Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

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Democratic Federal Yugoslavia

Demokratska Federativna Jugoslavija
Демократска Федеративна Југославија
Demokratična federativna Jugoslavija
1943–1945
Anthem: "Hej, Slaveni"
Yugoslavia 1956-1990.svg
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia in 1945
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
Official languages Serbo-Croatian
Slovene
Macedonian [1] [2]
Official script Cyrillic   Latin
Demonym(s) Yugoslav
Yugoslavian
Government Federal provisional government
National Committee (1943–45)
Constitutional monarchy (1945)
Chairman of the Presidium of the AVNOJ  
 1943–45
Ivan Ribar
King  
 1943–45
Peter II
Prime Minister  
 1943–45
Josip Broz Tito
Legislature Temporary National Assembly
Historical era World War II
29 November 1943
16 June 1944
7 March 1945
24 October 1945
  Elections
11 November 1945
 Abolition of the monarchy
29 November 1945
Area
 Total
255,804 km2 (98,766 sq mi)
Population
 1945 estimate
c. 14–15 million[ citation needed ]
CurrencyVarious
(1943–44): Serbian dinar, NDH kuna, Bulgarian lev, Italian lira, Reichsmark
(1944–45): Yugoslav dinar
Time zone UTC+2 (Central European Time (CET))
Driving side right
Calling code 38
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of Independent State of Croatia.svg Independent State of Croatia
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Occupied Serbia
Flag of Montenegro (1905-1918, 1941-1944).svg Occupied Montenegro
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Kingdom of Bulgaria
War flag of the Italian Social Republic.svg Italian Social Republic
Flag of the German Reich (1935-1945).svg Nazi Germany
Flag of Hungary (1915-1918, 1919-1946).svg Kingdom of Hungary
Flag of Albania (1943-1944).svg Albanian Kingdom
Flag of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.svg Yugoslav government-in-exile
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Partisans flag 1945.svg

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, also known as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia (DF Yugoslavia or DFY), was a provisional state established during World War II on 29 November 1943 through the Second Session of the Anti-Fascist Council for the National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ). The National Committee for the Liberation of Yugoslavia (NKOJ) was its original executive body. Throughout its existence it was governed by Marshal Josip Broz Tito as prime minister.

Contents

It was recognized by the Allies at the Tehran Conference, along with the AVNOJ as its deliberative body. The Yugoslav government-in-exile of King Peter II in London, partly due to pressure from the United Kingdom, [3] recognized the AVNOJ government with the Treaty of Vis, signed on 16 June 1944 between the prime minister of the government-in-exile, Ivan Šubašić, and Tito. [3] With the Treaty of Vis, the government-in-exile and the NKOJ agreed to merge into a provisional government as soon as possible. The form of the new government was agreed upon in a second Šubašić–Tito agreement signed on 1 November 1944 in the recently liberated Yugoslav capital of Belgrade. DF Yugoslavia became one of the founding members of the United Nations upon the signing of the United Nations Charter in October 1945.

The state was formed to unite the Yugoslav resistance movement to the occupation of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers. The agreement left the issue of whether the state would be a monarchy or a republic intentionally undecided until after the war had ended so the position of head of state was vacant. After the merger of the governments, Josip Broz Tito became Prime Minister and Ivan Šubašić became foreign minister.

History

The Second Session of the AVNOJ, held in Jajce in November 1943, opened with a declaration that read in part:

  1. That the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia be constituted as the supreme legislative and executive representative body of Yugoslavia as the supreme representative of the sovereignty of the peoples and of the State of Yugoslavia as a whole, and that a National Committee of Liberation of Yugoslavia be established as an organ with all of the features of a national government, through which the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia will realize its executive function.
  2. That the traitorous "government" in exile be deprived of all rights as the legal government of Yugoslavia, particularly of the right to represent the peoples of Yugoslavia anywhere or before anyone.
  3. That all international treaties and obligations concluded abroad in the name of Yugoslavia by the "government" in exile be reviewed with a view to their invalidation or renewal or approval, and that all international treaties and obligations which the so-called "government" in exile may eventually conclude abroad in the future receive no recognition.
  4. That Yugoslavia be established on a democratic federal principle as a state of equal peoples. [4]

The AVNOJ then issued six decrees and the Presidium of the AVNOJ, which continued its functions when it was not in session, followed with four decisions. Together these comprised the constitution of the new state taking shape in Yugoslavia. On 30 November the Presidium gave Tito the rank of Marshal of Yugoslavia and appointed him president of the government (or acting prime minister) and Minister of National Defence. Three vice presidents and thirteen other ministers were appointed to the NKOJ. [4]

The name "Democratic Federative Yugoslavia" was officially adopted on 17 February 1944. On the same day they adopted the five-torch emblem of Yugoslavia. [5]

Government

Its legislature, after November 1944, was the Provisional Assembly. [6] The Tito-Subasic agreement of 1944 declared that the state was a pluralist democracy that guaranteed: democratic liberties; personal freedom; freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; and a free press. [7] However by January 1945 Tito had shifted the emphasis of his government away from emphasis on pluralist democracy, claiming that though he accepted democracy, he claimed there was no "need" for multiple parties, as he claimed that multiple parties were unnecessarily divisive in the midst of Yugoslavia's war effort and that the People's Front represented all the Yugoslav people. [7] The People's Front coalition, headed by the Communist Party of Yugoslavia and its general secretary Marshal Josip Broz Tito, was a major movement within the government. Other political movements that joined the government included the "Napred" movement represented by Milivoje Marković. [6]

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia was ruled by Temporary Government consisting mostly of Unitary National Liberation Front members and small number of other political parties from former Kingdom of Yugoslavia. President of the Government was Josip Broz Tito. Communists held 22 minister positions, including Finances, Internal Affairs, Justice, Transport and others. Ivan Šubašić, from Croatian Peasant Party and former ban of Croatian Banovina, was minister of Foreign Affairs, while Milan Grol, from Democratic Party, was Deputy Prime Minister. Many non-communist government members resigned due to disagreement with the new policy. [8]

Administrative Divisions

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia consisted of 6 republic and 2 autonomous regions

Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Administrative Divisions in 1945 DFYugoslaviaFederalBorders.png
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Administrative Divisions in 1945

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References

  1. These were the languages specified for the Emblem of Yugoslavia on 17 February 1944.
  2. Tomasz Kamusella. The Politics of Language and Nationalism in Modern Central Europe. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008. Pp. 228, 297.
  3. 1 2 Walter R. Roberts. Tito, Mihailović, and the allies, 1941-1945. Duke University Press, 1987. Pp. 288.
  4. 1 2 Michael Boro Petrovich, "The Central Government of Yugoslavia", Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 62, No. 4 (1947), pp. 504–30.
  5. Marko Attila Hoare, The Bosnian Muslims in the Second World War: A History (Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 200.
  6. 1 2 Vojislav Koštunica, Kosta Čavoški. Party pluralism or monism: social movements and the political system in Yugoslavia, 1944-1949. East European Monographs, 1985. Pp. 22.
  7. 1 2 Sabrina P. Ramet. The three Yugoslavias: state-building and legitimation, 1918-2005. Bloomington, Indiana, USA: Indiana University Press. Pp. 167-168.
  8. http://adattar.vmmi.org/fejezetek/2078/09_prva_decenija_titove_jugoslavije.pdf

Sources