A magister degree (also magistar, female form: magistra; from Latin : magister, "teacher") is an academic degree used in various systems of higher education.
The magister degree arose in medieval universities in Europe and was originally equal to the doctorate; while the doctorate was originally conferred in theology, law and medicine, the magister degree was usually conferred in the liberal arts, broadly known as "philosophy" in continental Europe, which encompassed all other academic subjects.In some countries, the title has retained this original meaning until the modern age, while in other countries, magister has become the title of a lower degree, in some cases parallel with a master's degree (whose name is cognate).
In Argentina, the Master of Science or Magister (Mg, Ma, Mag, MSc) is a postgraduate degree of two to four years of duration by depending on each university's statutes. : Maestría) in an Argentine University requires the full completion of an undergraduate degree, as well Licentiate's degree as Professorate degree of four to five years duration from any recognized university. Under the accomplishment of the Magister Scientiæ thesis dissertation, that in years of formal education, is generally equivalent to a Ph.D. or Doctorate in universities of North America or Europe given the Bologna comparison system among academic programs.The admission to a Master program (Spanish
In Egypt, Magister degree is a postgraduate degree which is awarded after three to 6 years duration. It is equivalent to an MSc degree. It is a prerequisite to have an MSc before applying to a Ph.D. or Doctorate degrees.
In Algeria, Magister degree is a postgraduate degree that is awarded after at least three years duration. Unlike in Egypt, the Magister degree in Algeria is not equivalent to an MSc but it is a superior degree. It is a prerequisite to have a Magister before applying to Es Sciences Doctorate degree.
In German-speaking Europe and other European countries culturally influenced by it the Magister's degree was originally equal to the doctorate; in German-speaking institutions the "doctorate" gradually replaced the earlier title of Magister, and it became the only recognized degree for the completion of a course of study in the faculty of arts or philosophy."
After the classical Magister's degree had been replaced by the doctorate in the faculties of arts or philosophy, the word magister has in modern times mostly been used for an advanced degree below the doctorate, that is equal to a master's degree under the Bologna process.
In Austria, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia, obtaining the Magister requires at least five years of study including coursework and a final thesis, similar to a Diplom degree. Magisters tend to be awarded in the humanities and the social sciences, while Diplomas dominate in the natural sciences and in engineering.
In Austria, universities have partitioned almost all their previous Magister programs into a three- or four-year bachelor's and two-year master's program, following the cycle structure of the Bologna Process.
In Poland magister (abbreviated mgr or mgr inż. for in technical disciplines) is awarded after 5 years of university-level education and it is an equivalent to Master of Arts, Master of Science, Master of Laws, Master of Music in an academic discipline. Before around 1999 and the implementation of the Bologna Process the first academic degree awarded in Poland was magister. After implementation of the Bologna Process the person who obtained a Licentiate degree can continue education to the magister level (it requires additional 2 years of studies).
With the implementation of the Bologna Process, curriculums leading to Magister degrees have been phased out in many countries.
In Denmark and Norway, the Magister's degree was formerly an advanced research degree used in certain fields, that was equivalent to the PhD in English-speaking countries. It was usually translated as a PhD in an English language contextand was replaced by PhD degrees in the 1990s and 2000s. The Magister's degree in Denmark and Norway was based on the classical Magister's degree also found in other European countries, that was equal to the doctorate. The Magister's degree was, and to some extent still is, commonly the terminal degree held by academics in the new sciences, that is the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences; it was not used in the traditional "higher faculties" of theology, law and medicine in the modern era.
In Norway, the Magister's degree in the 20th century required 7–8 years of studies, with strong emphasis on the scientific dissertation, which eventually had a formal standardized scope of 3 years; the degree required a first degree such as a cand.mag. (4–5 years of studies) or equivalent, an independent scientific work with a dissertation workload corresponding to three years of full-time research and dissertation work, and a public trial lecture. As such it was a research-only degree. The dissertation was evaluated by a committee; the purpose of the trial lecture, a requirement the degree shared only with the doctoral and licentiate's degrees, was to demonstrate the candidate's suitability for permanent (tenured) academic positions at university-level. Like doctoral and licentiate's dissertations, magister's dissertations did not receive grades, but all approved dissertations were ipso facto regarded as "laudable" (the highest grade, equal to A in the ECTS grading scale). The degree of magister qualified for positions as assistant or associate professor, and many went on to become full professors without obtaining further degrees.
The Magister's degree became increasingly rare from the 1970s, and as a result of Denmark and Norway implementing the Bologna Process, it has now been completely abolished and replaced by PhD degrees. In Norway, the formal requirements for equivalence with the modern PhD are "a standardized scope of at least 3 years of study" and "an independent scientific work" with a thesis workload corresponding to "at least two years of standardized full time study," which is one year less than the requirements for the Magister's degree.
Two main forms of the Magister's degree existed: Mag. art. (abbreviation of the Latin Magister Artium, "teacher of the arts"), if the degree was earned in humanities or social sciences, and mag. scient. for Natural Science. In Denmark, there was also a third degree in sociology, mag. scient. soc. The mag. scient. degree was discontinued in the 1970s and the mag. art. degree programs in Denmark ceased immatriculating students in 2007, but the degree was rarely used since the 1990s. In Norway it was abolished some years earlier, having become an increasingly rare, but highly regarded, degree, especially after the 1970s.
The degree was introduced in Denmark-Norway in 1479, as the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy, and was equivalent to the doctoral degrees in theology, law and medicine. It was replaced by the Doctor Philosophiae degree as the highest degree at the Faculty of Philosophy in both countries in 1824. In 1848, the Magister's degree was reintroduced in Denmark, as a degree above the candidate's degree. The new Magister's degree was originally formally known as Magisterkonferens, "Magister Counselor". The program was designed to be preparation for finding employment as a researcher. Sometimes the degree was obtained after the candidate's degree had been obtained. The Magister's degrees, directly based on the Danish ones, were introduced in Norway in 1921. In 1955, the Licentiate's degrees were also introduced at the University of Oslo Faculty of Law, and were occasionally awarded until 2003.
A Norwegian Magister's degree required a 3-year scientific dissertation of high quality, and is considered "approximately equivalent to an American Ph.D."Also in Denmark the Magister's degree is considered a degree at the same level as a PhD. By comparison, in both Norway and Denmark, a PhD degree today only requires a 2,5-year dissertation. The Danish and Norwegian PhD degrees are identical, but in Denmark, the PhD is not considered a doctorate, as is established by law.
Both American PhDs and German doctorates have been found to be equivalent to Danish and Norwegian Magister's degrees on several occasions. In Denmark, the PhD degree has been introduced as a so-called "lower doctorate" (although it is not a doctorate in the legal sense), formally replacing the Licentiate's degree and thus also the Magister's degree. Those obtaining the traditional doctorates in Denmark, now called higher doctorates, are well-established academics, overwhelmingly at the associate or full professor level, and this was also traditionally the situation in Norway.In Norway, however, the earlier Magister's degree and the formal doctorates, which are now roughly similar to the Magister's degree in extent, are now equivalent, as Norway unlike Denmark does not draw a distinction between the PhD (with its predecessors, the Licentiate's and Magister's degrees) and the doctorates.
The Danish and Norwegian Magister's degree should not be confused with the cand.mag. (candidatus magisterii), which corresponds to an American Master of Arts.
The title magister has had many different meanings in the Swedish educational system, from a degree equal to the doctorate to a graduate degree.
Since 2007 in Sweden, the Magister Examination (Swedish : magisterexamen) is a one-year graduate degree which requires at least three years of undergraduate studies. It is officially translated into either Master of Arts, Master of Social Science or Master of Science depending on the subject.
In Sweden, magister (filosofie magister) historically was the highest degree at the faculties of philosophy and was equivalent to the doctorate used in theology, law and medicine. The degree was abolished in 1863, and replaced with the Doctor of Philosophy. The magister degrees used in Denmark and Norway most closely resemble this degree.
Magister has since referred to several degrees in Sweden which are unrelated to the original magister degree and unrelated to the magister degrees in the other Scandinavian countries. Some universities conferred a degree called magister between 1908 and 1969, which was roughly comparable to a master's degree.
This master's degree was traditionally taken as a first degree before the Bologna Process. The degree usually lasted about 5–6 years and is structured into Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced progressional components. A new undergraduate magister degree, requiring at least 4 years of studies, was introduced in 1993. Since the introduction of the Bologna Process in 2005, the Magister has been broken into bachelor (formerly Basic/Intermediate) and master (formerly Advanced) components. However, the vast majority of students continue right through to complete the master's degree and, in effect, the duration and extent of the old Magister degree remains much as it was.
In Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro, North Macedonia and other territories once part of Yugoslavia, before the implementation of the Bologna process, the magistar nauka/magister znanosti (Magister of Science) was a research-oriented degree awarded for 2 or 3 years of study following the diploma degree (which lasted 4 to 6 years) and the defense of a magistarski rad (magister's thesis).In order to be promoted to doktor nauka/znanosti (Doctor of Science), a magistar was supposed to write and defend a doctoral thesis. Magistar um(j)etnosti (Magister of Arts) was a terminal degree in music performance, acting and visual arts.
In Serbia, by decision of the Serbian Parliament (Odredba stava 2.), the status of those graduated before the Bologna process is now equivalent with master's degree graduates in the EU.Magister's degree has been considered as equivalent of the first two years of three years doctoral studies. In Croatia, the statuses are regulated by a new law from 2007 and a new classification from 2008.
Entering 'Magistar" studies was a highly selective process. Only students with high GPA were eligible for studies of this kind. Mostly, those were preselected students who were employed at universities.
This kind of degree entitles one to be considered as PhD candidate. He or she can immediately start working on a dissertation. The person with this kind of degree completed overall 4 + 3 years of education (humanities, science etc.) or 5 + 3 (engineering) years of education after high school. Two years were related to the coursework only. After two years of coursework and research, the thesis was completed in a year or two after the coursework, although it roughly depended on a workload of an average graduate student who is considered to be a faculty member with teaching responsibilities (which can be up to 16 hours per week of a teaching load).
After the Bologna process, previous undergraduate education has been reformed. Current students that are in a 3- or 4-year Bachelor program and 1–2 Master program have to complete PhD requirements before writing their dissertation. They have to complete the coursework and pass preliminary exams. Students with Magistar degree have no such requirements. They have to do the research only related to the dissertation. Some universities which retained the Magistar (e.g. University of Zagreb) use it as a pre-postgraduate studies qualification.
In France, a magistère is a highly selective three-year course. To enter the course, the student is required to obtain top-level grades at his Diplôme d'études universitaires générales (two-year first university degree). However, due to the Bologna process, most of the magistères are substituted by master's degrees.
The most prestigious French universities still offer "magistères" in Law, Economics, or Sciences, which are open to the highest-ranked students at the end of the first two years of studies.
After the Bologna Process the second cycle degree in Italy is the Laurea Magistrale, i.e. a Magister degree. It is a postgraduate two-year degree, equivalent to a master's degree.
In some fields (particularly, Law, Medicine, Pharmacy and Architecture) the Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico is awarded. This is a five or six year second cycle (master's) degree, which does not require a previous first cycle degree for the admission.
There are various traditional master's degrees (especially those that predate the 20th century) whose English-language names (containing Master) have New Latin counterparts (containing Magister). They include the following:
|Master of Arts||Magister Artium|
|Master of Divinity||Magister Divinitatis|
|Master of Education||Magister Educationis|
|Master of Laws||Legum Magister|
|Master of Letters||Magister Litterarum|
|Master of Liberal Arts||Magister Liberalium Artium|
|Master of Pharmacy||Magister Pharmaciae|
|Master of Philosophy||Magister Philosophiae|
|Master of Sacred Theology||Sacrae Theologiae Magister|
|Master of Science||Magister Scientiae|
|Master of Surgery||Magister Chirurgiae|
|Master of Theology||Theologiae Magister|
Postgraduate education involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is typically referred to as graduate school.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including undergraduate degrees, master's, and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries there are lower level higher education qualifications that are also titled degrees.
A master's degree is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. A master's degree normally requires previous study at the bachelor's level, either as a separate degree or as part of an integrated course. Within the area studied, master's graduates are expected to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation, or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.
A doctorate or doctor's degree or doctoral degree is an academic degree awarded by universities, derived from the ancient formalism licentia docendi. In most countries, a research degree qualifies the holder to teach at university level in the degree's field or work in a specific profession. There are a number of doctoral degrees; the most common is the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), awarded in many different fields, ranging from the humanities to scientific disciplines.
A Master of Science is a master's degree in the field of science awarded by universities in many countries or a person holding such a degree. In contrast to the Master of Arts degree, the Master of Science degree is typically granted for studies in sciences, engineering and medicine and is usually for programs that are more focused on scientific and mathematical subjects; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the humanities and social sciences. While it ultimately depends upon the specific program, earning a Master of Science degree typically includes writing a thesis.
A thesis, or dissertation, is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings. In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate. This is the typical arrangement in American English. In other contexts, such as within most institutions of the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, the reverse is true. The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations.
The Bologna Process is a series of ministerial meetings and agreements between European countries to ensure comparability in the standards and quality of higher-education qualifications. The process has created the European Higher Education Area under the Lisbon Recognition Convention. It is named after the University of Bologna, where the Bologna declaration was signed by education ministers from 29 European countries in 1999. The process was opened to other countries in the European Cultural Convention of the Council of Europe, and governmental meetings have been held in Prague (2001), Berlin (2003), Bergen (2005), London (2007), Leuven (2009), Budapest-Vienna (2010), Bucharest (2012), Yerevan (2015), Paris (2018), and Rome (2020).
A Master of Laws is an advanced postgraduate academic degree, pursued by those either holding an undergraduate academic law degree, a professional law degree, or an undergraduate degree in a related subject. In most jurisdictions, the "Master of Laws" is the advanced professional degree for those usually already admitted into legal practice.
A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law. Such degrees are generally preparation for legal careers. But while their curricula may be reviewed by legal authority, they do not confer a license themselves. A legal license is granted by examination, and exercised locally. The law degree can have local, international, and world-wide aspects, such as in England and Wales, where the Legal Practice Course is required to become a solicitor or the Bar Professional Training Course (BPTC) to become a barrister.
A licentiate is a degree similar to master's degree given by pontifical universities and by universities in some countries of the European Union and Syria and Latin America. The term is also used for a person who holds this degree. The term derives from Latin licentia, "freedom", which is applied in the phrases licentia docendi meaning permission to teach and licentia ad practicandum signifying someone who holds a certificate of competence to practise a profession. Many countries have degrees with this title, but they may represent different educational levels.
A Master of Engineering is either an academic or professional master's degree in the field of engineering.
A Master of Advanced Studies or Master of Advanced Study is a postgraduate degree awarded in various countries. Master of Advanced Studies programs may be non-consecutive programs tailored for "specific groups of working professionals with well-defined needs for advanced degree work" or advanced research degrees. With the exception of the UK, advanced studies programs tend to be interdisciplinary and tend to be focused toward meeting the needs of professionals rather than academics.
An engineer's degree is an advanced academic degree in engineering which is conferred in Europe, some countries of Latin America, North Africa and a few institutions in the United States. The degree may require a thesis but always requires a non-abstract project.
A Diplom is an academic degree in the German-speaking countries Germany, Austria, and Switzerland and a similarly named degree in some other European countries including Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Estonia, Finland, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine and only for engineers in France, Greece, Hungary, North Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, Slovenia, and Brazil.
The Master of Philosophy is a postgraduate degree. In the United States, an MPhil typically includes a taught portion and a significant research portion, during which a thesis project is conducted under supervision. An MPhil may be awarded to postgraduate students after completing taught coursework and one to two years of original research, which may also serve as a provisional enrollment for a PhD programme.
A Master of Arts is the holder of a master's degree awarded by universities in many countries. The degree is usually contrasted with that of Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree have typically studied subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences, such as history, literature, languages, linguistics, public administration, political science, communication studies, law or diplomacy; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.
Candidatus magisterii (male), or candidata magisterii (female), abbreviated as cand.mag., is an academic degree currently awarded in Denmark. The degree is officially translated into English as Master of Arts and currently requires 5 years of studies. The degree was historically also awarded in Norway and Iceland, based on the Danish degree.
The Bologna process for standardisation of European higher education specified an undergraduate degree of at least three years called the "licence" or bachelor's degree, followed by a two-year diploma called the master's degree, then a doctorate, meant to be obtained in at least three years. Because of these indicated schedules, the reform is sometimes (erroneously) referred to as "3-5-8". The system applies to the European Higher Education Area.
A Doctor of Philosophy is the most common degree at the highest academic level awarded following a course of study. PhDs are awarded for programs across the whole breadth of academic fields. Because it is an earned research degree, those studying for a PhD are required to produce original research that expands the boundaries of knowledge, normally in the form of a dissertation, and defend their work before a panel of other experts in the field. The completion of a PhD is often a requirement for employment as a university professor, researcher, or scientist in many fields. Individuals who have earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree may, in many jurisdictions, use the title Doctor with their name, although the proper etiquette associated with this usage may also be subject to the professional ethics of their own scholarly field, culture, or society. Those who teach at universities or work in academic, educational, or research fields are usually addressed by this title "professionally and socially in a salutation or conversation." Alternatively, holders may use post-nominal letters such as "Ph.D.", "PhD", or "DPhil". It is, however, considered incorrect to use both the title and post-nominals at the same time.
Doctor Medicinae, also spelled Doctor Medicinæ and abbreviated Dr. Med., is a higher doctoral degree in medicine awarded by universities in Denmark and formerly in Norway. It is officially translated as Doctor of Medical Science (D.M.Sc.), corresponding to similarly named higher doctorates found in some Commonwealth countries. It is regarded as a higher doctorate and officially ranks above the Danish PhD degree.
Som forsker-rekrutteringsgrundlag blev den erstattet af ph.d.-uddannelsen, og magisterkonferensen blev endeligt afskaffet i 2007
In recent years, the Anglo-Saxon style degree of PhD has been introduced, and is now replacing the degree of mag. art. At present, both mag. art. and PhD degrees are around. They are not identical, but their position in the educational system as the degree you take at the end of postgraduate studies is the same.
[...] the establishment of a Ph.D. degree, which replaces the degree of mag. art.
For example in Denmark, Finland and Norway only individuals who have successfully carried out individual research work for many years are awarded the title 'Doctor' - and this is equivalent to the higher doctorate