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Motto: "Freedom and Justice"
Anthem: God Bless Our Homeland Ghana
|Common languages|| English |
|Charles Noble Arden-Clarke|
|Historical era||Cold War|
|6 March 1957|
|1 July 1960|
|Currency|| BWA pound (1957–1958)|
Ghanaian pound (1958–1965)
|ISO 3166 code||GH|
Part of a series on the
|History of Ghana|
Ghana was a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations between 6 March 1957 and 1 July 1960, before it became the Republic of Ghana. It was the first western African country to achieve independence.
A Dominion was the "title" given to the semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867. "Dominion status" was a constitutional term of art used to signify an independent Commonwealth realm; they included Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State, and then from the late 1940s also India, Pakistan, and Ceylon. The Balfour Declaration of 1926 recognised the Dominions as "autonomous Communities within the British Empire", and the 1931 Statute of Westminster confirmed their full legislative independence.
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally known as the Commonwealth, is a unique political association of 53 member states, nearly all of them former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the Commonwealth Secretariat, which focuses on intergovernmental aspects, and the Commonwealth Foundation, which focuses on non-governmental relations between member states.
British rule ended in 1957, when the Ghana Independence Act 1957 transformed the British Crown Colony of the Gold Coast into the independent dominion of Ghana.The British monarch remained head of state, and Ghana shared its Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Ghana. The following governors-general held office:
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.
A head of state is the public persona who officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state. Depending on the country's form of government and separation of powers, the head of state may be a ceremonial figurehead or concurrently the head of government. In a parliamentary system the head of state is the de jure leader of the nation, and there is a separate de facto leader, often with the title of prime minister. In contrast, a semi-presidential system has both heads of state and government as the leaders de facto of the nation.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state in which Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning constitutional monarch and head of state. Each realm is independent from the other realms. As of 2019, there are 16 Commonwealth realms: Antigua and Barbuda, Australia, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Canada, Grenada, Jamaica, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, and the United Kingdom. All 16 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states. Elizabeth II is Head of the Commonwealth.
A referendum was held on 27 April 1960, with 88.47% percent of the voters favouring a republic, and 11.53% against. The republic was declared and the monarchy abolished on 1 July 1960.
Elizabeth II did not reside in or visit Ghana between 1957 and 1960, but she did visit:
The Head of the Commonwealth is the "symbol of the free association of independent member nations" of the Commonwealth of Nations, an intergovernmental organisation that currently comprises fifty-three sovereign states. There is no set term of office or term limit and the role itself involves no part in the day-to-day governance of any of the member states within the Commonwealth.
Kwame Nkrumah held office as prime minister (and head of government). Following the abolition of the monarchy, Nkrumah won a presidential election and became the first President of Ghana.
Kwame Nkrumah PC was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary. He was the first Prime Minister and President of Ghana, having led the Gold Coast to independence from Britain in 1957. An influential advocate of pan-Africanism, Nkrumah was a founding member of the Organisation of African Unity and winner of the Lenin Peace Prize in 1962.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system. A prime minister is not a head of state or chief executive officer of their respective nation, rather they are a head of government, serving typically under a monarch in a hybrid of aristocratic and democratic government forms.
Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments. The term "head of government" is often differentiated from the term "head of state", as they may be separate positions, individuals, or roles depending on the country.
The Dominion of Fiji was the official name of Fiji between October 1970 and 6 October 1987. When British rule ended in 1970, the Fijian Islands were given independence as a Dominion, in which the British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained head of state as Queen of Fiji, represented by the Governor-General. The Republic of Fiji, removing Elizabeth II as head of state, was proclaimed on 6 October 1987 after two military coups.
The monarchy of Solomon Islands is a system of government in which a constitutional monarch is the head of state of Solomon Islands. The present monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also the head of state of fifteen other Commonwealth realms.
The republics in the Commonwealth of Nations are the sovereign states in the Commonwealth of Nations with a republican form of government. As of May 2017, 31 out of the 53 member states were republics. Elizabeth II, who is the monarch in the Commonwealth realms, is still the titular Head of the Commonwealth in a personal capacity, but this role does not carry with it any power; instead, it is a symbol of the free association of Commonwealth members.
The State of Malta, known in common parlance as Malta, was the predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Malta. It existed between 21 September 1964 and 13 December 1974.
The monarchy of Saint Lucia is a system of government in which a hereditary, constitutional monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Saint Lucia. The present monarch of Saint Lucia is Elizabeth II, who is also the Sovereign of the Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Saint Lucia.
The monarchy of Tuvalu is a system of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign and head of state of Tuvalu. The present monarch of Tuvalu is Queen Elizabeth II, who is also the Sovereign of 15 other Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Tuvalu.
The Federation of Nigeria was a predecessor to modern-day Nigeria from 1954 to 1963. It was an autonomous region until independence on 1 October 1960.
Between 1965 and 1970, The Gambia was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Queen Elizabeth II. It was a predecessor to the modern-day republic of The Gambia.
Uganda became an independent sovereign state on 9 October 1962. The British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained head of state as Queen of Uganda until the link with the British monarchy was severed on 9 October 1963 and the Kabaka (King) of Uganda, Edward Mutesa II, became the first President of Uganda.
Malawi was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Malawi. It existed between 1964 and 1966. When British rule ended in 1964, by the Malawi Independence Act 1964, the Nyasaland Protectorate, formerly a constituent of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, became an independent sovereign state. The British monarch was head of state and Malawi shared the sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, with the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Malawi, Sir Glyn Smallwood Jones.
Trinidad and Tobago gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 31 August 1962 and became a republic on 1 August 1976.
Guyana was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Guyana and an independent state that existed between 1966 and 1970.
Between independence in 1968 and becoming a republic in 1992, Mauritius was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Elizabeth II.
Between 12 December 1963 and 12 December 1964, Kenya was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Queen Elizabeth II. It was a predecessor to the modern-day Republic of Kenya.
From 1957 to 1960, Ghana was an independent constitutional monarchy with Elizabeth II as its queen. She was also the Queen of the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom, and her constitutional roles in Ghana were delegated to a Governor-General.
Elizabeth II was Queen of The Gambia from 1965 to 1970, when The Gambia was a constitutional monarchy within the Commonwealth of Nations. The Queen was also the monarch of the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom. Her constitutional roles in The Gambia were delegated to a Governor-General.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Trinidad and Tobago from 1962 to 1976. She was also the monarch of the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom. The monarch's constitutional roles in Trinidad and Tobago were delegated to a Governor-General, who acted on the advice of Trinidadian ministers.
Elizabeth II was Queen of Sierra Leone from 1961 to 1971, when Sierra Leone was an independent constitutional monarchy. The Queen was also monarch of the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom.
From 1961 to 1962, Tanganyika was an independent sovereign state with Elizabeth II as its queen. The Queen was formal head of state and was represented in Tanganyika by the Governor-General. Tanganyika shared the Sovereign with the other Commonwealth realms, including the United Kingdom.