Italian Eritrea

Last updated
Colony of Eritrea

Colonia Eritrea
1882–1947
Eritrea (Africa orthographic projection).svg
Status Colony of Italy
Capital Asmara
Common languages Italian (official)
Tigrinya, Hejazi Arabic
Religion
Catholicism
Oriental Orthodoxy
Islam
Governor  
 1890
Baldassarre Orero
 1935-1936
Pietro Badoglio
Historical era Scramble for Africa
 Established
1890
 Disestablished
1947
Area
1936121,000 km2 (47,000 sq mi)
Population
 1936
1,000,000
Currency Eritrean tallero
(1890-1921)
Italian lira
(1921-36)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Ethiopia (1897-1936; 1941-1974).svg Ethiopian Empire
Emblem of Eritrea 1952-1962.svg Medri Bahri
Italian East Africa Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg

Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea. Although it was formally created in 1890, the first Italian settlements in the area were established in 1882 around Assab. The colony officially lasted until 1947. [1]

Kingdom of Italy kingdom on the Appenine Peninsula between 1861 and 1946

The Kingdom of Italy was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when civil discontent led an institutional referendum to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic. The state was founded as a result of the unification of Italy under the influence of the Kingdom of Sardinia, which can be considered its legal predecessor state.

Eritrea Country in the Horn of Africa

Eritrea, officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast. The northeastern and eastern parts of Eritrea have an extensive coastline along the Red Sea. The nation has a total area of approximately 117,600 km2 (45,406 sq mi), and includes the Dahlak Archipelago and several of the Hanish Islands. Its toponym Eritrea is based on the Greek name for the Red Sea, which was first adopted for Italian Eritrea in 1890.

Assab City in Southern Red Sea, Eritrea

Assab or Aseb is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea. It is situated on the west coast of the Red Sea. Languages spoken in Assab are predominately Afar, Tigrinya, and Arabic.

Contents

History

Acquisition of Assab and creation of the colony

Giuseppe Sapeto, c. 1870 Giuseppe Sapeto.jpg
Giuseppe Sapeto, c. 1870
Italian settlement at Assab, 1880 Assab 1880.jpg
Italian settlement at Assab, 1880
1922 map showing Italian Eritrea Italian Eritrea 1922.jpg
1922 map showing Italian Eritrea

The leading figure of the early history of Italian enterprises in the Red Sea was Giuseppe Sapeto. When a young monk, preparing himself in Cairo for missionary work, he had been dispatched in 1837 into Abyssinia. Afterward, he became an active advocate of European penetration, initially encouraging the French to establish themselves in the area. After 1866, following the political unification of Italy, he sought to develop Italian influence instead. As the Suez Canal neared completion, he began to visualize the establishment of a coaling station and port of call for Italian steamships in the Red Sea. Sapeto won over the Italian minister for foreign affairs, and King Victor Emmanuel, to whom he explained his ideas.

Red Sea Arm of the Indian Ocean between Arabia and Africa

The Red Sea is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia. The connection to the ocean is in the south through the Bab el Mandeb strait and the Gulf of Aden. To the north lie the Sinai Peninsula, the Gulf of Aqaba, and the Gulf of Suez. The Red Sea is a Global 200 ecoregion. The sea is underlain by the Red Sea Rift which is part of the Great Rift Valley.

Ethiopian Empire 1270–1974 empire in East Africa

The Ethiopian Empire, also known by the exonym "Abyssinia", or just simply Ethiopia was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current states of Eritrea and Ethiopia. It began with the establishment of the Solomonic dynasty from approximately 1270 and lasted until 1974, when the ruling Solomonic dynasty was overthrown in a coup d'état by the Derg.

Suez Canal canal in Egypt between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea

The Suez Canal is a sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. Constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, it was officially opened on 17 November 1869. The canal offers watercraft a more direct route between the North Atlantic and northern Indian oceans via the Mediterranean and Red seas, thus avoiding the South Atlantic and southern Indian oceans and thereby reducing the journey distance from the Arabian Sea to, for example, London by approximately 8,900 kilometres (5,500 mi). It extends from the northern terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km (120.11 mi), including its northern and southern access channels. In 2012, 17,225 vessels traversed the canal.

In the autumn of 1869 he, together with Admiral Acton, was sent by the government to the Red Sea to choose a suitable port and arrange for its sale. This he did by paying a small deposit to the Danakil chiefs at Assab Bay in return for their promise to sell their territory to him on his return. Meanwhile, the government had been in touch with Raffaele Rubattino, whose company was planning to establish a steamship line through the newly opened Suez Canal and the Red Sea to India. It was agreed that the company would buy the territory in its own name and with its own funds, but should undertake to use it in the national interest. Sapeto returned to the Red Sea on behalf of the company, completed the purchase and bought more land to the south.

Alfredo Acton Naval officer

Alfredo Acton was an Italian admiral, politician and Chief of Staff of the Regia Marina.

Afar people Ethnic group

The Afar, also known as the Danakil, Adali and Odali, are an ethnic Cushitic peoples inhabiting the Horn of Africa. They primarily live in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in northern Djibouti, although some also inhabit the southern point of Eritrea. Afars speak the Afar language, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. Afars are the only Horners whose traditional territories borders both the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden.

Raffaele Rubattino Italian entrepreneur and shipowner

Raffaele Rubattino was an Italian entrepreneur and colonialist who started a shipping company that ran merchant ships on the routes to the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. He was also a founder of the Italian navy.

By March 1870, an Italian shipping company had thus become claimant to territory at the northern end of Assab Bay, a deserted but spacious bay about half-way between Annesley Bay to the north and Obock to the South. [2] However, the area, — which had been long dominated by the Ottoman Empire and Egypt [3] — was not settled by the Italians until 1880. [4] Two years later, Italy formally took possession of the nascent colony from its commercial owners.

Ottoman Empire Former empire in Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa

The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.

Khedivate of Egypt 1867-1914 monarchy in Northeastern Africa

The Khedivate of Egypt was an autonomous tributary state of the Ottoman Empire, established and ruled by the Muhammad Ali Dynasty following the defeat and expulsion of Napoleon Bonaparte's forces which brought an end to the short-lived French occupation of Lower Egypt. The United Kingdom invaded and took control in 1882. In 1914 the Ottoman Empire connection was ended and Britain established a protectorate called the Sultanate of Egypt.

Most of the western coast of the Red Sea was then formally claimed by the Khedivate of Egypt (under the notional rule of the Ottoman Turkish Empire, who held the eastern coast) but the region was thrown into chaos by major Egyptian defeats in the Ethio-Egyptian War and by the success of the Mahdi's uprising in the Sudan. In 1884, the British Hewett Treaty promised the Bogos—the highlands of modern Eritrea—and free access to the Massawan coast to Emperor Yohannes IV in exchange for his help evacuating garrisons from the Sudan; [5]

Muhammad Ahmad Religious leader in the Sudan, self-proclaimed as the Mahdi

Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah was a Nubian religious leader of the Samaniyya order in Sudan who, as a youth, combined orthodox religious study with a mystical interpretation of Islam. On 29 June 1881, he was proclaimed the Mahdi by his disciples, the messianic redeemer of the Islamic faith. His proclamation came during a period of widespread resentment among the Sudanese population towards the oppressive policies of the Turco-Egyptian rulers and was supported by the messianic belief popular among the various Sudanese religious sects of the time. He led a successful war against Ottoman-Egyptian military rule and achieved a remarkable victory over the British. He then created a vast Islamic state extending from the Red Sea to Central Africa and founded a movement that remained influential in Sudan a century later.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1921

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

The Hewett Treaty, also called the Treaty of Adwa, was an agreement between Britain, Egypt and Ethiopia signed at Adwa on 3 June 1884. The treaty ended a long-simmering conflict between Egypt and Ethiopia, but indirectly started a new conflict between Ethiopia and Italy. It had seven articles.

In the vacuum left by the Egyptian withdrawal, though, British diplomats were concerned about the rapid expansion of French Somaliland, France's colony along the Gulf of Tadjoura. Ignoring their treaty with Ethiopia, they openly encouraged Italy to expand north into Massawa, which was taken without a shot from its Egyptian garrison. Located on a coral island [6] surrounded by lucrative pearl-fishing grounds, [7] the superior port was fortified and made the capital of the Italian governor. [6] Assab, meanwhile, continued to find service as a coaling station. [8] As they were not a party to the Hewett Treaty, the Italians began restricting access to arms shipments and imposing customs duties on Ethiopian goods immediately.

French Somaliland former French colony in the Horn of Africa

French Somaliland was a French colony in the Horn of Africa. It existed between 1883 and 1967.

French Third Republic Nation of France from 1870 to 1940

The French Third Republic was the system of government adopted in France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War, until 10 July 1940 after France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.

Gulf of Tadjoura gulf

The Gulf of Tadjoura, is a gulf or basin of the Indian Ocean in the Horn of Africa. It lies south of the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, or the entrance to the Red Sea, at 11.7°N 43.0°E. The gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive coral reefs, and abundant pearl oysters. Most of its coastline is the territory of Djibouti, except for a short stretch on the southern shore, which is part of the territory of Somalia.

In the disorder that followed the 1889 death of Emperor Yohannes IV, Gen. Oreste Baratieri occupied the highlands along the Eritrean coast and Italy proclaimed the establishment of a new colony of Eritrea (from the Latin name for the Red Sea), with capital Asmara in substitution of Massawa. [9]

In the Treaty of Wuchale (It. Uccialli) signed the same year, King Menelik of Shewa—a southern Ethiopian kingdom—recognized the Italian occupation of his rivals' lands of Bogos, Hamasien, Akkele Guzay, and Serae in exchange for guarantees of financial assistance and continuing access to European arms and ammunition. His subsequent victory over his rival kings and enthronement as Emperor Menelek II (r. 18891913) made the treaty formally binding upon the entire country.

Once established, however, Menelik took a dim view towards Italian involvement with local leaders in his northern province of Tigray; [10] while the Italians, for their part, felt bound to involvement given the regular Tigrayan raiding of tribes within their colony's protectorate [7] and the Tigrayan leaders themselves continued to claim the provinces now held by Italy. Negotiations with the French over a railway brought things to a head: the Italian but not Amharic version of the Treaty of Wuchale had prohibited Ethiopia with foreign negotiations except through Italy, effectively making the realm an Italian protectorate. Secure both domestically and militarily (thanks to arms shipments via French Djibouti and Harar), Menelik denounced the treaty in whole and the ensuing war, culminating in Italy's disastrous defeat at Adwa, ended their hopes of annexing Ethiopia for a time.

During the late twentieth century Assab would become Ethiopia's main port, but it was long overshadowed by nearby Djibouti, whose railway (completed to Dire Dawa in 1902) permitted it to quickly supplant traditional caravan-based routes to Assab [7] and Zeila. [11] [12] [13] Massawa remained the primary port for most of northern Ethiopia, but its relatively high customs dues, dependence on caravans, and political antagonism limited the volume on its trade with Ethiopia. [7]

Seeking to develop their own lands, the Italian government launched the first development projects in the new colony in the late 1880s. The Eritrean Railway was completed to Saati in 1888 [14] and reached Asmara in the highlands in 1911. [15]

Map showing in red the new roads (like the "Imperial road", and those in construction in 1941) created by the Italians in Eritrea and AOI Italian communications in Ethiopia, April 1941.jpg
Map showing in red the new roads (like the "Imperial road", and those in construction in 1941) created by the Italians in Eritrea and AOI

The AsmaraMassawa Cableway (dismantled by the British as war reparations in World War II) was the longest line in the world during its time. Italian administration of Eritrea also brought improvements in the medical and agricultural sectors of Eritrean society. Despite an imposition of racial laws, all urban Eritreans had access to modern sanitation and hospital services.

The Italians also employed local Eritreans in public service, particularly the police and public works departments. In a region marked by cultural, linguistic, and religious diversity, a succession of Italian governors maintained a notable degree of unity and public order.

Nicknamed Colonia Primogenita ("First-born Colony") in contrast to the newer and less-developed territories of Italian Somaliland and Libya, [16] Eritrea boasted a larger native Italian settlement than the other lands. The first few dozen families were sponsored by the Italian government around the start of the 20th century and settled around Asmara and Massawa.

The Italian-Eritrean community then grew from around 4,000 during World War I to nearly 100,000 at the beginning of World War II. [17] While tolerating Islamic adherence, the Italians endorsed a huge expansion of Catholicism in Eritrea and constructed many churches in the highlands around Asmara and Keren, centered on the Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in the capital.

By the early 1940s, Catholicism was the declared religion of around 28% of the colony's population, while Christianity was the religion of more than half the Eritreans [18]

Fascist Era

Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in Asmara, built in 1923. Roman Catholic Cathedral of Asmara 0001.jpg
Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in Asmara, built in 1923.

Benito Mussolini's rise to power in Italy in 1922 brought profound changes to the colonial government in Eritrea. After il Duce declared the birth of Italian Empire in May 1936, Italian Eritrea (enlarged with northern Ethiopia's regions) and Italian Somaliland were merged with the just conquered Ethiopia in the new Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) administrative territory. This Fascist period was characterized by imperial expansion in the name of a "new Roman Empire".

Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of Italian East Africa: [19]

After the establishment of new transportation and communication methods in the country, the Italians also started to set up new factories, which in turn made due contribution in enhancing trade activities. The newly opened factories produced buttons, cooking oil, and pasta, construction materials, packing meat, tobacco, hide and other household commodities. In the year 1939, there were around 2,198 factories and most of the employees were Eritrean citizens, some even moved from the villages to work in the factories.The establishment of industries also made an increase in the number of both Italians and Eritreans residing in the cities. The number of Italians residing in the country increased from 4,600 to 75,000 in five years; and with the involvement of Eritreans in the industries, trade and fruit plantation was expanded across the nation, while some of the plantations were owned by Eritreans. [20]

The capital of Eritrea experienced a huge increase in population: in 1935 there were only 4,000 Italians and 12,000 Eritreans; in 1938 there were 48,000 Italians and 36,000 Eritreans. Historian Gian Luca Podesta wrote that practically Asmara has become an Italian city ("in pratica Asmara era diventata una citta' italiana"). [21]

Fiat Tagliero Building, Gas Station in Art deco style of Italian Asmara. Fiat tagliero, 08.JPG
Fiat Tagliero Building, Gas Station in Art deco style of Italian Asmara.

The Italian government continued to implement agricultural reforms but primarily on farms owned by Italian colonists (exports of coffee boomed in the 1930s). In the area of Asmara, there were in 1940 more than 2,000 small and medium-sized industrial companies, which were concentrated in the areas of construction, mechanics, textiles, food processing and electricity. Consequently, the standard of living in Eritrea in 1939 was considered among the best on the continent for both the local Eritreans and the Italian settlers. [22]

Mussolini's government considered the colony as a strategic base for future aggrandizement and ruled accordingly, using Eritrea as a base to launch its 1935–1936 campaign to conquer and colonize Ethiopia. Even in World War II the Italians used Eritrea to attack Sudan and occupy the Kassala area. Indeed, the best Italian colonial troops were the Eritrean Ascari, as stated by Italian Marshall Rodolfo Graziani and legendary officer Amedeo Guillet. [23] Furthermore, after World War I, service with the Ascari become the main source of paid employment for the indigenous male population of Italian Eritrea. During the expansion required by the Italian invasion of Ethiopia in 1936, 40% of eligible Eritreans were enrolled in these colonial troops. [24]

According to the Italian census of 1939 the city of Asmara had a population of 98,000, of which 53,000 were Italians. This fact made Asmara the main "Italian town" of the Italian empire in Africa. Furthermore, because of the Italian architecture of the city, Asmara was called Piccola Roma (Little Rome). [25] The total number of Italians in all of Eritrea was 75,000 in that year. [26]

Governor's Palace, built in 1940 (current President's Palace). Asmarapalazzodelgovernatore.png
Governor's Palace, built in 1940 (current President's Palace).

Asmara was known to be an exceptionally modern city, not only because of its architecture, but Asmara also had more traffic lights than Rome did when the city was being built. The city incorporates many features of a planned city. Indeed, Asmara was an early example of an ideal modern city created by architects, an idea which was introduced into many cities across the world, such as Brasilia, but which was not altogether popular. Features include designated city zoning and planning, wide treed boulevards, political areas and districts and space and scope for development. Asmara was not built for the Eritreans however; the Italians built it primarily for themselves and made the city a typical Italian city with even its own car race (called the Asmara circuit).

The city has been regarded as "New Rome" due to its quintessential Italian touch, not only for the architecture but also for the wide streets, piazzas and coffee bars. While the boulevards are lined with palms and indigenous shiba'kha trees, there are numerable pizzerias and coffee bars, serving cappuccinos and lattes, as well as ice cream parlours.

Many industrial investments were endorsed by the Italians in the area of Asmara and Massawa, but the beginning of World War II stopped the blossoming industrialization of Eritrea. [27]

Religion in Italian Eritrea, indigenous people (1931 Census) [28]

   Islam (52.4%)
   Coptic Christianity (43.3%)
  Other Religions (0.6%)

British Military Administration and the end of the colony

When the British army conquered Eritrea in January 1941, most of the infrastructure and the industrial areas were extremely damaged and the remaining ones (like the Asmara-Massawa Cableway) were successively removed and sent toward India and British possessions in Africa as a war booty. [29]

Actual Downtown Asmara, called Piccola Roma, with typical Italian buildings. Asmara-Panorama 3.jpeg
Actual Downtown Asmara, called Piccola Roma, with typical Italian buildings.

The following Italian guerrilla war was supported by many Eritrean colonial troops (like the "hero" of Eritrean independence, Hamid Idris Awate) [30] until the Italian armistice in September 1943. Eritrea was placed under British military administration after the Italian surrender in World War II.

Vincenzo di Meglio (second from right) at the 1949 Conference for Eritrean independence in the Vatican IndipendenzaEritrea.png
Vincenzo di Meglio (second from right) at the 1949 Conference for Eritrean independence in the Vatican

The Italians in Eritrea started to move away from the country after the defeat of the Kingdom of Italy by the Allies, and by the time of the British census of 1949 Asmara had only 17,183 Italian Eritreans of a total population of 127,579. Most Italian settlers left for Italy, with others to United States, Middle East, and Australia.

The British maintained initially the Italian administration of Eritrea, but the country soon started to be involved in a violent process of independence (from the British in the late forties and after 1952 from the Ethiopians, who annexed Eritrea in that year).

During the last years of World War II some Italian Eritreans like Dr. Vincenzo Di Meglio defended politically the presence of Italians in Eritrea and successively promoted the independence of Eritrea. [31] He went to Rome to participate in a Conference for the independence of Eritrea, promoted by the Vatican.

After the war Di Meglio was named Director of the "Comitato Rappresentativo Italiani dell' Eritrea" (CRIE). In 1947 he supported the creation of the "Associazione Italo-Eritrei" and the "Associazione Veterani Ascari", in order to get alliance with the Eritreans favorable to Italy in Eritrea. [32]

As a result of these creations, he cofounded the "Partito Eritrea Pro Italia" (Party of Shara Italy) in September 1947, an Eritrean political Party favorable to the Italian presence in Eritrea that obtained more than 200,000 inscriptions of membership in one single month.

Indeed, the Italian Eritreans strongly rejected the Ethiopian annexation of Eritrea after the war: the "Party of Shara Italy" was established in Asmara in 1947 and the majority of the members were former Italian soldiers with many Eritrean Ascari (the organization was even backed up by the government of Italy).

The main objective of this party was Eritrean freedom, but they had a pre-condition that stated that before independence the country should be governed by Italy for at least 15 years.

With the Peace Treaty of 1947 Italy officially accepted the end of the colony. As a consequence the Italian community started to disappear, mainly after the Ethiopian government took control of Eritrea.

However some Italo-Eritrean were welcomed by the Ethiopian government, like the brothers Italo Vassalo and Luciano Vassalo, champions of football who won the 1962 African Cup of Nations.

Governors

Governor Oreste Baratieri Oreste Baratieri.jpg
Governor Oreste Baratieri
Governor Alfredo Guzzoni Alfredo guzzoni.jpg
Governor Alfredo Guzzoni
Colonia Primigenia
Governorate of Eritrea

See also

Related Research Articles

"Eritrea" is an ancient name, associated in the past with its Greek form Erythraia, Ἐρυθραία, and its derived Latin form Erythræa. This name relates to that of the Red Sea, then called the Erythræan Sea, from the Greek for "red", ἐρυθρός, erythros. The Italians created the colony of Eritrea in the 19th century around Asmara, and named it with its current name. After World War II Eritrea was annexed to Ethiopia. In 1991 the Eritrean People's Liberation Front defeated the Ethiopian "derg" government. Tigray is a region of Ethiopia whose religions, food, language and culture are the same as that of the greater part of Eritrea. A lot of people have families on both sides of the border between Eritrea and Tigray. Eritrea officially celebrated its 1st anniversary of independence on May 24, 1991.

Italian East Africa Italian possession in East Africa between 1936 and 1941

Italian East Africa was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa. It was formed in 1936 through the merger of Italian Somaliland, Italian Eritrea, and the newly occupied Ethiopian Empire which became Italian Ethiopia.

Eritrean Railway

The Eritrean Railway is the only railway system in Eritrea. It was constructed between 1887 and 1932 by the Kingdom of Italy for the Italian Eritrea colony and connected the port of Massawa with Asmara and Bishia near the Sudan border. The line was destroyed by warfare in subsequent decades, but has been rebuilt between Massawa and Asmara. Vintage equipment is still used on the line.

Massawa City in Northern Red Sea, Eritrea

Massawa is a city on the Red Sea coast of Eritrea located at the northern end of the Gulf of Zula beside the Dahlak Archipelago. As a historical and important port for many centuries, it was ruled by a succession of polities, including the Axumite Empire, Medri Bahri Kingdom, the Umayyad Caliphate, various Beja sultanates, the Ottoman Empire, the Khedivate of Egypt, Italy, Britain, and Ethiopia, until Eritrea's independence in 1991. Massawa was the capital of the Italian Colony of Eritrea until it was moved to Asmara in 1897.

Asmara International Airport airport

Asmara International Airport is the international airport of Asmara, the capital of Eritrea. It is the country's largest airport and, as of Spring 2017, the only one receiving regularly scheduled services.

Modern banking in Eritrea started with the arrival of the Italian colonizers. However, from 1974 on, the banking sector became a government monopoly. This situation continued after Eritrea achieved its independence. The Bank of Eritrea is the central bank of Eritrea.

Articles related to Eritrea include:

Italian Eritreans

Italian Eritreans are Eritrean-born descendants of Italian settlers as well as Italian long-term residents in Eritrea.

Eritrean Ascari Italian colonial soldiers recruited from Eritrea.

The Eritrean Ascari were indigenous soldiers from Eritrea, who were enrolled as askaris in the Royal Corps of Colonial Troops of the Italian Army during the period 1889–1941.

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Eritrea.

Italian Ethiopia Colony of the Kingdom of Italy

Italian Ethiopia, also known as the Italian Empire of Ethiopia, is the shorthand English name given to the Italian possession in the territory of Ethiopia, obtained by expanding the existing Somali and Eritrean colonies in East Africa of the Kingdom of Italy.

Vincenzo DiMeglio

Vincenzo DiMeglio, called also Vincenzo Di Meglio (1903-1987), was an Italian doctor who worked in the Africa Orientale Italiana in the late thirties and during World War II. He was also an Italian Eritrean politician who saved Eritrea from being divided in 1947 between Sudan and Ethiopia

Gura, Eritrea human settlement in Eritrea

Gura (Template:Lang-tigrnya) or Gura’e is a settlement in Eritrea's Debub region in northeast Africa. It is located in the eponymous Gura Valley in the southeastern Eritrean highlands. It is about 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) SE of Dekemhare and about 32 kilometres (20 mi) SSE of the capital Asmara.

Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict violent standoff and a proxy conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia, as part of the more general violence in the Horn of Africa

The Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict was a violent standoff and a proxy conflict between Eritrea and Ethiopia, as part of the more general violence in the Horn of Africa. It consisted of a series of incidents along the then-disputed border; including the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000 and the subsequent Second Afar insurgency. The border conflict was a continuation of the Eritrean–Ethiopian War of 1998–2000. It included multiple clashes with numerous casualties, including the Battle of Tsorona in 2016. Ethiopia stated in 2018 that it would cede Badme to Eritrea. This led to the Eritrea–Ethiopia summit on 9 July 2018, where an agreement was signed which demarcated the border and agreed a resumption of diplomatic relations.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Asmara, Eritrea. Asmara was under Italian colonial rule from 1889 until 1941.

Imperial Line

The Imperial Line was a flight route of the Italian national airline Ala Littoria between 1935 and 1941 during the Fascist era. It was the longest route in the Italian colonial empire in Africa and "the jewel in Ala Littoria's crown". It connected Rome with Benghazi (Libya), Asmara (Eritrea), Addis Abeba (Ethiopia) and Mogadishu (Somalia). It carried passengers and mail. Italy ultimately lost control of the route during World War II.

Petrella Airport

The Petrella Airport was the first international airport in Italian Somalia. It was opened in 1928 -just 3 miles south of Mogadishu- with the name "Enrico Petrella" in honor of an Italian pilot who died a few years before in the same airport of Italian Mogadiscio. In 1941 the airport was partially destroyed during WW2 and remained inactive for some years as a civilian airport: only military airplanes used it. In 1950 was reopened as a civilian airport by the Italian authorities of the ONU Fiduciary Mandate.

Eritrean War

The Eritrean War was a series of military campaigns by the Kingdom of Italy against the Ethiopian Empire and the Mahdist Sudan from 1885 to 1888, in order to expain its possession around Assab gained from the local Sultan in 1882. As a result of this conflict, Italy established its first colony of Italian Eritrea.

References

  1. Essay on Italian Eritrea, 1953 (in Italian) [ permanent dead link ]
  2. Agatha Ramm, "Great Britain and the Planting of Italian Power in the Red Sea, 1868-1885", The English Historical Review, Vol. 59, No. 234 (May, 1944), p. 214–215.
  3. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Egypt: Section III: History"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 90–119.
  4. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eritrea"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 747.
  5. Wylde, Augustus B. Modern Abyssinia, pp. 35 ff. Methuen (London), 1901.
  6. 1 2 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Massawa"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 17 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 864–865.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Eritrea: Agriculture and Trade"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 9 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 746.
  8. Ullendorff, Edward. The Ethiopians: An Introduction to Country and People 2nd ed., p. 90. Oxford University Press (London), 1965. ISBN   0-19-285061-X.
  9. Asmara italiana
  10. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abyssinia"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 94.
  11. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Abyssinia: Trade and Currency"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 87.
  12. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Zaila"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 950.
  13. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Somaliland: French Somaliland"  . Encyclopædia Britannica . 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 382–383.
  14. Cf. engineer Emilio Olivieri's report on the construction of the MassawaSaati Railway Archived 2013-10-12 at the Wayback Machine (1888), hosted at Ferrovia Eritrea. ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  15. "Eritrean Railway Archived 2008-02-03 at the Wayback Machine " at Ferrovia Eritrea. ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  16. "The beginning of the Italian colony of Eritrea: Assab" ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  17. "Italian emigration to Eritrea". ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  18. Bandini, Franco. Gli italiani in Africa, storia delle guerre coloniali 1882-1943, "Eritrea". ‹See Tfd› (in Italian)
  19. Italian industries in colonial Eritrea Archived 2009-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
  20. Administrator, shabait. "Italian administration in Eritrea -". www.shabait.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  21. Barbot, Michela; Caracausi, Andrea; Lanaro, Paola (8 April 2018). "Lo sguardo della storia economica sull'edilizia urbana". Croma - Università Roma TRE. Retrieved 8 April 2018 via Google Books.
  22. "Ompekning pågår - FS Data". alenalki.com. Retrieved 8 April 2018.
  23. Amedeo Guillet in Eritrea Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine
  24. Ascari: the brave Italian soldiers of color [ permanent dead link ]
  25. Italian architectural planification of Asmara (in Italian) p. 64-66
  26. Italians in 1939 Eritrea Archived 2009-02-20 at the Wayback Machine
  27. Italian industries and companies in Eritrea Archived 2009-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
  28. "1931 Italian census, page *38" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-08-01. Retrieved 2017-08-01.
  29. "Encyclopedia of African History: A - G.. 1". Taylor & Francis. 8 April 2018. Retrieved 8 April 2018 via Google Books.
  30. Rosselli, Alberto. Storie Segrete. Operazioni sconosciute o dimenticate della seconda guerra mondiale. second chapter
  31. Franco Bandini. Gli italiani in Africa, storia delle guerre coloniali 1882-1943 p. 67
  32. "Nuova pagina 1". www.ilcornodafrica.it. Retrieved 8 April 2018.

Bibliography