Lord Great Chamberlain

Last updated
Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom
Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg
7th Marquis of Colmondeley 2.jpg
Incumbent

Last updated 22 July 2018

The 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley exercises the office for ceremonial purposes and sits in the House of Lords.
AppointerHereditary
Formationc. 1126
First holder Robert Malet
SalaryUnpaid

The Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom is the sixth of the Great Officers of State (not to be confused with the Great Offices of State), ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster (though since the 1960s his personal authority has been limited to the royal apartments and Westminster Hall).

United Kingdom Country in Europe

The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.

Great Offices of State

The Great Offices of State in the United Kingdom are the four most senior and prestigious posts in the British government. They are the Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary. According to convention, when the Prime Minister names his or her Cabinet, either after a general election or a mid-term reshuffle, the first Cabinet ministers to be announced are the Chancellor, the Foreign Secretary and the Home Secretary.

Lord Privy Seal sinecure office of state in the UK

The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.

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On formal state occasions, he wears a distinctive scarlet court uniform and bears a gold key and a white stave as the insignia of his office.

The position is a hereditary one, held since 1780 in gross. At any one time, a single person actually exercises the office of Lord Great Chamberlain. The various individuals who hold fractions of the Lord Great Chamberlainship are technically each Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain, and the right to exercise the office for a given reign rotates proportionately to the fraction of the office held. For instance, the Marquesses of Cholmondeley hold one-half of the office, and may therefore exercise the office or appoint a deputy every alternate reign. (A Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain is a person exercising the office who is not personally a co-heir to the office; historically these have been sons or husbands of co-heirs as the office has never been exercised by a woman, as women were barred from sitting in the Lords until the present reign).

The office of Lord Great Chamberlain is distinct from the non-hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household, a position in the monarch's household. This office arose in the 14th century as a deputy of the Lord Great Chamberlain to fulfil the latter's duties in the Royal Household, but now they are quite distinct.

The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. The office organises all ceremonial activity such as garden parties, state visits, royal weddings, and the State Opening of Parliament. They also handle the Royal Mews and Royal Travel, as well as the ceremony around the awarding of honours.

The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that a hereditary peer exercising the office of Lord Great Chamberlain (as well as the Earl Marshal) be exempt from such a rule, in order to perform ceremonial functions.

House of Lords Act 1999

The House of Lords Act 1999 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. The Act reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats; the Act removed such a right. However, as part of a compromise, the Act did permit ninety-two hereditary peers to remain in the House on an interim basis. Another ten were created life peers to enable them to remain in the House.

The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers. The numbers of peers – of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the UK – whose titles are the highest they hold are: dukes, 24 ; marquesses, 34; earls, 193; viscounts, 112; barons, 444.

Earl Marshal hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom

Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.

History of the office

The Lord Great Chamberlain, the Marquess of Cholmondeley (left), holding his white staff of office; the Lord Speaker, Baroness Hayman; and the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow showing US President Barack Obama around Members' Lobby during a tour of the Palace in May 2011 Barack Obama in the Members' Lobby of the Palace of Westminster, 2011.jpg
The Lord Great Chamberlain, the Marquess of Cholmondeley (left), holding his white staff of office; the Lord Speaker, Baroness Hayman; and the Speaker of the House of Commons, John Bercow showing US President Barack Obama around Members' Lobby during a tour of the Palace in May 2011

The office was originally held by Robert Malet, a son of one of the leading companions of William the Conqueror. In 1133, however, King Henry I declared Malet's estates and titles forfeit, and awarded the office of Lord Great Chamberlain to Aubrey de Vere, whose son was created Earl of Oxford. Thereafter, the Earls of Oxford held the title almost continuously until 1526, with a few intermissions due to the forfeiture of some Earls for treason. In 1526, however, the fourteenth Earl of Oxford died, leaving his aunts as his heirs. The earldom was inherited by a more distant heir-male, his second cousin. The Sovereign then decreed that the office belonged to The Crown, and was not transmitted along with the earldom. The Sovereign appointed the fifteenth Earl to the office, but the appointment was deemed for life and was not hereditary. The family's association with the office was interrupted in 1540, when the fifteenth earl died and Thomas Cromwell, the King's chief adviser, was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain. [1] After Cromwell's attainder and execution later the same year, the office passed through a few more court figures, until 1553, when it was passed back to the De Vere family, the sixteenth Earl of Oxford, again as an uninheritable life appointment. [2] Later, Queen Mary I ruled that the Earls of Oxford were indeed entitled to the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on an hereditary basis.

Robert Malet was a Norman-English baron and a close advisor of Henry I.

William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.

Henry I of England 12th-century King of England and Duke of Normandy

Henry I, also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children.

Thus, the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth Earls of Oxford held the position on a hereditary basis until 1626, when the eighteenth Earl died, again leaving a distant relative as heir male, but a closer one as a female heir. The House of Lords eventually ruled that the office belonged to the heir male, Robert Bertie, 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, who later became Earl of Lindsey. The office remained vested in the Earls of Lindsey, who later became Dukes of Ancaster and Kesteven. In 1779, however, the fourth Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven died, leaving two sisters as female heirs, and an uncle as an heir male. The uncle became the fifth and last Duke, but the House of Lords ruled that the two sisters were jointly Lord Great Chamberlain and could appoint a Deputy to fulfil the functions of the office. The barony of Willoughby de Eresby went into abeyance between the two sisters, but the Sovereign terminated the abeyance and granted the title to the elder sister, Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. The younger sister later married the first Marquess of Cholmondeley. The office of Lord Great Chamberlain, however, was divided between Priscilla and her younger sister Georgiana. Priscilla's share was eventually split between two of her granddaughters, and has been split several more times since then. By contrast, Georgiana's share has been inherited by a single male heir each time; that individual has in each case been the Marquess of Cholmondeley, a title created for Georgiana's husband.

Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey English noble

Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey was an English peer, soldier and courtier.

Earl of Lindsey

Earl of Lindsey is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1626 for the 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1635 to 1636 and also established his claim in right of his mother to the hereditary office of Lord Great Chamberlain of England. Lord Lindsey fought on the Royalist side in the Civil War and was killed at the Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He also fought at Edgehill and surrendered to the Parliamentarians in order to attend his mortally wounded father. Lord Lindsey later fought at the First Battle of Newbury, Second Battle of Newbury, and at Naseby. His son from his second marriage, James, was created Earl of Abingdon in 1682. He was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Martha Cockayne, the third Earl. He represented Boston in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire.

Baron Willoughby de Eresby title in the Peerage of England

Baron Willoughby de Eresby is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1313 for Robert de Willoughby. Since 1983, the title has been held by Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.

The Lord Great Chamberlain also has a major part to play in royal coronations, having the right to dress the monarch on coronation day and to serve the monarch water before and after the coronation banquet, and also being involved in investing the monarch with the insignia of rule.[ citation needed ]

Lord Great Chamberlains, 1130–1779

YearsLord Great Chamberlain
1130-1133 Robert Malet
1133–1141 Aubrey de Vere II
1141–1194 Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford
1194–1214 Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford
1214–1221 Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford
1221–1263 Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford
1263–1265 Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford
1265–1267unclear, perhaps vacant.
1267–1296unclear, perhaps again Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford
1296–1331 Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford
1331–1360 John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford
1360–1371 Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford
1371–1388 Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford
1389–1399 John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter
1399–1400 Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford
1400–1417 Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford
1417–1462 John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford
1462–1475 John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
1475–1485unclear, perhaps Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, perhaps still the Earl of Oxford
1485–1513 John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford
1513–1526 John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford
1526–1540 John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford
1540–1540 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex
1540–1542 Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex
1543–1549 Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford
1549–1550 John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick
1550–1553 William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton
1553–1562 John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford
1562–1604 Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford
1604–1625 Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford
1626–1642 Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey
1642–1666 Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey
1666–1701 Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey
1701–1723 Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
1723–1742 Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
1742–1778 Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
1778–1779 Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven

Joint hereditary Lord Great Chamberlains, 1780–present

The fractions show the holder's share in the office, and the date they held it. The current (as of 2015) holders of the office are shown in bold face.

Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby
12 1780–1828
 
Georgiana Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley
12 1780–1838
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby
12 1828–1865
 
George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1838–1870
 
William Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1870–1884
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby
12 1865–1870
 
Clementina Drummond-Willoughby, 24th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby
14 1870–1888
 
Charlotte Augusta Carrington, Lady Carrington
14 1870–1879
 
Charles George Cholmondeley, Viscount Malpas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster
14 1888–1910
 
Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire
14 1879–1928
George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1884–1923
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster
14 1910–1951
 
Marjorie Wilson, Baroness Nunburnholme
120 1928–1968
Lady Alexandra Llewellen Palmer
120 1928–1955
Ruperta Legge, Countess of Dartmouth
120 1928–1963
Judith Keppel, Countess of Albemarle
 
Lady Victoria Weld-Forester
120 1928–1966
 
George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1923–1968
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster
14 1951–1983
 
Charles Wilson, 3rd Baron Nunburnholme
120 1968–1974
 
Brig. Anthony Llewellen Palmer
120 1955–1990
Timothy Llewellen Palmer
 
 
Derek Keppel, Viscount Bury
120 1928–1968
 
Sir Henry Legge-Bourke
120 1966–1973
 
Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1968–1990
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby
14 1983–
 
Ben Wilson, 4th Baron Nunburnholme
120 1974–1998
Julian Llewellen Palmer
120 1990–2002
 
 
Rufus Keppel, 10th Earl of Albemarle
120 1968–
 
William Legge-Bourke
120 1973–2009
 
David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley
12 1990–
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Nicholas Llewellen Palmer
120 2002–
Lady Mary Findlay
1100 1963–2003
 
Lady Elizabeth Basset
1100 1963–2000
 
Lady Diana Matthews
1100 1963–1970
 
Lady Barbara Kwiatkowska
1100 1963–2013
 
Josceline Chichester, Marchioness of Donegall
1100 1963–1995
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cdr Jonathan Findlay
1100 2003–2015
Christopher Findlay
1100 2015-
 
Bryan Basset
1100 2000–2010
 
Col James Gustavus Hamilton-Russell
1100 1970–
 
Jan Witold Kwiatkowski
1100 2013–
 
Patrick Chichester, 8th Marquess of Donegall
1100 1995–
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
The Hon. Lorraine Wilson
180 1998–
The Hon. Tatiana Dent
180 1998–
The Hon. Ines Garton
180 1998–
The Hon. Ysabel Wilson
180 1998–
David Basset
1100 2010
Michael James Basset
1100 2010–
 
 
Capt. Harry Russell Legge-Bourke
120 2009–

Persons exercising the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, 1780–present

Acted as Lord Great ChamberlainYearsMonarch
Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy1780–1820 George III
Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy1820–1821 George IV
Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Baron Gwydyr as Deputy1821–1828
Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1828–1830
George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley as Deputy1830–1837 William IV
Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1837–1865 Victoria
Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby 1865–1870
Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Baron Aveland as Deputy1871–1888
Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster 1888–1901
George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley 1901–1910 Edward VII
Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire 1910–1928 George V
William Legge, Viscount Lewisham as Deputy1928–1936
George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley 1936 Edward VIII
Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster 1936–1951 George VI
James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster 1951–1952
George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley 1952–1966 Elizabeth II
George Cholmondeley, Earl of Rocksavage as Deputy [3] 1966–1968
George Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley 1968–1990
David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley 1990–

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References

  1. Thomas Mortimer (ed.). The British Plutarch. p. 115.
  2. Loades, D. (2004) Intrigue and Treason: the Tudor Court, 1547–1558 Harlow: Pearson, p.309
  3. Later 6th Marquess of Chomondeley

Wikisource-logo.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Lord Great Chamberlain"  . Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.