|Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom|
|First holder||Robert Malet|
The Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom is the sixth of the Great Officers of State (not to be confused with the Great Offices of State), ranking beneath the Lord Privy Seal and above the Lord High Constable. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge over the Palace of Westminster (though since the 1960s his personal authority has been limited to the royal apartments and Westminster Hall).
The United Kingdom (UK), officially the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world. It is also the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017.
The Great Offices of State in the United Kingdom are the four most senior and prestigious posts in the British government. They are the Prime Minister, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Foreign Secretary and Home Secretary. According to convention, when the Prime Minister names his or her Cabinet, either after a general election or a mid-term reshuffle, the first Cabinet ministers to be announced are the Chancellor, the Foreign Secretary and the Home Secretary.
The Lord Privy Seal is the fifth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord President of the Council and above the Lord Great Chamberlain. Originally, its holder was responsible for the monarch's personal (privy) seal until the use of such a seal became obsolete. The office is currently one of the traditional sinecure offices of state. Today, the holder of the office is invariably given a seat in the Cabinet of the United Kingdom.
On formal state occasions, he wears a distinctive scarlet court uniform and bears a gold key and a white stave as the insignia of his office.
The position is a hereditary one, held since 1780 in gross. At any one time, a single person actually exercises the office of Lord Great Chamberlain. The various individuals who hold fractions of the Lord Great Chamberlainship are technically each Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain, and the right to exercise the office for a given reign rotates proportionately to the fraction of the office held. For instance, the Marquesses of Cholmondeley hold one-half of the office, and may therefore exercise the office or appoint a deputy every alternate reign. (A Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain is a person exercising the office who is not personally a co-heir to the office; historically these have been sons or husbands of co-heirs as the office has never been exercised by a woman, as women were barred from sitting in the Lords until the present reign).
The office of Lord Great Chamberlain is distinct from the non-hereditary office of Lord Chamberlain of the Household, a position in the monarch's household. This office arose in the 14th century as a deputy of the Lord Great Chamberlain to fulfil the latter's duties in the Royal Household, but now they are quite distinct.
The Lord Chamberlain or Lord Chamberlain of the Household is the most senior officer of the Royal Household of the United Kingdom, supervising the departments which support and provide advice to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom while also acting as the main channel of communication between the Sovereign and the House of Lords. The office organises all ceremonial activity such as garden parties, state visits, royal weddings, and the State Opening of Parliament. They also handle the Royal Mews and Royal Travel, as well as the ceremony around the awarding of honours.
The House of Lords Act 1999 removed the automatic right of hereditary peers to sit in the House of Lords, but the Act provided that a hereditary peer exercising the office of Lord Great Chamberlain (as well as the Earl Marshal) be exempt from such a rule, in order to perform ceremonial functions.
The House of Lords Act 1999 was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that was given Royal Assent on 11 November 1999. The Act reformed the House of Lords, one of the chambers of Parliament. For centuries, the House of Lords had included several hundred members who inherited their seats; the Act removed such a right. However, as part of a compromise, the Act did permit ninety-two hereditary peers to remain in the House on an interim basis. Another ten were created life peers to enable them to remain in the House.
The hereditary peers form part of the peerage in the United Kingdom. As of 2019 there are 814 hereditary peers. The numbers of peers – of England, Scotland, Ireland, Great Britain, and the UK – whose titles are the highest they hold are: dukes, 24 ; marquesses, 34; earls, 193; viscounts, 112; barons, 444.
Earl Marshal is a hereditary royal officeholder and chivalric title under the sovereign of the United Kingdom used in England. He is the eighth of the Great Officers of State in the United Kingdom, ranking beneath the Lord High Constable and above the Lord High Admiral.
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The office was originally held by Robert Malet, a son of one of the leading companions of William the Conqueror. In 1133, however, King Henry I declared Malet's estates and titles forfeit, and awarded the office of Lord Great Chamberlain to Aubrey de Vere, whose son was created Earl of Oxford. Thereafter, the Earls of Oxford held the title almost continuously until 1526, with a few intermissions due to the forfeiture of some Earls for treason. In 1526, however, the fourteenth Earl of Oxford died, leaving his aunts as his heirs. The earldom was inherited by a more distant heir-male, his second cousin. The Sovereign then decreed that the office belonged to The Crown, and was not transmitted along with the earldom. The Sovereign appointed the fifteenth Earl to the office, but the appointment was deemed for life and was not hereditary. The family's association with the office was interrupted in 1540, when the fifteenth earl died and Thomas Cromwell, the King's chief adviser, was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain.After Cromwell's attainder and execution later the same year, the office passed through a few more court figures, until 1553, when it was passed back to the De Vere family, the sixteenth Earl of Oxford, again as an uninheritable life appointment. Later, Queen Mary I ruled that the Earls of Oxford were indeed entitled to the office of Lord Great Chamberlain on an hereditary basis.
Robert Malet was a Norman-English baron and a close advisor of Henry I.
William I, usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087. A descendant of Rollo, he was Duke of Normandy from 1035 onward. After a long struggle to establish his power, by 1060 his hold on Normandy was secure, and he launched the Norman conquest of England six years later. The rest of his life was marked by struggles to consolidate his hold over England and his continental lands and by difficulties with his eldest son.
Henry I, also known as Henry Beauclerc, was King of England from 1100 to his death in 1135. Henry was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and was educated in Latin and the liberal arts. On William's death in 1087, Henry's elder brothers Robert Curthose and William Rufus inherited Normandy and England, respectively, but Henry was left landless. Henry purchased the County of Cotentin in western Normandy from Robert, but William and Robert deposed him in 1091. Henry gradually rebuilt his power base in the Cotentin and allied himself with William against Robert. Henry was present when William died in a hunting accident in 1100, and he seized the English throne, promising at his coronation to correct many of William's less popular policies. Henry married Matilda of Scotland but continued to have a large number of mistresses by whom he had many illegitimate children.
Thus, the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth Earls of Oxford held the position on a hereditary basis until 1626, when the eighteenth Earl died, again leaving a distant relative as heir male, but a closer one as a female heir. The House of Lords eventually ruled that the office belonged to the heir male, Robert Bertie, 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby, who later became Earl of Lindsey. The office remained vested in the Earls of Lindsey, who later became Dukes of Ancaster and Kesteven. In 1779, however, the fourth Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven died, leaving two sisters as female heirs, and an uncle as an heir male. The uncle became the fifth and last Duke, but the House of Lords ruled that the two sisters were jointly Lord Great Chamberlain and could appoint a Deputy to fulfil the functions of the office. The barony of Willoughby de Eresby went into abeyance between the two sisters, but the Sovereign terminated the abeyance and granted the title to the elder sister, Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby. The younger sister later married the first Marquess of Cholmondeley. The office of Lord Great Chamberlain, however, was divided between Priscilla and her younger sister Georgiana. Priscilla's share was eventually split between two of her granddaughters, and has been split several more times since then. By contrast, Georgiana's share has been inherited by a single male heir each time; that individual has in each case been the Marquess of Cholmondeley, a title created for Georgiana's husband.
Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey was an English peer, soldier and courtier.
Earl of Lindsey is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1626 for the 14th Baron Willoughby de Eresby. He was First Lord of the Admiralty from 1635 to 1636 and also established his claim in right of his mother to the hereditary office of Lord Great Chamberlain of England. Lord Lindsey fought on the Royalist side in the Civil War and was killed at the Battle of Edgehill on 23 October 1642. He was succeeded by his son, the second Earl. He also fought at Edgehill and surrendered to the Parliamentarians in order to attend his mortally wounded father. Lord Lindsey later fought at the First Battle of Newbury, Second Battle of Newbury, and at Naseby. His son from his second marriage, James, was created Earl of Abingdon in 1682. He was succeeded by his son from his first marriage to Martha Cockayne, the third Earl. He represented Boston in the House of Commons and served as Lord Lieutenant of Lincolnshire.
Baron Willoughby de Eresby is a title in the Peerage of England. It was created in 1313 for Robert de Willoughby. Since 1983, the title has been held by Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby.
The Lord Great Chamberlain also has a major part to play in royal coronations, having the right to dress the monarch on coronation day and to serve the monarch water before and after the coronation banquet, and also being involved in investing the monarch with the insignia of rule.[ citation needed ]
|Years||Lord Great Chamberlain|
|1133–1141||Aubrey de Vere II|
|1141–1194||Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford|
|1194–1214||Aubrey de Vere, 2nd Earl of Oxford|
|1214–1221||Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford|
|1221–1263||Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford|
|1263–1265||Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford|
|1265–1267||unclear, perhaps vacant.|
|1267–1296||unclear, perhaps again Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford|
|1296–1331||Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford|
|1331–1360||John de Vere, 7th Earl of Oxford|
|1360–1371||Thomas de Vere, 8th Earl of Oxford|
|1371–1388||Robert de Vere, 9th Earl of Oxford|
|1389–1399||John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter|
|1399–1400||Aubrey de Vere, 10th Earl of Oxford|
|1400–1417||Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford|
|1417–1462||John de Vere, 12th Earl of Oxford|
|1462–1475||John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford|
|1475–1485||unclear, perhaps Henry Percy, 4th Earl of Northumberland, perhaps still the Earl of Oxford|
|1485–1513||John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford|
|1513–1526||John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford|
|1526–1540||John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford|
|1540–1540||Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex|
|1540–1542||Robert Radcliffe, 1st Earl of Sussex|
|1543–1549||Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford|
|1549–1550||John Dudley, 1st Earl of Warwick|
|1550–1553||William Parr, 1st Marquess of Northampton|
|1553–1562||John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford|
|1562–1604||Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford|
|1604–1625||Henry de Vere, 18th Earl of Oxford|
|1626–1642||Robert Bertie, 1st Earl of Lindsey|
|1642–1666||Montagu Bertie, 2nd Earl of Lindsey|
|1666–1701||Robert Bertie, 3rd Earl of Lindsey|
|1701–1723||Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1723–1742||Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1742–1778||Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
|1778–1779||Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
The fractions show the holder's share in the office, and the date they held it. The current (as of 2015 [update] ) holders of the office are shown in bold face.
|Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven|
| Priscilla Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
|Georgiana Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley |
| Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby |
| George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| William Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby |
| Clementina Drummond-Willoughby, 24th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
|Charlotte Augusta Carrington, Lady Carrington |
|Charles George Cholmondeley, Viscount Malpas|
| Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster |
| Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire |
| George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster |
|Marjorie Wilson, Baroness Nunburnholme |
|Lady Alexandra Llewellen Palmer|
|Ruperta Legge, Countess of Dartmouth |
|Judith Keppel, Countess of Albemarle||Lady Victoria Weld-Forester|
| George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster |
|Charles Wilson, 3rd Baron Nunburnholme|
|Brig. Anthony Llewellen Palmer|
|Timothy Llewellen Palmer||Derek Keppel, Viscount Bury|
| Sir Henry Legge-Bourke |
| Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
| Jane Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby |
| Ben Wilson, 4th Baron Nunburnholme |
|Julian Llewellen Palmer|
| Rufus Keppel, 10th Earl of Albemarle |
| David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley |
|Nicholas Llewellen Palmer|
|Lady Mary Findlay|
| Lady Elizabeth Basset |
|Lady Diana Matthews|
|Lady Barbara Kwiatkowska|
|Josceline Chichester, Marchioness of Donegall |
|Cdr Jonathan Findlay|
| Bryan Basset |
|Col James Gustavus Hamilton-Russell|
|Jan Witold Kwiatkowski|
| Patrick Chichester, 8th Marquess of Donegall |
|The Hon. Lorraine Wilson|
|The Hon. Tatiana Dent|
|The Hon. Ines Garton|
|The Hon. Ysabel Wilson|
| David Basset |
|Michael James Basset|
|Capt. Harry Russell Legge-Bourke|
|Acted as Lord Great Chamberlain||Years||Monarch|
|Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1780–1820||George III|
|Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1820–1821||George IV|
|Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Baron Gwydyr as Deputy||1821–1828|
|Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1828–1830|
|George Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley as Deputy||1830–1837||William IV|
|Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1837–1865||Victoria|
|Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby||1865–1870|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Baron Aveland as Deputy||1871–1888|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 1st Earl of Ancaster||1888–1901|
|George Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1901–1910||Edward VII|
|Charles Wynn-Carington, 1st Marquess of Lincolnshire||1910–1928||George V|
|William Legge, Viscount Lewisham as Deputy||1928–1936|
|George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1936||Edward VIII|
|Gilbert Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Earl of Ancaster||1936–1951||George VI|
|James Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Earl of Ancaster||1951–1952|
|George Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1952–1966||Elizabeth II|
|George Cholmondeley, Earl of Rocksavage as Deputy||1966–1968|
|George Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1968–1990|
|David Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley||1990–|
Marquess of Cholmondeley is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1815 for George Cholmondeley, 4th Earl of Cholmondeley.
David George Philip Cholmondeley, 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley, ( CHUM-lee); born 27 June 1960), styled Viscount Malpas from birth until 1968, and subsequently Earl of Rocksavage until 1990, is a British peer and filmmaker. He also acts as Lord Great Chamberlain of the United Kingdom, a role he is entitled to hold for the duration of present Queen's reign.
Robert Bertie, 1st Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven PC, styled 17th Baron Willoughby de Eresby between 1666 and 1701 and known as 4th Earl of Lindsey between 1701 and 1706 and as 1st Marquess of Lindsey between 1706 and 1715, was a British statesman and nobleman.
Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, styled The Honourable Peregrine Bertie between 1686 and 1704, Lord Willoughby de Eresby between 1704 and 1715 and Marquess of Lindsey between 1715 and 1723, was a British nobleman and statesman.
General Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, styled Lord Willoughby de Eresby from 1715 to 1723 and Marquess of Lindsey from 1735 to 1742 was the son of Peregrine Bertie, 2nd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven.
George James Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Viscount Malpas between 1764 and 1770 and known as The Earl of Cholmondeley between 1770 and 1815, was a British peer and politician.
Priscilla Barbara Elizabeth Bertie, 21st Baroness Willoughby de Eresby was a daughter of the 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven and Mary Panton. On 23 February 1779, she married Sir Peter Burrell and they later had two children. Through her grandmother Mary Wynn, Priscilla Bertie was a descendant of the Welsh princely house of Aberffraw.
Albyric Drummond-Willoughby, 3rd Baron Gwydyr, 23rd Baron Willoughby de Eresby, was a British noble baron. He was the son of Peter Drummond-Burrell, 22nd Baron Willoughby de Eresby, and Sarah Clementina, née Drummond. He never married.
Robert Bertie, 4th Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, PC, styled Lord Robert Bertie until 1758 and Marquess of Lindsey between 1758 and 1778, was a British peer. He was born in Grimsthorpe, the second son of the General Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven and Mary Panton
Peter Burrell, 1st Baron Gwydyr PC featured in English politics at the end of the 18th century, but he was best known for his involvement in cricket, particularly his part in the foundation of Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787.
George Horatio Cholmondeley, 2nd Marquess of Cholmondeley PC, styled Viscount Malpas from 1792 to 1815 and subsequently Earl of Rocksavage until 1827, was a British peer and Lord Great Chamberlain of England between 1830 and 1838. Before being called to the House of Lords, he was a Tory Member of Parliament from 1817 through 1821.
William Henry Hugh Cholmondeley, 3rd Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Lord Henry Cholmondeley from 1815 until 1870, was a British peer and Conservative Member of Parliament.
Moiety title is a legal term describing a portion other than a whole of ownership of property. The word derives from Old French moitié, "half", from Latin medietas ("middle"), from medius.
George Horatio Charles Cholmondeley, 5th Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Earl of Rocksavage from birth until 1923, was a British peer. He was the Lord Great Chamberlain of England in 1936 and also between 1952 and 1966.
George Henry Hugh Cholmondeley, 4th Marquess of Cholmondeley was a British peer and a hereditary joint Lord Great Chamberlain of England. He exercised the office of Lord Great Chamberlain during the reign of King Edward VII (1901–1910).
George Hugh Cholmondeley, 6th Marquess of Cholmondeley, styled Earl of Rocksavage from 1923 until 1968, was a British peer and Lord Great Chamberlain of England between 1968 and 1990.
Nancy Jane Marie Heathcote-Drummond-Willoughby, 28th Baroness Willoughby de Eresby is an English peer. She is a 1⁄4 holder of the office of Lord Great Chamberlain, which is majority controlled by the 7th Marquess of Cholmondeley.
Georgiana Charlotte Cholmondeley, Marchioness of Cholmondeley, formerly Lady Georgiana Charlotte Bertie, was the wife of George Cholmondeley, 1st Marquess of Cholmondeley.