|Great Western Main Line|
|Type||Commuter rail, Higher-speed rail |
|Opened||30 June 1841 (complete line)|
|Line length||118 miles 19 chains (190.28 km)|
|Number of tracks||Four (London to Didcot),|
two (Didcot to Bristol)
|Track gauge||4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Old gauge||7 ft 1⁄4 in (2,140 mm)|
|Electrification||25 kV 50 hz AC OLE (London to Chippenham)|
|Operating speed||125 mph (201 km/h) maximum|
|Signalling||AWS, TPWS, ATP|
|Great Western Main Line|
The Great Western Main Line (GWML) is a main line railway in England that runs westwards from London Paddington to Bristol Temple Meads. It connects to other main lines such as those from Reading to Penzance and Swindon to Swansea.  Opened in 1841, it was the original route of the first Great Western Railway which was merged into the Western Region of British Railways in 1948. It is now a part of the national rail system managed by Network Rail with the majority of passenger services provided by the current Great Western Railway franchise.
The line is electrified between London Paddington and Royal Wootton Bassett. Work to complete electrification all the way to Bristol was begun in 2011, but in 2016 the UK government deferred electrification of the section through Bath from Royal Wootton Bassett to Bristol, with no date set for completion, because costs had tripled.
The line was built by the Great Western Railway and engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel as a dual track line using a wider 7 ft (2,134 mm) broad gauge and was opened in stages between 1838 and 1841. The final section, between Chippenham and Bath, was opened on completion of the Box Tunnel in June 1841. 
The alignment was so level and straight it was nicknamed "Brunel's billiard table". It was supplemented with a third rail for dual gauge operation, allowing standard gauge 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) trains to also operate on the route, in stages between 1854 and 1875. Dual gauge was introduced as follows: London to Reading (October 1861), Reading to Didcot (December 1856), Didcot to Swindon (February 1872), Swindon to Thingley Junction, Chippenham (June 1874), Thingley Junction to Bathampton (March 1875), Bathampton to Bristol (June 1874), Bristol station area (May 1854). The broad gauge remained in use until 1892. Evidence of the original broad gauge can still be seen at many places where bridges are a bit wider than usual, or where tracks are ten feet apart instead of the usual six.[ citation needed ]
The original dual tracks were widened to four in places, mainly in the east half, between 1877 and 1899: Paddington to Southall (October 1877), Southall to West Drayton (November 1878), West Drayton to Slough (June 1879), Slough to east side of Maidenhead Bridge (September 1884), Maidenhead Bridge to Reading (June 1893), Reading station (1899), Reading to Pangbourne (July 1893), Pangbourne to Cholsey and Moulsford (June 1894), Cholsey and Moulsford to Didcot (December 1892); also short sections between Didcot and Swindon, and at Bristol.[ citation needed ]
Following the Slough rail accident of 1900, in which five passengers were killed, improved vacuum braking systems were used on locomotives and passenger rolling stock and Automatic Train Control (ATC) was introduced in 1908.
Further widenings of the line took place between 1903 and 1910 and more widening work took place between 1931 and 1932. 
At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the Great Western Railway was taken into government control, as were most major railways in Britain. The companies were reorganised after the war into the "big four" companies, of which the Great Western Railway was one. The railways returned to direct government control during World War II before being nationalised to form British Railways (BR) in 1948.[ relevant? ]
The line speed was upgraded in the 1970s to support the introduction of the InterCity 125 high speed train (HST). 
In 1977, the Parliamentary Select Committee on Nationalised Industries recommended considering electrification of more of Britain's rail network, and by 1979 BR presented a range of options that included electrifying the line from Paddington to Swansea by 2000.  Under the 1979–90 Conservative governments that succeeded the 1976–79 Labour government, the proposal was not implemented.
In the mid 1990s, the line between London Paddington and Hayes & Harlington was electrified as part of the Heathrow Express project. 
In August 2008, it was announced that a number of speed limits on the relief lines between Reading and London had been raised, so that 86% of the line could be used at 90 mph (140 km/h). 
Partial electrification by 2019 allowed replacement of InterCity 125 and Class 180 sets by new Hitachi Super Express high speed trains – the Class 800s and Class 802s. It also allowed the introduction of Class 387 EMUs by GWR on shorter-distance services. 
The route of the GWML includes dozens of listed buildings and structures, including tunnel portals, bridges and viaducts, stations, and associated hotels.  Part of the route passes through and contributes to the Georgian Architecture of the City of Bath World Heritage Site; the path through Sydney Gardens has been described as a "piece of deliberate railway theatre by Brunel without parallel".  Grade I listed structures on the line include London Paddington, Wharncliffe Viaduct, the 1839 Tudor gothic River Avon Bridge in Bristol, and Bristol Temple Meads station. 
Communities served by the Great Western Main Line include West London (including Acton, Ealing, Hanwell, Southall, Hayes, Harlington and West Drayton); Iver; Langley; Slough; Burnham; Taplow; Maidenhead; Twyford; Reading; Tilehurst; Pangbourne; Goring-on-Thames; Streatley; Cholsey; Didcot; Swindon; Chippenham; Bath; Keynsham; and Bristol.
From London to Didcot, the line follows the Thames Valley, crossing the River Thames three times, including on the Maidenhead Railway Bridge. Between Chippenham and Bath the line passes through Box Tunnel, and then follows the valley of the River Avon.
A junction west of Swindon allows trains to reach Bristol by an alternative route along the South Wales Main Line. Other diversionary routes exist between Chippenham and Bath via the Wessex Main Line, although this involves a reversal at Bradford Junction; and from Reading to Bath via the Berks and Hants Line.
Most services are provided by Great Western Railway (GWR). The stations served by trains between London Paddington and Bristol Temple Meads are Reading, Didcot Parkway, Swindon, Chippenham, and Bath Spa. Some trains between London and Bristol do not call at Didcot Parkway.
The Elizabeth line runs on the Great Western Main Line between London and Reading.
Fast trains from Paddington to London Heathrow Airport are operated by Heathrow Airport Holdings [ citation needed ] as the Heathrow Express.
CrossCountry operate trains between Reading and Oxford, using the Great Western Main Line as far as Didcot and South Western Railway operate a limited number of trains between Bath and Bristol.
Great Western Railway also operate a train between London Paddington – Cardiff Central every 30 minutes, with hourly extensions to Swansea. At Swansea/Cardiff there is a connecting Transport for Wales boat train to/from Fishguard Harbour for the Stena Line ferry to Rosslare Europort in Ireland. An integrated timetable is offered between London Paddington and Rosslare Europort with through ticketing available.  Daytime and nocturnal journeys are offered in both directions daily (including Sundays). Additionally, 2–3 Great Western Railway trains continue to Pembroke Dock on weekends during the Summer season to connect with ferry services to Ireland.
Between London and Didcot there are four tracks, two for each direction. The main lines are mostly used by the faster trains and are on the south side of the route. The relief lines on the north side are used for slower services and those that call at all stations, as only London Paddington, Slough, Maidenhead, Twyford, Reading and Didcot Parkway stations have platforms on the main lines (although a few others have main line platforms that can be used in an emergency). Between Didcot and Royal Wootton Bassett, a series of passing loops allow fast trains to overtake slower ones. This section is signalled for bi-directional running on each line but this facility is usually only used during engineering working or when there is significant disruption to traffic in one direction. 
The summit of the line is at Swindon, and falls away in each direction: Swindon is 270 feet (82 m) above Paddington, and 292 feet (89 m) above Bristol Temple Meads. The maximum gradient between Paddington and Didcot is 1 in 1320 (0.75 ‰ or 0.075%); between Didcot and Swindon it is 1 in 660 (1.5 ‰ or 0.15%) but west of Swindon, gradients as steep as 1 in 100 (10 ‰ or 1%) are found in places, such as Box Tunnel and to the east of Dauntsey.  
The line is electrified between Paddington and Langley Burrell (just east of Chippenham) using 25 kV AC overhead supply lines; the Reading to Taunton line (as far as Newbury) and the South Wales Main Line (as far as Cardiff Central) are also electrified.
The line speed is 125 mph (201 km/h).  The relief lines from Paddington to Didcot are limited to 90 mph (140 km/h) as far as Reading, and then 100 mph (160 km/h) to Didcot. Lower restrictions apply at various locations.  The line is one of two Network Rail-owned lines equipped with the Automatic Train Protection (ATP) system, the other being the Chiltern Main Line. 
Major civil engineering structures on the Great Western Main Line include the following. 
|Railway structure||Length||Distance from London Paddington||Location|
|Subway Tunnel (LU)||117 yards (107 m)||0 miles 67 chains (1.3 km) – 0 miles 73 chains (1.5 km)||West of Royal Oak|
|Spring Bridge Road Car Park Tunnel||121 yards (111 m)||5 miles 70 chains (9.5 km) – 5 miles 76 chains (9.6 km)||West of Ealing Broadway|
|Hanwell Viaduct||44 yards (40 m)||7 miles 35 chains (12.0 km) – 7 miles 38 chains (12.0 km)||West of Hanwell|
|Wharncliffe Viaduct||297 yards (272 m)||7 miles 43 chains (12.1 km) – 7 miles 56 chains (12.4 km)|
|Hanwell Bridge||4 chains (80 m)||8 miles 00 chains (12.9 km) – 8 miles 04 chains (13.0 km)|
|Maidenhead Viaduct (River Thames)||237 yards (217 m)||23 miles 21 chains (37.4 km) – 23 miles 32 chains (37.7 km)||East of Maidenhead|
|Seven Arch Viaduct||68 yards (62 m)||31 miles 19 chains (50.3 km) – 31 miles 22 chains (50.3 km)||West of Twyford|
|River Loddon Viaduct||70 yards (64 m)||31 miles 43 chains (50.8 km) – 31 miles 46 chains (50.8 km)|
|Kennet Bridge (Kennet & Avon Canal)||4 chains (80 m)||34 miles 77 chains (56.3 km) – 35 miles 01 chain (56.3 km)||East of Reading|
|Gatehampton Viaduct (River Thames)||99 yards (91 m)||44 miles 00 chains (70.8 km) – 44 miles 05 chains (70.9 km)||East of Goring & Streatley|
|Moulsford Viaduct (River Thames)||147 yards (134 m)||47 miles 27 chains (76.2 km) – 47 miles 34 chains (76.3 km)||East of Cholsey|
|River Avon Viaduct||72 yards (66 m)||90 miles 77 chains (146.4 km) – 91 miles 00 chains (146.5 km)||East of Chippenham|
|Chippenham viaduct||90 yards (82 m)||94 miles 08 chains (151.4 km) – 94 miles 13 chains (151.5 km)||West of Chippenham|
|Box Tunnel||1 mile 1,452 yards (2.937 km)||99 miles 12 chains (159.6 km) – 100 miles 78 chains (162.5 km)||Between Chippenham and Bath Spa|
|Middle Hill Tunnel||198 yards (181 m)||101 miles 39 chains (163.3 km) – 101 miles 48 chains (163.5 km)|
|Sydney Gardens East Tunnel||77 yards (70 m)||106 miles 24 chains (171.1 km) – 106 miles 28 chains (171.2 km)||East of Bath Spa|
|Sydney Gardens West Tunnel||99 yards (91 m)||106 miles 29 chains (171.2 km) – 106 miles 33 chains (171.3 km)|
|Dolemeads Viaduct||355 yards (325 m)||106 miles 49 chains (171.6 km) – 106 miles 60 chains (171.8 km)|
|Arches and St James Viaduct||600 yards (550 m)||106 miles 68 chains (172.0 km) – 107 miles 20 chains (172.6 km)||West of Bath Spa|
|Twerton Viaduct||638 yards (583 m)||108 miles 29 chains (174.4 km) – 108 miles 58 chains (175.0 km)||Between Oldfield Park and Keynsham|
|Twerton Short Tunnel||45 yards (41 m)||108 miles 70 chains (175.2 km) – 108 miles 72 chains (175.3 km)|
|Twerton Long Tunnel||264 yards (241 m)||109 miles 03 chains (175.5 km) – 109 miles 15 chains (175.7 km)|
|Saltford Tunnel||176 yards (161 m)||111 miles 57 chains (179.8 km) – 111 miles 65 chains (179.9 km)|
|St Annes Park Arches Viaduct||4 chains (80 m)||115 miles 25 chains (185.6 km) – 115 miles 29 chains (185.7 km)||Between Keynsham|
|St Annes Park No.3 Tunnel (or Foxes Wood Tunnel)||1,017 yards (930 m)||115 miles 58 chains (186.2 km) – 116 miles 25 chains (187.2 km)|
|St Annes Park or (Bristol) No.2 Tunnel||154 yards (141 m)||116 miles 41 chains (187.5 km) – 116 miles 48 chains (187.6 km)|
|Main River Viaduct (River Avon)||108 yards (99 m)||c. 117 miles 24 chains (188.8 km)|
|Main Down Viaduct (River Avon)||141 yards (129 m)||117 miles 21 chains (188.7 km) – 117 miles 27 chains (188.8 km)|
|The Feeder||117 miles 51 chains (189.3 km)|
|Floating Harbour||3 chains (60 m)||118 miles 16 chains (190.2 km) – 118 miles 19 chains (190.3 km)|
Line-side train monitoring equipment includes hot axle box detectors (HABD) and 'Wheelchex' wheel impact load detectors (WILD), sited as follows.  
|Name & Type||Line||Location (distance from Paddington)|
|Maidenhead HABD||Up Relief||24 miles 03 chains (38.7 km)|
|Up Main||24 miles 10 chains (38.8 km)|
|Waltham WILD||Up Relief, Down Relief, Up Main, Down Main||26 miles 21 chains (42.3 km)|
|Twyford HABD||Down Relief, Down Main||32 miles 02 chains (51.5 km)|
|Basildon HABD||Up Relief, Down Relief, Up Main |
(Down Main disconnected December 2016)
|43 miles 42 chains (70.0 km)|
|Cholsey WILD||Up Relief, Down Relief, Up Main, Down Main||49 miles 05 chains (79.0 km)|
|Wantage Road HABD||Up Main||59 miles 57 chains (96.1 km)|
|Bourton HABD||Down Main||72 miles 20 chains (116.3 km)|
|Studley HABD||Up Main||81 miles 40 chains (131.2 km)|
|Twerton HABD||Down Main||108 miles 60 chains (175.0 km)|
Since 2011, the Great Western has been undergoing a £5 billion modernisation by Network Rail. 
Reading railway station saw a major redevelopment with new platforms, a new entrance, footbridge and lifts; the work was completed a year ahead of schedule  in July 2014.  
The eastern section from Paddington to Hayes & Harlington was electrified in 1998.[ citation needed ] The Crossrail project covered electrification of the line from Airport Junction to Maidenhead and, following a number of announcements and delays, the government announced in March 2011 that it would electrify the line as far as Bristol Temple Meads.   
Following delays to the work and a large increase in costs,  the Conservative government announced in July 2017 that, for the time being, electrification would only be completed as far as Thingley Junction, 2 miles (3.2 km) west of Chippenham.   Electrification of other lines, including Bristol Parkway to Temple Meads and Didcot to Oxford, was also postponed indefinitely. The government argued that bi-mode trains would fill in the gaps pending completion of electrification, although the Class 800 trains are slower in diesel mode than under electric power. Electrification as far as Didcot Parkway was completed in December 2017, and to Thingley Junction in December 2019.[ citation needed ]
This section needs to be updated.(March 2023)
Network Rail plans to install European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) in-cab signalling on the Great Western line;   this is a pre-requisite for the Super Express trains to run at 140 mph (225 km/h).  Some or all of the resignalling work will be undertaken during the electrification work. 
Further capacity improvements are also scheduled at Swindon, adding to recent changes and the new Platform 4.
Crossrail services are planned to terminate at Reading. Some of the current suburban services into London Paddington are planned to be transferred to the new Crossrail service, which will free up some surface-level capacity at Paddington. 
Other more distant aspirations include resignalling and capacity improvements at Reading; the provision of four continuous tracks between Didcot and Swindon (including a grade-separated junction at Milton, where the westbound relief line switches from the north side of the line to the south); and resignalling between Bath and Bristol to enable trains to run closer together.
Access to Heathrow Airport from the west remains an aspiration and the 2009 Heathrow Airtrack scheme, abandoned in 2011, proposed a route south of the Great Western Main Line to link the airport with Reading. Plans for electrification of the line will make it easier to access Heathrow from Reading, since lack of electrification between Reading station and Airport Junction (near West Drayton station) was a limiting factor.  Plans under consideration in 2014 included new tunnels between Heathrow and Langley. 
Network Rail intends to replace the ATP system with ETCS – Level 2  from 2017 to 2035 along with the introduction of the new IEP trains.
Signalling Solutions is to resignal the 12 miles (19 km) from Paddington to West Drayton, including the Airport branch, as part of the Crossrail project. 
There are calls for the reintroduction of Corsham station due to recent growth of the town.  The original station was closed to passengers in 1965.
A local group is campaigning for the reopening of Saltford station between Bath and Bristol, to coincide with electrification. 
There have also been calls to reopen the former Wantage Road station.  Oxfordshire County Council included a proposal for a new station to serve Wantage and Grove in their 2015–2031 local transport plan. 
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Cars per set||Number||Operator||Routes||Built|
|Class 158||Diesel Multiple Unit||90||145||2||22||Great Western Railway||1989–92|
|Class 165||Diesel Multiple Unit||90||145||2||20||Great Western Railway||1990-92|
|Class 166||Diesel Multiple Unit||90||145||3||21||Great Western Railway||1992-93|
|Class 345||Electric Multiple Unit||90||145||9||70||Elizabeth line||London Paddington to Heathrow Terminal 4 and Reading||2015-19|
|Class 387|| ||Electric Multiple Unit||110||177||4||36||Great Western Railway||London Paddington to Didcot Parkway|
London Paddington and Reading to Newbury
|Class||Image||Type||Top speed||Cars per set||Number||Operator||Routes||Built|
|Class 387||Electric Multiple Unit||110||177||4||12||Heathrow Express||London Paddington to Heathrow Terminal 5||2016-17|
|Class 800||Bi-Mode Multiple Unit||140||225||5||36||Great Western Railway||London Paddington to:||2014-18|
|Class 802||Bi-Mode Multiple Unit||140||225||5||22||Great Western Railway||London Paddington to: ||2017-20|
|Class 57||Diesel locomotive||95||152||4||Great Western Railway||London Paddington to Penzance||1998-2004|
|Mark 3||Passenger coach||125||200||18||1975-88|
The reference for the route map diagram is:- Jowett, Alan (March 1989). Jowett's Railway Atlas of Great Britain and Ireland: From Pre-Grouping to the Present Day (1st ed.). Sparkford: Patrick Stephens Ltd. pp. 113, 115a, 116, 118b, 118d, 120, 124–25. ISBN 978-1-85260-086-0. OCLC 22311137.
Bristol Parkway, on the South Wales Main Line, is in the Stoke Gifford area in the northern suburbs of the Bristol conurbation. It is 112 miles (180 km) from London Paddington. The station was opened in 1972 by British Rail, and was the first in a new generation of park and ride/parkway stations. It is the third-most heavily used station in the West of England local authority area, after Bristol Temple Meads and Bath Spa. There are four platforms, and a well-equipped waiting area. The station is managed by Great Western Railway, who provide most of the trains at the station, with CrossCountry providing the rest.
The Great Western Railway (GWR) was a British railway company that linked London with the southwest, west and West Midlands of England and most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838 with the initial route completed between London and Bristol in 1841. It was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later slightly widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it also operate 4 ft 8+1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains; the last broad-gauge services were operated in 1892.
Paddington, also known as London Paddington, is a Central London railway terminus and London Underground station complex, located on Praed Street in the Paddington area. The site has been the London terminus of services provided by the Great Western Railway and its successors since 1838. Much of the main line station dates from 1854 and was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel.
Great Western Railway (GWR) is a British train operating company owned by FirstGroup that operates the Greater Western passenger railway franchise. It manages 197 stations and its trains call at over 270. GWR operates long-distance inter-city services along the Great Western Main Line to and from the West of England and South Wales, inter-city services from London to the West Country via the Reading–Taunton line, and the Night Riviera sleeper service between London and Penzance. It also provides commuter and outer-suburban services from its London terminus at Paddington to West London, the Thames Valley region including parts of Berkshire, parts of Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire; and regional services throughout the West of England and South Wales to the South coast of England. Great Western Railway also provides and maintains the Electrostar Class 387 fleet for Heathrow Express.
The Wessex Main Line is the railway line from Bristol Temple Meads to Southampton Central. Diverging from this route is the Heart of Wessex Line from Westbury to Weymouth. The Wessex Main Line intersects the Reading to Taunton Line at Westbury and the West of England Main Line at Salisbury.
Reading railway station is a major transport hub in Reading, Berkshire, England. It is on the northern edge of the town centre, near the main retail and commercial areas and the River Thames, 36 miles (58 km) from London Paddington.
Hayes & Harlington is a railway station serving the west London districts Hayes and Harlington in the London Borough of Hillingdon. It is 10 miles 71 chains down the line from London Paddington and is situated between Southall and West Drayton.
Didcot Parkway is a railway station serving the town of Didcot in Oxfordshire, England. The station was opened as Didcot on 12 June 1844 and renamed Didcot Parkway on 29 July 1985 by British Rail to reflect its role as a park and ride railhead. It is 53 miles 10 chains down the line from London Paddington and is situated between Cholsey to the east and Swindon to the west.
Bath Spa railway station is the principal station serving the city of Bath in South West England. It is on the Great Western Main Line, 106 miles 71 chains down the line from the zero point at London Paddington between Chippenham to the east and Oldfield Park to the west. Its three-letter station code is BTH.
The South Wales Main Line, originally known as the London, Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway or simply as the Bristol and South Wales Direct Railway, is a branch of the Great Western Main Line in Great Britain. It diverges from the core London-Bristol line at Royal Wootton Bassett beyond Swindon, first calling at Bristol Parkway, after which the line continues through the Severn Tunnel into South Wales.
Westbury railway station serves the town of Westbury in Wiltshire, England. The station is managed by Great Western Railway.
Swindon railway station is on the Great Western Main Line in South West England, serving the town of Swindon, Wiltshire. It is 77 miles 23 chains down the line from the zero point at London Paddington and is situated between Didcot Parkway and Chippenham on the main line. It is managed by Great Western Railway, which also operates all the trains.
Chippenham railway station is on the Great Western Main Line (GWML) in South West England, serving the town of Chippenham, Wiltshire. It is 93 miles 76 chains down the line from the zero point at London Paddington and is situated between Swindon and Bath Spa on the GWML. The Wessex Main Line diverges from the GWML to the southwest of Chippenham and runs to Trowbridge via Melksham.
Trowbridge railway station is a railway station on the Wessex Main Line serving the town of Trowbridge in Wiltshire, England. The station is 24 miles (39 km) south east of Bristol Temple Meads and is managed by Great Western Railway.
Melksham railway station serves the town of Melksham in Wiltshire, England. It is 100 miles 13 chains measured from London Paddington, on the TransWilts Line between Chippenham and Trowbridge that was originally part of the Wilts, Somerset and Weymouth Railway, absorbed in 1850 by the Great Western Railway.
In the 2010s Network Rail modernised the Great Western Main Line, the South Wales Main Line, and other associated lines. The modernisation plans were announced at separate times but their implementation overlapped in the 2010s.
The Reading–Taunton line is a major branch of the Great Western Main Line from which it diverges at Reading railway station. It runs to Cogload Junction where it joins the Bristol to Exeter and Penzance line.
The Bristol to Exeter line is a major branch of the Great Western Main Line in the West of England and runs from Bristol, to Exeter, from where it continues as the Exeter to Plymouth line. It was one of the principal routes of the pre-1948 Great Western Railway which were subsequently taken over by the Western Region of British Railways and are now part of the Network Rail system.
The British Rail Class 387 is a type of electric multiple unit passenger train built by Bombardier Transportation. They are part of the Electrostar family of trains. A total of 107 units were built, with the first train entering service with Thameslink in December 2014. The trains are currently in service with Great Western Railway, Govia Thameslink Railway, and Heathrow Express. The Class 387 is a variation of the Class 379 with dual-voltage capability which allows units to run on 750 V DC third rail, as well as use 25 kV AC OLE. The class were the final rolling stock orders from the Bombardier Electrostar family with 2,805 vehicles built over 18 years between 1999 and 2017.