Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

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Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija
Демократска Федеративна Југославија
Demokratična federativna Jugoslavija
1943–1945
Yugoslavia 1956-1990.svg
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in 1945
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
Official languages Serbian
Croatian
Slovene
Macedonian [1]
Common languages Yugoslav [2]
Official script Cyrillic   Latin
Demonym(s) Yugoslav
Yugoslavian
Government Federal state
National Committee (1943–45)
Constitutional monarchy (1945)
Chairman of the Presidium of the AVNOJ  
 1943–45
Ivan Ribar
King  
 1945
Peter II
Prime Minister  
 1943–45
Josip Broz Tito
Legislature Temporary National Assembly
Historical era World War II
29 November 1943
16 June 1944
7 March 1945
24 October 1945
  Elections
11 November 1945
 Abolition of the monarchy
29 November 1945
Area
 Total
255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
 1945 estimate
circa 14,000,000
Currency Yugoslav dinar (YUD)
Time zone UTC+2 (Central European Time (CET))
Driving side right
Calling code 38
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Serbia under German occupation
Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg Kingdom of Italy
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Albania (1939).svg Albanian Kingdom
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslav government-in-exile
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Partisans flag 1945.svg

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia (or Democratic Federative Yugoslavia; DF Yugoslavia or DFY) was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (ANOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia

The Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia, known more commonly by its Yugoslav abbreviation AVNOJ, was the political umbrella organization for the national liberation councils of the Yugoslav resistance against the Axis occupation during World War II. It eventually became the Yugoslav provisional wartime deliberative body. It was established on November 26, 1942 to administer territories under the control of the Partisans.

The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia or NKOJ, was the World War II provisional executive body of the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. The NKOJ was elected by the AVNOJ during its Second Session in Jajce in late November 1943. During the Session, the AVNOJ also appointed Josip Broz Tito the Prime Minister in the NKOJ.

Contents

It was recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, along with the AVNOJ as its deliberative body. The Yugoslav government-in-exile of King Peter II in London, partly due to pressure from the United Kingdom, [3] recognized the AVNOJ government with the Treaty of Vis, signed on 16 June 1944 between the prime minister of the government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, and Tito. [4] With the Treaty of Vis, the government-in-exile and the NKOJ agreed to merge into a provisional government as soon as possible. The form of the new government was agreed upon in a second Šubašić–Tito agreement signed on 1 November 1944 in the recently liberated Yugoslav capitol of Belgrade. DF Yugoslavia became one of the founding members of the United Nations upon the signing of the United Nations Charter in October 1945.

Allies of World War II Grouping of the victorious countries of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as a means to control German, Japanese and Italian aggression.

Tehran Conference convention

The Tehran Conference was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran. It was held in the Soviet Union's embassy in Tehran, Iran. It was the first of the World War II conferences of the "Big Three" Allied leaders. It closely followed the Cairo Conference which had taken place on 22–26 November 1943, and preceded the 1945 Yalta and Potsdam conferences. Although the three leaders arrived with differing objectives, the main outcome of the Tehran Conference was the Western Allies' commitment to open a second front against Nazi Germany. The conference also addressed the 'Big Three' Allies' relations with Turkey and Iran, operations in Yugoslavia and against Japan, and the envisaged post-war settlement. A separate protocol signed at the conference pledged the Big Three to recognize Iran's independence.

Yugoslav government-in-exile

The Government of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Exile was an official government of Yugoslavia, headed by King Peter II. It evacuated from Belgrade in April 1941, after the Axis invasion of the country, and went first to Greece, then to Palestine, then to Egypt and finally, in June 1941, to the United Kingdom.

The state was formed to unite the Yugoslav resistance movement to the occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The agreement left the issue of whether the state would be a monarchy or a republic undecided until after the war and the position of head of state was vacant. After the merge of the governments, Josip Broz Tito became Prime Minister and Ivan Šubašić became foreign minister.

Axis powers Alliance of countries defeated in World War II

The Axis powers, also known as "Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis", were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allies. The Axis powers agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity.

History

The Second Session of the AVNOJ, held in Jajce in November 1943, opened with a declaration that read in part:

Jajce City in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Jajce is a town and municipality located in Central Bosnia Canton of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina. As of 2013, it has a population of 30,758 inhabitants. It is situated in the region of Bosanska Krajina, on the crossroads between Banja Luka, Mrkonjić Grad and Donji Vakuf, on the confluence of the rivers Pliva and Vrbas.

  1. That the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia be constituted as the supreme legislative and executive representative body of Yugoslavia as the supreme representative of the sovereignty of the peoples and of the State of Yugoslavia as a whole, and that a National Committee of Liberation of Yugoslavia be established as an organ with all of the features of a national government, through which the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia will realize its executive function.
  2. That the traitorous "government" in exile be deprived of all rights as the legal government of Yugoslavia, particularly of the right to represent the peoples of Yugoslavia anywhere or before anyone.
  3. That all international treaties and obligations concluded abroad in the name of Yugoslavia by the "government" in exile be reviewed with a view to their invalidation or renewal or approval, and that all international treaties and obligations which the so-called "government" in exile may eventually conclude abroad in the future receive no recognition.
  4. That Yugoslavia be established on a democratic federal principle as a state of equal peoples. [5]

The AVNOJ then issued six decrees and the Presidium of the AVNOJ, which continued its functions when it was not in session, followed with four decisions. Together these comprised the constitution of the new state taking shape in Yugoslavia. On 30 November the Presidium gave Tito the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia and appointed him president of the government (or acting prime minister) and Minister of National Defence. Three vice presidents and thirteen other ministers were appointed to the NKOJ. [5]

Through the history of Yugoslavia, the defence ministry which was responsible for defence of the country was known under several different names. The Ministry of the Army and Navy was responsible for defence of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia from 1918 to 1945, the Federal Secretariat of People's Defence for the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1992 and the Ministry of Defence for Serbia and Montenegro from 1992 to 2006.

The name "Democratic Federative Yugoslavia" was officially adopted on 17 February 1944. On the same day they adopted the five-torch emblem of Yugoslavia. [6]

Emblem of Yugoslavia

The emblem of Yugoslavia featured six torches, surrounded by wheat with a red star at its top, and burning together in one flame; this represented the brotherhood and unity of the six federal republics forming Yugoslavia: Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia, Montenegro, and Macedonia. The date imprinted was 29 November 1943, the day the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) met in Jajce on its second meeting and formed the basis for post-war organisation of the country, establishing a federal republic. This day was celebrated as Republic Day after the establishment of the republic. The emblem of Yugoslavia, along with those of its constituent republics, are an example of socialist heraldry.

Government

Its legislature, after November 1944, was the Provisional Assembly. [7] The Tito-Subasic agreement of 1944 declared that the state was a pluralist democracy that guaranteed: democratic liberties; personal freedom; freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; and a free press. [8] However by January 1945 Tito had shifted the emphasis of his government away from emphasis on pluralist democracy, claiming that though he accepted democracy, he claimed there was no "need" for multiple parties, as he claimed that multiple parties were unnecessarily divisive in the midst of Yugoslavia's war effort and that the People's Front represented all the Yugoslav people. [9] The People's Front coalition, headed by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and its general secretary Marshal Josip Broz Tito, was a major movement within the government. Other political movements that joined the government included the "Napred" movement represented by Milivoje Marković. [10]

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was ruled by Temporary Government consisting mostly of Unitary National Liberation Front members and small number of other political parties from former Kingdom of Yugoslavia. President of the Government was Josip Broz Tito. Communists held 22 minister positions, including Finances, Internal Affairs, Justice, Transport and others. Ivan Šubašić, from Croatian Peasant Party and former ban of Croatian Banovina, was minister of Foreign Affairs, while Milan Grol, from Democratic Party, was Deputy Prime Minister. Many non-communist government members resigned due to disagreement with the new policy. [11]

Administrative Divisions

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia consisted of 6 republic and 2 autonomous regions

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Administrative Divisions in 1945 DFYugoslaviaFederalBorders.png
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Administrative Divisions in 1945

Related Research Articles

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Ivan Šubašić Prime Minister of Yugoslav

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References

  1. These were the languages specified for the Emblem of Yugoslavia on 17 February 1944.
  2. Tomasz Kamusella. The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Pp. 228, 297.
  3. Walter R. Roberts. Tito, Mihailović, and the allies, 1941-1945. Duke University Press, 1987. Pp. 288.
  4. Walter R. Roberts. Tito, Mihailović, and the allies, 1941-1945. Duke University Press, 1987. Pp. 288.
  5. 1 2 Michael Boro Petrovich, "The Central Government of Yugoslavia", Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 4 (1947), pp. 504–30.
  6. Marko Attila Hoare, The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War: A History (Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 200.
  7. Vojislav Koštunica, Kosta Čavoški. Party pluralism or monism: social movements and the political system in Yugoslavia, 1944-1949. East European Monographs, 1985. Pp. 22.
  8. Sabrina P. Ramet. The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. Pp. 167-168.
  9. Sabrina P. Ramet. The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. Pp. 167-168.
  10. Vojislav Koštunica, Kosta Čavoški. Party pluralism or monism: social movements and the political system in Yugoslavia, 1944-1949. East European Monographs, 1985. Pp. 22.
  11. http://adattar.vmmi.org/fejezetek/2078/09_prva_decenija_titove_jugoslavije.pdf

Sources