Harvard College

Last updated
Harvard College
Harvard shield-College.png
Type Private school
Established1636
Students6,700 [1]
Location
CampusUrban
Website college.harvard.edu

Harvard College is the undergraduate liberal arts college of Harvard University. Founded in 1636 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, it is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States [2] and one of the most prestigious in the world. [3]

Liberal arts college type of college with an emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences

A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college with an emphasis on undergraduate study in the liberal arts and sciences. Such colleges aim to impart a broad general knowledge and develop general intellectual capacities, in contrast to a professional, vocational, or technical curriculum. Students in a liberal arts college generally major in a particular discipline while receiving exposure to a wide range of academic subjects, including sciences as well as the traditional humanities subjects taught as liberal arts. Although it draws on European antecedents, the liberal arts college is strongly associated with American higher education, and most liberal arts colleges around the world draw explicitly on the American model.

Harvard University Private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, with about 6,700 undergraduate students and about 13,100 postgraduate students. Established in 1636 and named for its first benefactor, clergyman John Harvard, Harvard is the United States' oldest institution of higher learning. Its history, influence, wealth, and academic reputation have made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. It is cited as the world's top university by many publishers.

Cambridge, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.

Contents

History

Colonial buildings belonging to Harvard College View of the ancient buildings belonging to Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass (NYPL b12349145-422857).jpg
Colonial buildings belonging to Harvard College
Freshman dormitories in Harvard Yard HarvardYard.jpg
Freshman dormitories in Harvard Yard

The school came into existence in 1636 by vote of the Great and General Court (colonial legislature, second oldest in British America) of the Massachusetts Bay Colony—though without a single building, instructor, or student. In 1638, the college became home for North America's first known printing press, carried by the ship John of London. [4] [5] Three years later, the college was renamed in honor of deceased Charlestown minister John Harvard (1607–1638) who had bequeathed to the school his entire library and half of his monetary estate.

Massachusetts General Court legislature of Massachusetts

The Massachusetts General Court is the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The name "General Court" is a hold-over from the earliest days of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, when the colonial assembly, in addition to making laws, sat as a judicial court of appeals. Before the adoption of the state constitution in 1780, it was called the Great and General Court, but the official title was shortened by John Adams, author of the state constitution. It is a bicameral body. The upper house is the Massachusetts Senate which is composed of 40 members. The lower body, the Massachusetts House of Representatives, has 160 members. It meets in the Massachusetts State House on Beacon Hill in Boston.

Massachusetts Bay Colony English possession in North America between 1628 and 1684

The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement on the east coast of America in the 17th century around the Massachusetts Bay, the northernmost of the several colonies later reorganized as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. The lands of the settlement were located in southern New England, with initial settlements situated on two natural harbors and surrounding land about 15.4 miles (24.8 km) apart—the areas around Salem and Boston.

The John of London was a ship, possibly built during the 1620s by Robert Trenckmore in his shipyards at Shoreham-By-Sea in West Sussex, England. The ship was captained by George Lamberton during its 1638 voyage from Hull, Yorkshire to Boston, Massachusetts. This voyage brought Ezekiel Rogers and a number of families that went on to settle Rowley, Massachusetts. The voyage was also notable for bringing the first printing press to North America, which went on to be used at Harvard College. At least once during its 20-30 year lifespan, it was refitted as a fighting ship. It was captured and sunk near Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth, Scotland, during 1650.

Harvard's first instructor was schoolmaster Nathaniel Eaton (1610–1674); in 1639, he also became its first instructor to be dismissed, for overstrict discipline. [6] The school's first students were graduated in 1642. In 1665, Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck (c. 1643–1666) "from the Wampanoag … did graduate from Harvard, the first Indian to do so in the colonial period." [7]

Nathaniel Eaton President of Harvard University

Nathaniel Eaton was the first schoolmaster of Harvard College in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and later became a clergyman.

Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck Native American student

Caleb Cheeshahteaumuck was the first American Indian to graduate from Harvard University.

Wampanoag Native American ethnic group

The Wampanoag, also rendered Wôpanâak, are an American Indian tribe. They were a loose confederation of several tribes in the 17th century, but today Wampanoag people are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes: the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe and the Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head in Massachusetts. They lived in southeastern Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the beginning of the 17th century, at the time of first contact with the English colonists, a territory that included the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket. Their population numbered in the thousands; 3,000 Wampanoag lived on Martha's Vineyard alone.

The colleges of England's Oxford and Cambridge Universities are communities within the larger university, each an association of scholars sharing room and board. Harvard's founders may have envisioned it as the first in a series of sibling colleges on the English model which would eventually constitute a university—though no further colleges materialized in colonial times. The Indian College was active from 1640 to no later than 1693, but it was a minor addition not operated in federation with Harvard according to the English model. Harvard began granting higher degrees in the late eighteenth century, and it was increasingly styled Harvard University, even as Harvard College was increasingly thought of as the university's undergraduate division in particular.[ citations needed throughout ]

University of Cambridge university in Cambridge, United Kingdom

The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university. The university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two 'ancient universities' share many common features and are often referred to jointly as 'Oxbridge'. The academic standards, history, influence and wealth of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world.

Today Harvard College is responsible for undergraduate admissions, advising, housing, student life, and athletics generally all undergraduate matters except instruction, which is the purview of Harvard University's Faculty of Arts and Sciences. The body known as The President and Fellows of Harvard College retains its traditional name despite having governance of the entire University. Radcliffe College (established 1879) [8] originally paid Harvard faculty to repeat their lectures for women students. Since the 1970s, Harvard has been responsible for undergraduate governance matters for women; women were still formally admitted to and graduated from Radcliffe until a final merger in 1999. [9]

Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences

The Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard is the largest of the twelve faculties that constitute Harvard University.

The President and Fellows of Harvard College is the smaller of Harvard University's two governing boards, the other being its Board of Overseers.

Radcliffe College former womens college in Cambridge, Massachusetts

Radcliffe College was a women's liberal arts college in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and functioned as the female coordinate institution for the all-male Harvard College. It was also one of the Seven Sisters colleges, among which it shared with Bryn Mawr College, Wellesley College, Smith College, and others the popular reputation of having a particularly intellectual, literary, and independent-minded female student body. Radcliffe conferred Radcliffe College diplomas to undergraduates and graduate students for the first 70 or so years of its history and then joint Harvard-Radcliffe diplomas to undergraduates beginning in 1963. A formal "non-merger merger" agreement with Harvard was signed in 1977, with full integration with Harvard completed in 1999. Today, within Harvard University, Radcliffe's former administrative campus is home to the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, and former Radcliffe housing at the Radcliffe Quadrangle has been incorporated into the Harvard College house system. Under the terms of the 1999 consolidation, the Radcliffe Yard and the Radcliffe Quadrangle retain the "Radcliffe" designation in perpetuity.

Academics

About 2,000 students are admitted each year, representing less than five percent of those applying; of those admitted, more than four-fifths choose to attend. [10] [11] [12] Very few transfers are accepted. [13]

Midway through the second year, most undergraduates join one of fifty standard fields of concentration (what most schools call academic majors); many also declare a secondary field (called minors elsewhere). Joint concentrations (combining the requirements of two standard concentrations) and special concentrations (of the student's own design) are also possible.[ citation needed ]

Most Harvard College concentrations lead to the Artium Baccalaureus (A.B.), normally completed in four years. A smaller number receive the Scientiarum Baccalaureus (S.B.). There are also special degree programs, such as a five-year program leading to both a Harvard undergraduate degree and a Master of Arts from the New England Conservatory of Music.

Undergraduates must also fulfill the general education requirement of coursework in a few designated fields. Each student's exposure to a range of intellectual areas, while pursuing a chosen concentration in depth, fulfills the injunction of Harvard past-president Abbott Lawrence Lowell that liberal education should produce "men who know a little of everything and something well." [14]

In 2012, dozens of students were disciplined for cheating on a take-home exam in one course. [15] The university instituted an honor code beginning in the fall of 2015. [16] [17]

The total annual cost of attendance, including tuition and room and board, for 2018–2019 was $67,580. [18] Under financial aid guidelines adopted in 2012, families with incomes below $65,000 no longer pay anything for their children to attend. Families with incomes between $65,000 to $150,000 pay no more than 10 percent of their annual income. [19]

House system

Lowell House Lowell House belltower.JPG
Lowell House

Nearly all undergraduates live on campus, for the first year in dormitories in or near Harvard Yard and later in the upperclass houses—administrative subdivisions of the college as well as living quarters, providing a sense of community in what might otherwise be a socially incohesive and administratively daunting university environment. Each house is presided over by a senior-faculty dean, while its Allston Burr Resident Dean—usually a junior faculty member—supervises undergraduates' day-to-day academic and disciplinary well-being.

The faculty dean and resident dean are assisted by other members of the Senior Common Room—select graduate students (tutors), faculty, and university officials brought into voluntary association with each house. Many tutors reside in the house, as do the faculty dean and resident dean. Terms like tutor, Senior Common Room, and Junior Common Room reflect a debt to the residential college systems at Oxford and Cambridge from which Harvard's system took inspiration. [20]

The houses were created by President Lowell in the 1930s to combat what he saw as pernicious social stratification engendered by the private, off-campus living arrangements of many undergraduates at that time. Lowell's solution was to provide every man—Harvard was male-only at the time—with on-campus accommodations throughout his time at the college; Lowell also saw great benefits flowing from other features of the house system, such as the relaxed discussions—academic or otherwise—which he hoped would take place among undergraduates and members of the senior common room over meals in each house's dining hall. [21]

The way in which students come to live in particular houses has changed greatly over time. Under the original "draft" system, masters negotiated privately over the assignment of "rising sophomores" (next academic year's sophomores), considered most or least promising.[ citation needed ] From the 1960s to the mid-1990s, each student ranked the houses according to personal preference, with an impersonal lottery resolving the oversubscription of more popular houses. Today, groups of one to eight freshmen form a block which is then assigned, essentially at random, to an upperclass house. Housing Day is held annually in March, where upperclassmen visit the freshman dorms and welcome new house members into their residence. In recent years, houses have commemorated Housing Day by developing House T-shirts, sponsoring welcome parties and developing Housing Day videos, spotlighting the positive features of their residence.

A total of nine "River Houses" are located south of Harvard Yard, near the Charles River: Adams, Dunster, Eliot, Kirkland, Leverett, Lowell, Mather, Quincy, and John Winthrop House. Their construction was financed largely by a 1928 gift from Yale alumnus Edward Harkness, who, frustrated in his attempts to initiate a similar project at his alma mater, eventually offered $11 million to Harvard. [lower-alpha 1] [25] Two of the new houses, Dunster and Lowell, were completed in 1930. [22]

River Houses River houses Harvard aerial.JPG
River Houses

Construction of the first houses began in 1929, [22] but the land on which they were built had been assembled decades before. After graduating from Harvard in 1895, Edward W. Forbes found himself inspired by the Oxford and Cambridge systems during two years of study in England; on returning to the United States he set out to acquire such land between Harvard Yard and the Charles River as was not already owned by Harvard or some associated entity. By 1918 that ambition had been largely fulfilled and the assembled land transferred to Harvard. [26] [27]

The three "Quad Houses" enjoy a residential setting half a mile (800 m) northwest of Harvard Yard. These were built by Radcliffe College and housed Radcliffe College students until the Harvard and Radcliffe residential systems merged in 1977. [28] They are Cabot, Currier, and Pforzheimer House. A thirteenth house, Dudley House, is nonresidential but fulfills, for some graduate students and the (very few) undergraduates living off campus, the administrative and social functions provided to on-campus residents by the other twelve houses. Harvard's residential houses are paired with Yale's residential colleges in sister relationships.

Athletics

By the late 19th century, critics of intercollegiate athletics, including Harvard president Charles William Eliot, believed that sports competition had become over-commercialized and took students away from their studies, and they called for reform and limitations on all sports.

This opposition prompted Harvard's athletic committee to target 'minor' sports—basketball and hockey—for reform and regulation in order to deflect attention from the major sports—football, baseball, track, and crew. The committee made it difficult for the basketball team to operate by denying financial assistance and limiting the number of overnight away games in which the team could participate.

Several losing seasons, negative attitudes toward the commercialization of intercollegiate sports, and the need for reform contributed to basketball's demise at Harvard in 1909. [29]

Originating in 1852, the Harvard–Yale Regatta is the oldest intercollegiate athletic rivalry in the United States. Also well known is the annual Harvard–Yale football game.

Student organizations

Harvard has hundreds of undergraduate organizations. [30] The Phillips Brooks House Association acts as an umbrella service organization.

In an effort to marginalize organizations that "contribute to a social life and a student culture that for many on our campus is disempowering and exclusionary", [31] students entering in the fall of 2017 or later who join unrecognized single-sex organizations (such as single-sex "final clubs", fraternities, and sororities) will be barred from campus leadership positions such as team captaincies, and from receiving recommendation letters from Harvard requisite for certain scholarships and fellowships. [32]

Notable alumni

Architecture
Buckminster Fuller (expelled)
Philip Johnson
Arts
Ellen Harvey
Alex Kahn
Waldo Peirce
Marina Rosenfeld
Astronautics
Stephanie Wilson
Astronomy
Andrew Fraknoi
Athletics
Craig Adams
Matt Birk
Emily Cross
Ryan Fitzpatrick
Bobby Jones
Jeremy Lin
Esther Lofgren
Dominic Moore
Christopher Nowinski
Ryan Max Riley
Paul Wylie
Biology
Harold M. Weintraub
Business
Steve Ballmer
Lloyd Blankfein
Jim Cramer
Bill Gates (did not graduate)
James Halperin (did not graduate)
Trip Hawkins
William Randolph Hearst (rusticated)
Sumner Redstone
Mark Zuckerberg (did not graduate)
Economics
Ben Bernanke
Martin Feldstein
Jason Furman
Steven Levitt
Merton Miller
Eduardo Saverin
Robert M. Solow
James Tobin
Education
Prince Lucien Campbell
John Phillips
Edwin H. Baker Pratt
Journalism
Harry Cross
Nelson Denis
Hendrik Hertzberg
Nicholas D. Kristof
Anthony Lewis
Walter Lippmann
Leon Neyfakh
Sylvia Poggioli
David E. Sanger
Sanford J. Ungar
Law
Harry Blackmun
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.
John Roberts
David Souter
Literature
James Agee
William S. Burroughs
Michael Crichton
E. E. Cummings
John Dos Passos
W. E. B. Du Bois
T. S. Eliot
Jean Kwok
Norman Mailer
Edmund Pearson
Max Perkins
Erich Segal
Wallace Stevens
John Updike
Mathematics
Manjul Bhargava
Buddy Fletcher
Theodore Kaczynski
Tom Lehrer
Performing arts
Charlie Albright
Darren Aronofsky
Paris Barclay
Leonard Bernstein
Andy Borowitz
Amy Brenneman
Carter Burwell
Nestor Carbonell
Rivers Cuomo
Matt Damon (did not graduate)
Nelson Denis
Fred Gwynne
Hao Huang
Rashida Jones
Tommy Lee Jones
Colin Jost
Jack Lemmon
Ryan Leslie
John Lithgow
Donal Logue
Yo-Yo Ma
Terrence Malick
Lorenzo Mariani
Tom Morello
Dean Norris
Conan O'Brien
Natalie Portman
Joshua Redman
Meredith Salenger
Elisabeth Shue
Michael Stern
Whit Stillman
Mira Sorvino
James Toback
Philosophy
Donald Davidson
Daniel Dennett
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Charles Sanders Peirce
W.V.O. Quine
George Santayana
Henry David Thoreau
Physics
Philip Warren Anderson
Theodore Hall
Thomas S. Kuhn
J. Robert Oppenheimer
Neil deGrasse Tyson
Politics
John Adams
John Quincy Adams
Samuel Adams
Charlie Baker
Benazir Bhutto
Pedro Albizu Campos
Sir George Downing
Al Franken
Rahul Gandhi
Elbridge Gerry
Al Gore
John Hancock
Edward M. Kennedy
John F. Kennedy
Robert F. Kennedy
Henry Kissinger
Matthew Mayhew
Masako Owada
Deval Patrick
Tom Ridge
Jay Rockefeller
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
Chuck Schumer
Meshech Weare
John Weston
Religion
Joseph Stevens Buckminster
Aga Khan IV
Cotton Mather
Increase Mather
Jonathan Mayhew
Theodore Parker
Samuel Parris

Footnotes

  1. [22] [23] Harkness' gift was anonymous, at least at first. "I have forgotten the gentleman's name," Harvard's President Lowell told the faculty in making the initial announcement. "I told him I would." [24]

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Currier House (Harvard College)

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Dudley House (Harvard College) The only one of the thirteen Harvard College Houses serving nonresident undergraduate students.

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This outline is provided as an overview of, and topical guide to Harvard University:

References

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    Spaulding, Christina (1989). "Sexual Shakedown". In Trumpbour, John (ed.). How Harvard Rules: Reason in the Service of Empire. South End Press. pp. 326–336. ISBN   0-89608-284-9. ...[Harvard's] tremendous institutional power and prestige (...) Within the nation's (arguably) most prestigious institution of higher learning...
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  32. Saul, Stephanie (May 6, 2016). "Harvard Restrictions Could Reshape Exclusive Student Clubs". The New York Times .

Further reading

Coordinates: 42°22′26″N71°07′01″W / 42.374°N 71.117°W / 42.374; -71.117