show the holder's share in the office, and the date they held it. The current (as of 2020 [update] ) holders of the office are shown in bold face.
|Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
| Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
|Georgiana Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley |
| Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby |
| George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| William Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby |
| Clementina Drummond-Willoughby, 24th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
|Charlotte Augusta Carrington, Lady Carrington |
|Charles George Cholmondeley, Viscount Malpas|
| Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster |
| Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire |
| George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster |
|Marjorie Wilson, Baroness Nunburnholme |
|Lady Alexandra Llewellen Palmer|
|Ruperta Legge, Countess of Dartmouth |
|Judith Keppel, Countess of Albemarle||Lady Victoria Weld-Forester|
| George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster |
|Charles Wilson, 3rd Baron Nunburnholme|
|Brig. Anthony Llewellen Palmer|
|Lady Mary Findlay|
| Lady Elizabeth Basset |
|Lady Diana Matthews|
|Lady Barbara Kwiatkowska|
|Josceline Chichester, Marchioness of Donegall |
|Derek Keppel, Viscount Bury|
| Sir Henry Legge-Bourke |
| Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
| Ben Wilson, 4th Baron Nunburnholme |
|Julian Llewellen Palmer|
|Cdr Jonathan Findlay|
| Bryan Basset |
|Col James Gustavus Hamilton-Russell|
|Jan Witold Kwiatkowski|
| Patrick Chichester, 8th Marquess of Donegall |
| Rufus Keppel, 10th Earl of Albemarle |
| David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
|The Hon. Lorraine Wilson|
|The Hon. Tatiana Dent|
|The Hon. Ines Garton|
|The Hon. Ysabel Wilson|
|Nicholas Llewellen Palmer|
| David Basset |
|Michael James Basset|
|Capt. Harry Russell Legge-Bourke|
|Acted as Lord Great Chamberlain||Years||Monarch|
|Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1780–1820||George III|
|Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1820||George IV|
|Peter Drummond-Burrell, 2nd Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1821–1828|
|Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1828–1830|
|George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley as Deputy||1830–1837||William IV|
|Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1837–1865||Victoria|
|Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1865–1870|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Baron Aveland as Deputy||1871–1888|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster||1888–1901|
|George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1901–1910||Edward VII|
|Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire||1910–1928||George V|
|William Legge, Viscount Lewisham as Deputy||1928–1936|
|George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1936||Edward VIII|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster||1936–1951||George VI|
|James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster||1951–1952|
|George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1952–1966||Elizabeth II|
|George Cholmondeley, Earl of Rocksavage as Deputy||1966–1968|
|George Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1968–1990|
|David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1990–|
Earl of Lindsey is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1626 for the 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1635 to 1636 and also established his claim in right of his mother to the hereditary office of Lord Great Chamberlain of England. Lord Lindsey fought on the Royalist side in the Civil War and was killed at the Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He also fought at Edgehill and surrendered to the Parliamentarians in order to attend his mortally wounded father. Lord Lindsey later fought at the First Battle of Newbury, Second Battle of Newbury, and at Naseby. His son from his second marriage, James, was created Earl of Abingdon in 1682. He was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Martha Cockayne, the third Earl. He represented Boston in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire.
Marquess of Cholmondeley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1815 for George Cholmondeley, 4th Earl of Cholmondeley.
Baron Willoughby de Eresby is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1313 for Robert de Willoughby. Since 1983, the title has been held by Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.
David George Philip Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, ( CHUM-lee); born June 27, 1960), styled Viscount Malpas from birth until 1968, and subsequently Earl of Rocksavage until 1990, is a British peer and filmmaker. He also acts as Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom, a role he is entitled to hold for the duration of the present Queen's reign.
Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, styled The Honourable Peregrine Bertie between 1686 and 1704, Lord Willoughby de Eresby between 1704 and 1715 and Marquess of Lindsey between 1715 and 1723, was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1708 until 1715 when he was called to the House of Lords.
General Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, styled Lord Willoughby de Eresby from 1715 to 1723 and Marquess of Lindsey from 1735 to 1742 was the son of Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven.
George James Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley,, styled Viscount Malpas between 1764 and 1770 and known as The Earl of Cholmondeley between 1770 and 1815, was a British peer and politician.
Gilbert James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster,, styled Lord Willoughby de Eresby from 1910 to 1951, was a British Conservative politician.
Priscilla Barbara Elizabeth Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby was a daughter of the 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven and Mary Panton. On 23 February 1779, she married Sir Peter Burrell and they later had two children. Through her grandmother Mary Wynn, Priscilla Bertie was a descendant of the Welsh princely house of Aberffraw.
Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Baron Gwydyr, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby, was a British noble baron. He was the son of Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and Sarah Clementina, née Drummond. He never married.
Peter Robert Drummond-Burrell, 2nd Baron Gwydyr, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby PC, was a British politician and nobleman.
Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, PC, styled Lord Robert Bertie until 1758 and Marquess of Lindsey between 1758 and 1778, was a British peer. He was born in Grimsthorpe, the second son of the General Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven and Mary Panton
George Horatio Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley, PC, styled Viscount Malpas until 1792 and Earl of Rocksavage between 1792 and 1827, was a British peer and Lord Great Chamberlain of England between 1830 and 1838. Before being called to the House of Lords, he was a Tory Member of Parliament from 1817 through 1821.
William Henry Hugh Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Lord Henry Cholmondeley from 1815 until 1870, was a British peer and Conservative Member of Parliament.
Moiety title is a legal term describing a portion other than a whole of ownership of property. The word derives from Old French moitié, "half", from Latin medietas ("middle"), from medius.
George Horatio Charles Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Earl of Rocksavage from birth until 1923, was a British peer. He was the Lord Great Chamberlain of England in 1936 and also between 1952 and 1966.
George Henry Hugh Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley was a British peer and a hereditary joint Lord Great Chamberlain of England. He exercised the office of Lord Great Chamberlain during the reign of King Edward VII (1901–1910).
George Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley,, ,, styled Earl of Rocksavage from 1923 until 1968, was a British peer and Lord Great Chamberlain of England between 1968 and 1990.
Nancy Jane Marie Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby is an English peer. She is a 1⁄4 holder of the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, which is currently exercised by the 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley.
Georgiana Charlotte Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley, formerly Lady Georgiana Charlotte Bertie, was the wife of George Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley.